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2332  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

is  no  longer  so  invisible.  There  have  been  defections  from  this  empire. 
The  Federal  Communications  Commision  has  undertaken  a  study  of 
the  misuse  of  citizens  band  radios,  and  I  am  sure  that  other  agencies 
of  the  executive  branch  will  want  to  take  action  as  a  result  of  some  of 
the  facts  developed  by  the  committee.  It  is  our  intention,  in  due  time, 
to  submit  certain  parts  of  our  record  to  the  Internal  Revenue  Service, 
the  FCC,  and  the  Veterans  Administration,  for  example,  for  appro- 
priate action.  We  are  also  considering,  of  course,  the  recommenda- 
tion of  contempt  citations. 

Our  hearings  are  far  from  completed  at  this  point,  but  I  believe 
we  have  developed  many  facts  of  great  significance  for  the  record, 
and  that  by  the  time  the  hearings  are  ended,  the  Congress  will  have  all 
the  facts  it  needs  for  purposes  of  remedial  legislation. 

The  witnesses  subpenaed  to  appear  before  the  committee  today  are 
continued  under  subpena  until  January  4, 1966. 

The  committee  stands  adjourned  until  further  call  of  the  Chair. 

(Subcommittee  members  present  at  time  of  recess:  Representatives 
Willis,  Pool,  and  Weltner.) 

(Whereupon,  at  1 :25  p.m.,  Tuesday,  November  9,  1965,  the  subcom- 
mittee adjourned,  to  reconvene  at  the  call  of  the  Chair.) 

o 


3       u  -^ 

ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLUX  KLAN  ORGANIZATIONS 
IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 

PART  3 


L^J-ATES  GUVERNMENI 

DEC  21  t96/ 

HEARINGS 

BEFORE  THE 

COMMITTEE  ON  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE  OF  REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-NINTH  CONGRESS 

SECOND  SESSION 


JANUARY  4-7,  11-14,  18,  AND  28,  1966 
(INDEX  IN  SEPARATE  VOLUME) 


Printed  for  the  use  of  the 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 


CONTENTS 


January  4,  1966:  Testimony  of—  Page 

John  Deason  Swenson 2334 

Afternoon  session: 

John  Deason  Swenson  (resumed) 2359 

Murrv  H.  Martin 2362 

Lloyci  Grady  Wilder 2394 

Henrv  I.  Bayles 2400 

Billy  Skipper 2405 

January  5,  1966:  Testimony  of — 

Ralph  Blumberg 2415 

Charles  Horton  Christmas 2438 

Afternoon  session: 

Charles  Horton  Christmas  (resumed) 2444 

Saxon  Farmer 2459 

John  INIagee 2464 

Dewey  Bernard  Smith 2470 

January  6,  1966:  Testimony  of — 

Russell  E.  Magee.' 2521 

James  M.  Ellis,  Jr 2525 

Randle  C.  Pounds 2529 

Eric  Peterson 2532 

Afternoon  session: 

James  W.  (Pete)  Holden 2543 

Willie  Houston  Burke 2544 

Albert  Laf tman  Applewhite 2547 

Ewell  William  Rowley 2550 

Kinch  Wilson  Miley 2554 

Robert  Earl  Stallings 2556 

Houston  Pierce  Morris 2561 

Robert  William  Fuller 2563 

Houston  Pierce  Morris  (resumed) 2572 

January  7,  1966:  Testimony  of — 

Robert  T.  ResterA 2577 

B.  J.  "Jack"  Saucier 2580 

Willis  James  Kidd 2584 

Jack  M.  Helm 2585 

Lloyd  H.  Barnett 2593 

Marvin  Curtis  Brister 2596 

Tommy  Frank  Reagan 2604 

January  11,  1966:  Testimony  of- — 

John  Hugh  Gipson 2609 

Afternoon  session: 

George  Gill  Harris,  Jr 2626 

Bobby  Gene  Kelley 2635 

James  Malcolm  Edwards 2639 

January  12,  1966:  Testimony  of — 

Gordon  Mims  Lackey 2667 

Afternoon  session: 

Thomas  Collins  Brock 2683 

A.  C.  Herrington 2691 

Byron  de  la  Beckwith 2698 

Mordaunt  Hamilton 2701 

Donald  Leo  Mathieu 2705 

III 


IV  CONTENTS 

January  13,  1966:  Testimony  of —  Page 

Louis  Anthony  DiSalvo 2710 

Thomas  Byron  Thrasher,  Sr 2720 

Burrel  Lindsey  White,  Jr 2724 

Afternoon  session: 

Joseph  Walter  Holder 2733 

Rex  Henry  Pierce,  Jr 2739 

Thomas  A.  Gunter 2742 

Harvey  Herman  Heredeen, . 2760 

Elmore  Douglas  Greaves 2768 

January  14,  1966:  Testimony  of — 

James  Nolan  Fortenberry 2781 

Harold  Lloyd  Delk 2784 

Afternoon  session: 

Edward  Willard  Fuller 2791 

James  Kenneth  Greer 2798 

Willie  Gerald  Whitehead 2802 

Charles  Marcus  Edwards 2804 

James  Ford  Seale 2807 

Clyde  Wayne  Seale 2812 

Julius  Hunter  Harper 2815 

Billy  Douglas  Buckles 2823 

January  18,  1966:  Testimony  of — 

Billy  Wilson 2833 

January  28,  1966:  Testimony  of — 

George  Leonard  Williams 2867 

Index  in  separate  volume. 


ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLUX  KLAN  ORGANIZATIONS 
IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 

Part  3 


TUESDAY,  JANUARY  4,  1966 

United  States  House  of  Kepresentatives, 

Subcommittee  of  the 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 

Washington.  D.C. 

PUBLIC    HEARINGS 

The  subcommittee  met,  pursuant  to  recess,  at  10  a.m.  in  the  Caucus 
Room,  Cannon  House  Office  Building,  Washington,  D.C,  Hon.  Edwin 
E.Willis  (chairman)  presiding. 

(Subcommittee  members :  Kepresentatives  Edwin  E.  Willis,  of  Loui- 
siana, chairman;  Joe  R.  Pool,  of  Texas;  Charles  L.  Weltner,  of  Geor- 
gia; John  M.  Ashbrook,  of  Ohio;  and  John  H.  Buchanan,  Jr.,  of 
Alabama.) 

Subcommittee  members  present :  Representatives  Willis,  Pool,  Welt- 
ner, and  Buchanan. 

Staff  members  present:  Francis  J.  McNamara,  director;  William 
Hitz,  general  counsel ;  Alfred  M.  Nittle,  counsel ;  Donald  T.  Appell, 
chief  investigator;  and  Philip  R.  Manuel,  investigator. 

The  Chairman.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 

This  morning  we  resume  hearings  on  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  organiza- 
tions of  the  United  States.  In  that  connection  I  refer  to  my  opening 
statement  of  October  19,  1965,  which  is  of  course  already  a  part  of 
the  record. 

I  assume  that  each  witness  to  be  called  today,  and  thereafter,  has 
received  and  read  a  copy  of  that  opening  statement.  I  nevertheless 
suggest  that  the  one  who  will  conduct  the  interrogation  will  ask  each 
witness  if  that  is  so.    It  is  my  information  it  is  so. 

So  we  will  now  resume  the  interrogation  of  witnesses,  and  Mr. 
Appell  will  please  call  the  first  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  John  Deason  Swenson. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give 
will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help 
you  God? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  have  a  seat. 

2333 


2334  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

TESTIMONY  OF  JOHN  DEASON  SWENSON,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  JAMES  K.  VENABLE 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  will  you  please  state  your  full  name  for 
the  record. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Do  you  want  me  to  stand  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  No. 

Mr.  Swenson.  My  name  is  John  D.  Swenson. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  the  "D"  for  Deason  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Swenson  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  was  born  on  June  15,  1910,  in  Poplarville,  Mis- 
sissippi. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Venable.  James  R.  Venable,  attorney  at  law,  Atlanta,  Georgia. 

The  Chairman.  Will  you  give  your  address  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Venable.  Walter  R.  Brown  Building,  Atlanta  3,  Georgia. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  will  you  please  set  forth  your  educa- 
tional background  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  have  a  grade  school  education. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  set  forth  to  the  committee  a  brief  chronology 
of  your  employment  background  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  am  in  business  for  myself. 

Mr.  Appell.  Let's  take  from  the  period  1960  to  the  present  time. 
How  have  you  been  employed  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  this 
may  tend  to  incriminate  me. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  are  you  now,  or  have  you  ever  been,  a 
member  of  a  Ku  Klux  Klan  organization  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  respectfully  refuse,  sir,  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
it  may  tend  to  incriminate  me. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  in  1960,  Roy  E.  Davis,  now  of  Dallas, 
Texas,  organized  the  old  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

Did  you  become  an  officer  in  that  organization  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  this  answer 
may  tend  to  incriminate  me. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  mean  under  the  provisions  of  the  fifth 
amendment  of  the  Constitution  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes,  sir.    May  I  respectfully  say,  also  the  fourth 
amendment,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Pardon  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  He  would  like  to  include  the  fourth  amendment. 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  am  sorry  if  I  am  not  talking  loud  enough. 
The  Chairman.  That  is  perfectly  all  right. 

You  are  invoking  constitutional  privileges,  and  it  should  be  spelled 
out  for  the  record. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  do  you  know  Mr.  Royal  V.  Young. 
Mr.  Swenson.  Yes,  sir ;  I  have  met  Mr.  Young. 
Pardon  me,  sir.    I  would  like  to  withdraw  that  statement,  sir.    I 
respectfully  refuse  to  answer  this  question  on  the  grounds  that  it  may 
tend  to  incriminate  me. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2335 

The  Chairman.  And  again  for  the  record,  you  base  that  refusal  on 
the  basis  of  the  fifth  amendment  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  The  fourth  and  fifth ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  suggest  that  the  witness,  before  with- 
drawing the  answer  that  he  gave,  did  acknowledge  that  he  knew  Royal 
Y.  Young,  and  I  suggest  serious  consideration  ought  to  be  given  by  the 
committee  that  he  has  waived  his  right  to  retract  the  answer  and  now 
invoke  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Pool.  He  was  advised  by  his  counsel  to  take  the  fifth  amend- 
ment, and  I  think  we  cannot  argue  with  that.  If  counsel  wants  to 
advise  him  that  way,  we  have  to  respect  his  wishes. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  certainly  as  a  matter  of  law  and  in  the  pro- 
cedures of  the  court,  he  has  technically  waived  his  rights  to  invoca- 
tion, but  for  the  time  being  we  will  pass  it  up. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  did  you  recruit  Royal  Y.  Young  into  the 
Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Sw^ENSON.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
it  may  tend  to  incriminate  me,  invoking  the  fourth  and  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  on  July  28,  1965,  the  committee  heard 
in  executive  session  Mr.  Royal  Y.  Young.  This  testimony  the  com- 
mittee voted  this  morning  to  release,  and  I  should  therefore  like  to 
refer  to  that  testimony  in  the  interrogation  of  the  witness. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  proper.  The  committee  did  this  morning 
vote  to  release  the  executive  testimony  of  Mr.  Young. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Young  was  asked : 

Mr.  Appell.  Who  recruited  you  into  membership  into  the  Klan? 
Mr.  Young.  I  believe  it  was  Brother  Swenson. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  identify  Brother  Swenson  fully,  by  his  full  name? 
Mr.  Young.  Sir,  I  don't  know  his  full  name.     All  I  know — all  I  can  do  is  give 
you  his  initials. 

Mr.  Ajppell.  By  whatever  identities  you  can  give  then. 
Mr.  Young.  It  is  J.  D.  Swenson. 

Are  you  the  J.  D.  Swenson  that  Mr.  Young  identified  as  having 
recruited  him  into  the  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  ground  it 
might  incriminate  me. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Young  testified  furtlier  with  respect  to  J.  D. 
Swenson  that,  at  tlie  time  he  was  recruited  by  J.  D.  Swenson,  J.  D. 
Swenson  held  the  position  of  Grand  Dragon  for  the  Original  Knights 
of  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

Is  the  testimony  of  Mr.  Young  truthful  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
this  question  may  tend  to  incriminate  me  on  the  fourth  and  fifth 
amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Young  was  asked  what  positions  he  held  within 
tlie  Origir.al  Knights,  and  he  said  that  he  had  held  the  position  of 
Acting  Grand  Dragon.     He  was  then  asked  : 

Mr.  Appell.  AVho  appointed  you? 
Mr.  Young.  Swenson. 

I  ask  yoii  if  tliat  testimony  is  truthful  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
this  question  may  incriminate  me. 


2336  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN-IN    THE    U.S. 

The  Chaikman.  And  you  are  invoking  that  on  grounds  previously 
stated? 

Mr,  SwENSox.  Yes,  the  fourth  and  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appet,l.  Mr.  Young  testified  that  subsequently  he  was  promoted 
to  the  position  of  Imperial  Dragon  and  that  this  appointment  was 
made  by  the  Keverend  Roy  E.  Davis.    Is  that  testimony  truthful? 

Mr.  SwExsoN.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
this  answer  may  incriminate  me.  I  am  invoking  the  fourth  and  fifth 
amendment. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Swenson,  you  testified  under  oath  that  you 
were  born  in  1910.   Wliere  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  believe  I  stated  that — Poplarville,  Mississippi. 

The  Chairman.  Poplarville,  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  Where  do  you  reside  now  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  I  reside  in  Bossier  City,  Louisiana. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  across  the  Red  River  from  Shreveport? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Yes,  sir;  that  is  correct. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  Mr.  Young  was  asked  this  question  by 
me  after  some  talk  about  you : 

Mr.  Appell.    All  right.    Now  in  addition  to  Grand  Dragon,  did  Swenson  hold 
another  oflSce  as  National  Kleagle? 
Mr.  Young.  Yes ;  that  is  right. 

Did  you  hold  the  position  of  National  Kleagle  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  this  question  on 
the  grounds  that  it  may  incriminate  me,  invoking  the  fourth  and 
fifth  amendent. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Swenson,  it  is  the  information  of  this  com- 
mittee that  you  can  be  called  what  would  be  known  as  the  father  of 
the  modern-day  Klan  in  Louisiana;  is  that  not  true? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  your  question 
on  the  grounds  it  may  tend  to  incriminate  me.  In  both  instances,  the 
fourth  and  fifth  amendent. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  an  officer  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan  of  Louisiana,  I  ask  you  whether  this  other  sworn  testimony  of 
Mr.  Young  is  factual ;  that  at  the  time  Mr.  Young  was  appointed  the 
Imperial  Dragon,  that  Mr.  Murry  H.  Martin  was  appointed  the  Grand 
Giant,  or  the  number  two  man  under  the  Grand  Dragon  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  did  you  ask  that  as  a  question  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes.  I  ask  you  if  his  testimony  to  that  eifect  was 
truthful? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
this  testimony  may  tend  to  incriminate  me. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Young  testified,  and  I  ask  you  if  his  testimony 
was  truthful,  that  at  the  time  Murry  H.  Martin  was  appointed  as 
Grand  Giant,  that  Mr.  Grady  Wilder  was  appointed  the  Assistant 
Grand  Giant .    I  ask  you  if  that  is  true  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  didn't  hear  the  question.  I  thought  you  were  read- 
ing a  statement  there. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  you  if  Mr.  Young's  testimony  is  truthful  to  the 
effect  that  at  the  time  Murry  H.  Martin  was  appointed  Grand  Giant, 
that  Grady  Wilder  was  appointed  the  Assistant  Grand  Giant  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2337 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
this  answer  may  tend  to  incriminate  me,  invoking  the  fourth  and  fifth 
amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  you  if  Mr.  Young's  testimony  is  truthful  to  the 
effect  that  Mr.  Kobert  Fuller  of  Monroe,  Louisiana,  was  appointed  to 
the  position  of  chief  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  I  didn't  hear  the  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  If  Mr.  Robert  Fuller  was  appointed  to  the  position  of 
chief  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation  ? 

The  Chairman.  Known  as  the  klabee? 

Mr.  Appell.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  What  is  the  technical  name  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  KBI,  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation. 

Mr.  Sw'ENSON.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  this 
answer  may  tend  to  incriminate  me,  invoking  the  fourth  and  fifth. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Swenson,  Mr.  Young  appeared,  as  you  now 
know,  before  this  subcommittee  in  executive  session  under  oath,  under 
the  pains  and  penalty  of  perjury,  and  he  chose  to  answer  these  ques- 
tions posed  to  you,  and  apparently  saw  no  involvement  under  the  con- 
stitutional amendments  you  refer  to. 

Can  you  explain  why  he  felt  he  could  answer  these  questions  freely, 
while  you  rely  on  these  amendments? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  your  question  on 
the  grounds  it  may  incriminate  me,  invoking  the  first,  fourth,  and 
fifth  amendments. 

The  Chairman.  You  now  invoke  the  first  also  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson 

The  Chairman.  Wliy  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir? 
■  The  Chairman.  Why  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  believe  it  might  tend  to  incriminate  me.  That 
is  the  reason  I  don't  answer,  respectfully. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  why  I  am  curious  to  know  why  you  are 
invoking  the  first  amendment.  The  amendment  speaking  of  incrimi- 
nation is  five. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  I  ask  you  if  Mr.  Young's  testimony  is 
truthful  to  the  effect  that  Mr.  Charles  Pearson  was  appointed  as  Mr. 
Fuller's  assistant  in  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation — the  assistant 
chief? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
that  this  answer  may  tend  to  incriminate  me. 

The  Chairman.  What  are  the  duties  of  the  KBI — the  Klan  Bureau 
of  Investigation  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
this  answer  may  tend  to  incriminate  me,  standing  on  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  may  I  suggest,  if  it  is  agreeable  with 
Mr.  Venable's  client,  if  it  is  agreeable  to  him,  that  the  witness  use  the 
response  "Same  answer,''  if  it  encompasses  the  amendments  to  which 
he  has  previously  referred. 

The  Chairman.  He  may  do  that. 


2338  ACTIVITIES   OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

You  may  say  you  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  AppELii.  In  the  course  of  the  organization  of  the  Ori^nal 
Knights,  did  you  appoint  as  an  assistant  to  yourself  as  organizer, 
with  the  title  of  grand  kleagle,  as  testified  by  Mr.  Young  under  oath, 
Houston  P.  Moms  of  Monroe,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  that 
I  have  heretofore  refused  to  answer. 

Mr.  Appell.  With  respect  to  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan  of  Louisiana,  did  you  have  within  the  organizational  structure 
the  position  of  grand  kludd,  or  chaplain  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  this 
may  tend  to  incriminate  me. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Young  testified  under  oath  that  the  position  of 
grand  kludd  was  held  by  his  brother.  Jack  D.  Young.  Is  that  truth- 
Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
this  answer  may  incriminate  me. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  as  the  National  Kleagle  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  I  will  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  in 
1963  you  moved  across  the  river  into  Mississippi  and  there  recruited 
members  for  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan.  I  ask  you 
to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact. 

Mr,  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
that  it  may  tend  to  incriminate  me. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  I  ask  you  to  confirm  or 
deny  the  fact,  that  you  organized  within  the  State  of  Mississippi  some 
five  Klaverns. 

Mr,  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
it  may  tend  to  incriminate  me. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Swenson,  we  have  been  unanimously  directed 
by  the  full  committee  to  conduct  this  investigation,  and  the  House 
of  Kepresentatives,  by  an  overwhelming  vote,  supplied  the  fimds  to 
conduct  the  investigation.  It  would  be  useful,  in  addition  to  the  in- 
formation we  have  gathered,  and  that  is  voluminous,  if  one  witness 
would  stand  up  and  spell  out  in  his  own  words  the  objectives  of 
klanism.     Can  you  do  that  ? 

What  is  the  organization  all  about  ? 

What  are  its  functions  ? 

Wliat  is  its  program  ? 

What  does  it  stand  for  ? 

Certainly,  there  are  all  kinds  of  literature  issued  along  that  line. 
We  have  that  literature.    I  want  to  give  you  that  opportunity. 

Will  you  spell  out  the  objectives  of  your  Klan  organization  and 
what  klanism  in  general  stands  for  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Have  you  finished  ? 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  I  hand  you  a  copy  of  a  series  of  oaths 
administered  to  members  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan,  and  I  ask  you  if  you  subscribe  to  those  oaths  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Do  you  want  me  to  read  this  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2339 

Mr.  Appell.  You  read  it  yourself,  and  I  ask  you  if  that  is  the  oath 
you  subscribe  to. 

The, Chairman.  You  may  read  it.  You  sound  as  though  you  are 
anxious  to  do  it.  It  -would  be  perfectly  satisfactory  for  you  to  read  it 
out  loud  and  let  us  question  you  about  what  you  read,  if  that  is  your 
wish. 

The  question  is,  Do  you  subscribe  to  these  oaths  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON,  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

(Document  marked  "John  Swenson  Exhibit  No.  1"  and  retained  in 
committee  files.^) 

Mr.  Appell,  Mr.  Swenson,  it  is  the  result  of  the  committee's  in- 
vestigation that  Roy  E.  Davis,  in  reactivating  a  Klan  group  in  1960, 
as  a  member  of  the  1915  Ku  Klux  Klan  organization,  adopted  for 
liis  organization  that  which  was  used  by  the  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan  under  William  Joseph  Simmons. 

Did  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  follow  in  toto  the 
naturalization  proceedings  of  the  Klan  headed  by  Mr.  Simmons? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Simmons  appeared  before  the  House  Rules  Com- 
mittee on  October  12  and  13,  1921,  and  after  setting  forth  the  oaths, 
which  are  almost  verbatim  to  the  oaths  that  I  have  shown  you,  after 
reading  the  last  oath  under  "Klanishness,"  Mr.  Simmons  said  that  the 
naturalization  proceedings  continued  with  this  language : 

Sirs,  have  you  assumed  without  mental  reservation  your  oath  of  allegiance 
to  the  invisible  empire? 

According  to  Mr.  Simmons,  the  candidate  answers  "Yes,"  and  Mr. 
Simmons  said  this  statement  followed,  and  I  quote  from  the  trans- 
script  of  the  testimony  statement  read  to  the  candidate : 

Mortal  man  cannot  assume  a  more  binding  oath;  character  and  courage 
alone  will  enable  you  to  keep  it.  Always  remember  that  to  keep  this  oath  means 
to  you  honor,  happiness,  and  life ;  but  to  violate  it  means  disgrace,  dishonor, 
and  death.     May  honor,  happiness,  and  life  be  yours. 

Was  this  language  taken  from  the  testimony  of  Mr.  Simmons  as  part 
of  the  official  proceedings  of  the  1915  Klan  a  part  of  your  organization  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  May  I  ask  the  witness  a  question? 

Are  you  ansM-ering  and  taking  the  fifth  amendment  based  on  the 
gromids  that  your  oath  as  a  Klansman  takes  higher  precedent  than 
your  obligation  to  appear  before  this  committee  and  answer  ques- 
tions? 

Is  that  the  reason  for  it  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  just  asked  you  the  reason  for  it.  You  can't  get  in  trou- 
ble with  that. 

Mr.  Sw^ENSON.  Sir,  I  have  heretofore  stated  this,  that  anything  I 
might  be  asked  might  tend  to  incriminate  me. 


^The^e  oaths  are  similar  in  form  to  those  used  by  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc. 
See  Robert  Shelton  Exhibit  No.  4,  committee  report,  The  Present-Day  Ku  Klux  Klan  Move- 
ment, pp.  343-346. 


2340  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  are  goino;  to  look  pretty  bad  back  home  when  you 
wave  the  flag  and  say  you  will  fight  for  America  first.  You  have 
not  the  guts  to  testify  before  the  committee  on  the  things  we  are  ask- 
ing. I  know  you  have  a  right  to  take  the  fifth  amendment,  I  know 
that.  Back  home,  you  are  not  going  to  look  very  good.  You  keep 
on  talking  like  that  and  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  will  be  out  of  existence 
sure  enough,  if  you  are  not  proud  to  testify  for  an  organization  that 
vou  have  any  connection  Avith. 
That  is  all. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Venable. 
Mr.  Venable.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Chalmers  appeared  as  counsel  for  the  wit- 
nesses previously  before  this  committee.  I  asked  Mr.  Chalmers 
whether,  in  addition  to  the  invocation  of  the  privileges  or  whatever 
constitutional  amendments  were  relied  on,  the  witnesses  he  repre- 
sented were  relying  on  their  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  Klan  as  a  rea- 
son for  refusing  to  answer.  He  responded  that  they  did  not ;  they  were 
relying  on  the  constitutional  privilege. 

I  wonder  if  you  would  mind  giving  your  views  as  a  lawyer  on  that. 
Are  you  relying  on  the  oaths  taken  by  your  client,  Mr.  Swenson,  as 
a  member  of  the  Klan,  and  I  know  you  are  familiar  with  them — 
that  series  of  oaths — as  a  basis  for  refusal  to  answer  questions  before 
this  committee  ? 

Mr.  Venable.  Your  Honor,  we  are  relying  on  the  first  amendment 
on  the  grounds  if  a  person  should  be  compelled  to  answer,  it  might 
indicate  that  he  was  a  member  and,  further,  it  would  violate  his  rights 
to  peacefully  assemble,  freedom  to  discuss  their  grievance  under  the 
first  amendment.  And  under  the  fourth  amendment — he  invokes  it, 
we  invoke  it — there  are  certain  matters  and  things  that  might  com- 
pel him,  if  it  pertains  to  documents  and  records  and  books,  that  that 
would  be  a  violation  of  his  rights  under  the  freedom  to  have  and 
retain  personal  effects,  and  if  you  were  compelled  to  produce  them 
and  if  they  would  incriminate  you,  they  would  incriminate  you. 
The  fifth  amendment  says  he  shaV  not  be  a  witness  against  himself. 

Last  but  not  least,  the  14th  amendment,  as  T  understand  the  Su])reme 
Court  has  so  held  and  ruled,  if  any  of  your  riglits  are  being  violated, 
they  would  be  in  violation  of  the  14th  amendment.  You  would  not 
have  equal  protection  of  law  under  the  first,  fourth,  and  fifth.  The 
sixth  amendment  too. 

The  Chairman.  My  question  was  whether  the  basis  of  your  advice  to 
your  client  for  refusing  to  answer  is  these  constitutional  amendments? 

Mr.  Venable.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  And  you  are  not  relying  on  liis  oath  as  a  Klansman 
as  a  reason  for  refusing  to  answer  ? 

Mr.  Venable.  That's  right,  your  Honor. 

Tlie  Chairman.  That  is  my  question. 

Mr.  Venable.  Yes,  sir ;  tliat's  right. 

The  Chairman.  Mean  iug  what — that  you  are  or  are  not  ? 

Mr.  Venable.  If  he  identified  that  oath  and  admitted  that  he  took 
that  oath,  an  oath  similar  to  that  oath,  then  he  would  admit  that  he  was 
a  Klansman,  and  if  he  is  part  of  a  machinery  or  grouji  then  some  of 
them  would  be  involved. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2341 

The  Chairman.  I  understand.  I  think  I  understand  you  better 
than  you  understand  me. 

Mr.  Venable.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  The  oath  taken  by  a  member  of  the  Klan  is,  in  short, 
a  pledge  of  secrecy,  and  conceivably,  outside  of  what  the  decisions  may 
say 

Mr.  Venable.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  — conceivably  a  person,  a  member  of  the  Klan  who 
has  taken  that  oath,  could  appear  before  the  committee  and  say,  "I 
have  taken  an  oath  of  allegiance  and  loyalty  to  my  organization.  I 
believe  in  that  oath  so  firmly  that  I  am  not  going  to  say  anything  about 
the  activities  of  my  organization.  I  am  not  relying  on  the  constitu- 
tional amendments.  I  am  relying  on  my  fealty  of  allegiance  and  dedi- 
cation to  the  oath  of  a  Klansman  as  the  reason  for  refusing." 

You  are  not  relying  on  that  oath  as  a  matter  of  law,  as  I  understand 
it. 

Mr.  Venable.  That  is  right . 

The  Chairman.  You  are  relying  on  the  constitutional  amendments? 

Mr.  Venable.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  what  I  wanted.     That  was  the  position- 

Mr.  Venable.  We  are  not  trying  to  hide  the  oath.  We  are  just 
invoking  those  constitutional  amendments. 

The  Chairman.  If  you  relied  on  the  oath,  we  would  have  some 
questions.     You  are  not  relying  on  it  as  a  basis  for  refusing? 

Mr.  Venable.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Pool,  Mr.  Venable,  since  you  have  explained  all  that  very 
nicely,  will  you  go  further  and  say  Congress  has  no  right  to  investigate 
anything  ? 

Mr.  Venable.  No,  I  don't  state  that.  I  think  Congress  should  have 
the  right. 

Mr.  Pool.  "Wliere  do  they  have  a  right  to  investigate?  Where  do 
you  limit  it  ? 

Mr.  Venable.  They  have  a  field  to  investigate  many  things,  if  your 
Honor  please.  Where  it  involves  a  person's  rights  and  privileges 
as  guaranteed  under  the  Bill  of  Rights,  then  this  Congress,  this  com- 
mittee, or  any  other  person  has  no  right  to  compel  a  person,  to  make 
a  person  produce  evidence  which  might  tend  to  incriminate  him  in  a 
conspiracy  or  intend  to  incriminate  him  in  a  law  violation. 

Mr.  Pool.  Is  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  a  conspiracy  ? 

Mr.  Venable.  No,  it  is  not  a  conspiracy.  There  are  43  separate 
Klans. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  don't  know  anything  about  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Venable.  I  know  a  little  bit  about  it,  yes,  sir,  having  been  in  it 
quite  a  while.    I  am  proud  of  it. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  may  have  good  ground  for  what  you  are  saying. 
You  know  more  about  it  than  I  do.  Maybe  you  are  right,  that  you 
should  plead  the  fifth  amendment.    I  don't  know. 

Mr.  Venable.  I  am  not  pleading  the  fifth  amendment  myself,  as 
you  know.    I  never  have  "pled"  it  and  I  never  will. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  Klan  pleads  it. 

Mr.  Venable.  I  never  invoked  the  fifth  amendment  as  far  as  being  a 
lawyer. 


2342  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    "U.S. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  am  getting  tired  of  sitting  here  and  all  these  niceties 
going  on.  When  we  get  down  to  basic  facts,  I  will  ask  questions  along 
that  line.    We  will  just  get  right  down  to  it. 

Mr.  Venable.  I  thank  you.    1  have  a  right  to  advise  my  client. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  certainly  do. 

Mr.  Venable.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  And  I  have  a  right  to  talk  to  you,  so  we  will  talk  a  little 
bit  more  if  you  want  to. 

Mr.  Venable.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  you  are  appearing  before  the  committee 
today  in  accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  27, 
1965,  and  extended  by  formal  telegi\ams  from  the  committee  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes,  sir ;  and  I  turn  these  in. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  keep  them.  You  are  appearing  in  accordance 
Avith  that  subpena  ?  You  are  appearing  here  this  morning  because  of 
the  subpena  served  upon  you  ? 

The  Chairman.  That  is  a  proper  question. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  It  doesn't  involve  constitutional  questions. 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  am  sorry,  sir,  but  I  am  not  an  attorne3^ 

The  Chairman.  I  understand. 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  am  appearing  here  according  to  this  subpena. 

Mr.  Appell.  An  attachment  to  that  subpena,  which  was  made  part 
of  the  subpena,  calls  in  three  paragraphs  for  you  to  produce  certain 
books  and  records.    Paragraph  1  calls  for  you  to  produce : 

AH  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan — Louisiana,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or 
maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  present  or  past  oflScer  and/or  member 
of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan — Louisiana. 

I  now  demand  tliat  you  produce  those  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  am  respectfully  refusing  to  produce  these  records, 
sir,  that  they  may  tend  to  incriminate  me. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  for  a  direction  of  the  production 
of  documents  called  for  in  paragrapli  1. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  am  adding  to  this  that  this  would  be  in  viola- 
tion of  my  fourth  and  fifth  amendments  of  the  Constitution. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Swenson,  I  wanted  to  ask  this  question  for  the 
record,  and  I  assume  counsel  will  understand.  The  question  is  this : 
You  understand,  of  course,  that  the  part  of  the  subpena  duces  tecum 
just  read  calls  for  you  to  produce  those  documents  in  the  representa- 
tive capacity  stated  in  the  subpena;  do  you  not?  You  understand 
that?  In  other  words,  and  I  wish  counsel'  would  hear  this,  this  part 
of  the  subpena  in  paragraph  1 — and  I  assume  it  is  true  in  the  succeed- 
ing two  next  paragraphs,  so  I  will  not  have  to  i-epeat  everything— calls 
on  you  as  an  officer,  or  in  a  capacity  stated  here,  to  produce  the  docu- 
ments in  your  possession  as  stated  in  that  capacity.  You  understand 
that;  do  you? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  Because  it  makes  a  difference,  to  be  fair  with  you, 
between  calling  on  you  to  produce,  for  example,  your  own  income  tax 
return  or  your  own  papers,  and  papers  tliat  we  say  you  have  or  had 
in  a  representative  capacity.    There  is  a  distinct  ion  between  the  two. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  2343 

I  will  repeat  this — you  understand  that  under  this  subpena  you  are 
being  asked  and  directed  to  produce  documents  in  the  capacity  stated 
and  not  as  J.  B.  Swenson,  the  man.    You  understand  that;  do  you? 

Counsel,  do  you  understand  that? 

Mr.  Venable.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  That  being  the  case,  I  now  order  and  direct  you  to 
produce  those  documents  in  the  capacity  stated  in  the  subpena,  and  I 
will  try  to  explain  to  you  as  a  layman  this — I  am  repeating  that  this 
is  an  order  directed  to  you  to  submit  documents,  papere,  and  records 
which  we  say  you  have,  or  had,  in  that  representative  capacity,  and 
since  we  do  not  accept  your  right  to  refuse  to  do  so  in  the  capacity 
stated,  that  is  why  I  am  ordering  you  to  produce  them.  I  am  referring 
now  to  documents  described  in  paragraph  1  of  the  attacliment  to  this 
subpena. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  May  I  consult  counsel,  please  ? 

The  Chairman.  Surely. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  as  far  as  records  of  the  Klan  organization,  I  do 
not  have  any  of  those  records.  I  guess  I  don't  know  what  you  are  talk- 
ing about  except  it  is  something  that  you  showed  me  here,  but  I  don't 
have  any  records  whatsoever  of  the  Klan  in  my  possession  now  at  all. 

I  did  bring  my  personal  income  tax  return  wiiich  you  asked  for. 

The  Chairman.  We  haven't  reached  that.  I  didn't  realize  it  had 
been  asked  for,  frankly.  I  just  wanted  to  explain  the  call  of  this  par- 
ticular portion  of  the  subpena. 

Mr,  Swenson.  I  have  none,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  You  are  now  saying  that  you  cannot  pj-oduce  those 
documents  called  for  in  the  capacity  stated  because  you  do  not  have 
them  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  the  reason  you  do  not  produce  them? 

Mr.  Swenson.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  And  you  know  you  are  under  oath  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chairman — did  you  ever  have  possession  of  these 
documents  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Mr.  Pool,  w'hat  was  the  question,  sir? 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  you  ever  have  possession  of  these  documents  that  he 
just  asked  for  under  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  have  had  no  documents  since  I  have  been  sub- 
penaed,  sir.    I  have  had  no  documents  like  this. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  you  ever  have  possession  of  these  documents  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  you  are  asking  me  a  direct  question?  Is  that 
right,  sir  ? 

Mr.  Pool.  Sure  I  am  asking  the  question. 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  this  question,  sir,  on 
the  grounds  heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  just  got  through  testifying  the  you  didn't  have  pos- 
session of  them.  The  proper  question  then  would  be  whether  you  ever 
had  possession  of  these  documents.  It  is  a  very  proper  question,  and 
you  should  answer  it. 

Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  you  to  direct  him  to  answer. 

The  Chairman.  We  are  now  cross-examining  you  on  your  previous 
answer.  You  said,  in  answer  to  my  question,  that  you  were  not  produc- 
ing those  documents  for  the  reason  that  you  didn't  have  them. 

59-222  O— 67— pt.  3 2 


2344  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Now,  Mr.  Pool  asked  whether  you  ever  had  them.  That  is  a  proper 
question. 

Furthermore,  if  you  persist  in  refusing  to  answer  that  one,  I  have 
two  or  three  of  my  own  I  want  to  ask.  So  the  pending  question  is 
this:  Did  you  ever  have  possession  of  those  documents?  I  order  and 
direct  you  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  will  give  him  warning  on  the  probabil- 
ity of  contempt  if  he  doesn't  answer  this  question. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  may  I  get  a  clarification  on  that?  What  records 
are  you  speaking  of  now  on  this  ? 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Appell  will  explain  it. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  That  you  asked  me  if  I  ever  had. 

Mr. Appell.  [Reading:] 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan — Louisiana,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  main- 
tained by  you  or  available  to  you  as  present  or  past  oflBcer  and/or  member  of 
the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan — Louisiana. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  supplement  that  so  it  will  be  completely 
clear,  Mr.  Swenson.  The  subpena  asks  you  to  produce  any  kind  of 
books,  any  kind  of  records,  any  kind  of  documents,  any  kind  of  corre- 
spondence, any  kind  of  memoranda  relating  to  the  organization  of, 
and  the  conduct  of,  the  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  whether  those  documents  were — and  as  broadened 
by  Mr.  Pool — are  or  ever  were,  in  your  possession  or  under  your  con- 
trol or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  either  as  present  or  as  a 
past  officer  and/or  as  a  member  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana. 

That  is  a  broad  question.  It  is  a  broad  order.  This  subpena  fol- 
lows tJie  pattern  of  subpenas  of  this  kind,  and  that  is  what  Mr.  Pool's 
question  is.  I  have  ordered  you  to  answer  it.  Having  said  that  you 
do  not  now  have  them,  he  is  asking  you — have  you  ever  had  any  kind 
of  book,  record,  document,  or  correspondence  or  memoranda  in  the 
capacity  indicated,  whether  as  a  present  officer  or  a  past  officer  or  a 
present  member  or  a  past  member  ? 

In  answer  to  me,  you  said  you  couldn't  produce  them  because  you 
didn't  have  them. 

Well,  now,  we  have  the  right  to  ask  you — sure  you  don't  have  them 
now,  and  that  is  an  acceptable  answer.  I  didn't  direct  you  to  answer 
that  question.  You  said  you  didn't  have  them,  and  you  are  under 
oath.  But  now  the  question  is  this — you  say  you  don't  now  have 
them :  What  did  you  do  with  them  ?  Did  you  Just  leave  them  home  or 
give  them  to  a  friend  so  you  would  not  be  called  upon  to  produce 
them  ?     That  is  the  question  we  are  now  asking  you. 

If  you  don't  have  them  now  the  question  is,  Have  you  ever  had  them  ? 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  want  to  ask  counsel  liow  long  he  wants 
to  take.     How  about  the  recess  ? 

The  Chairman.  What  is  your  answer  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  T  would  like  to  speak  to  my  counsel  just  a  little 
longer  if  you  don't  mind,  ])lease. 

The  Chairman.  The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  for  5  minutes. 

(Whereupon,  at  11 :05  a.m.,  the  subconnnittee  recessed  and  recon- 
vened at  11:11  a.m.     Subcommittee  members  present  at  time  of  recess : 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2345 

Representatives  AVillis,  Pool,  Weltner,  and  Buchanan  and  when  hear- 
ings resumed:  Representatives  Willis,  Pool,  and  Weltner.) 
The  CiiAiRMAx.  The  committee  will  come  to  order. 
Mr.  Swenson,  you  havintj  consulted  with  counsel,  and  I  think  an- 
other one  came  to  your  table  during  this  recess,  I  ask  for  an  answer 
to  the  pending  question. 

Mr.  Vexable.  HaA^e  the  question  repeated  first  so  you  will  under- 
stand. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Will  you  repeat  that  question  again,  sir?  I  think 
I  understand  it,  but  I  want  to  be  sure,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  In  answer  to  my  question  you  said  you  could  not 
produce  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  so  on,  be- 
cause you  don't  have  tliem.  I  accepted  that,  because  you  are  under 
oath.  I  accepted  it  temporarily,  anyway,  because  that  is  your  posi- 
tion and  you  are  under  oath. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Pool  asked  you,  and  that  is  the  pending  ques- 
tion— well,  you  say  you  don't  have  them :  Have  you  ever  had  them 
either  in  your  possession  or  custody  or  control,  and  whether  you  main- 
tained those  records  or  whether  they  are  or  were  available  to  you? 
That  is  the  question. 

Having  said  you  don't  liave  them,  did  you  ever  have  possession, 
custody,  or  control  of  these  records?  Did  you  ever  maintain  them? 
Were  they  ever  available  to  you  ? 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Buchanan  entered  the  hearing  room.) 

Mr.  Pool.  That  is  the  pending  question.  I  will  direct  you  to 
answer. 

The  Chairman.  Yes,  and  I  am  directing  him  to  answer. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  the  records  that  you  are  referring  to,  I  don't 
know  how  many  or  what  kind  that  you  have  in  mind,  and  so  on,  but 
any  books,  paraphernalia,  correspondence,  or  anything  that  I  had 
in  my  possession  this  past  March,  a  year  ago,  this  all  was  burned, 
destroyed  completely. 

The  Chairman.  They  were  burned  and  destroyed  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Who  burned  them  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  burned  them. 

The  Chairman.  All  the  records  ? 

Mr,  Swenson.  All  records  that  I  had  in  my  possession. 

The  Chairman.  All  books? 

Mr.  Swenson.  All  books.  In  other  words,  everything  that  I  had 
in  my  possession ;  yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Why  did  you  do  that? 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  did  that  so  it  wouldn't  get  into  the  hands  of  the 
enemy. 

The  Chairman.  Who  is  the  enemy  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  am  speaking  of  the  Communists  and  the  elements 
of  communism. 

The  Chairman.  What  do  you  mean  by  that  ? 

Mr.  Savenson.  I  just  say"l  didn't  want  it  to  get  into  the  hands  of 
Communists. 

The  Chairman.  What  would  make  you  believe  that  they  would? 
Are  you  friendly  with  the  Communists? 


2346  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  No,  sir,  definitely  not. 

The  Chairman.  I  didn't  say  you  were.    I  am  not  being  facetious. 

Mr.  SwENsoN.  May  I  say  something  that  does  not  have  anything 
to  do  with  this,  sir  ? 

The  Chairman.  You  are  speaking  freely.  That  is  what  I  want 
you  to  do,  and  we  will  have  a  nice  time  questioning  you.  I  am  not 
saying  that  as  a  basis  for  your  not  talking.  On  the  contrary,  I  am 
delighted. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  I  respect  this  committee,  very,  very  much.  I 
am  not  against  the  committee.     I  respect  it. 

The  Chair3ian.  All  right. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  I  am  trying  to  answer  your  questions,  sir,  without 
incriminating  myself. 

The  Chairman.  When  was  it  that  you  destroyed  them  ?  March  of 
last  year,  you  say  ? 

Mr.  Savenson.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  March  of  1965  or  1964?  We  are  just  entering 
1966. 

Mr.  Swenson.  March  of  1964. 

The  Chairman.  March  of  1964. 

Mr.  Pool.  That  is  2  years  ago. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Two  years  ago  approximately. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  March  of  1964  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  I  understand  you  had  reference  to  last  year  be- 
cause we  are  in  only  the  3d  or  4th  of  January.  You  were  picturing 
yourself  as  still  being  in  the  year  1965.  You  destroyed,  you  burned 
them  in  March  of  1964  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Approximately ;  yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  consult  with  j'our  fellow  officers  in  doing 
that,  or  did  you  take  it  upon  yourself?  Or,  if  that  question  em- 
barrasses you,  I  will  ask  you  this — did  you  consult  anyone? 

Mr.  Savenson.  Sir? 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  take  it  on  yourself? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Did  I  do  what  now,  sir? 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  consult  anyone? 

Mr.  Swenson.  No,  sir,  I  consulted  no  one. 

The  Chairman.  You  just  took  it  upon  yourself  to  bum  those  rec- 
ords? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  iVnd  you  say  under  oath  you  did  that  because  you 
didn't  want  those  records  to  fall  into  tlie  hands  of  the  "enemy." 
That  is  your  sworn  testimony  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  didn't  want  them  stolen,  so  that's  the  reason. 
I  had  reason  to  believe  that  they  might  be  stolen,  so  I  burned  them. 

The  Chairman.  Was  there  anything  in  those  records  which,  if  they 
fell  into  the  "hands  of  the  enemy,"  would  be  damaging  to  you  as  an 
individual  or  to  your  organization  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  You  asked  me,  sir,  I  believe,  why  did  I 

Mr.  Appell.  What  documents? 

The  Chairman.  My  question  was  what,  if  anything,  was  contained 
in  those  records,  whatever  they  may  be,  that  you  felt  would  be  dam- 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  2347 

aging  to  you  or  to  your  organization  if  they  did  fall  in  the  hands  of 
"the  enemy"  ?  This  is  anotlier  way  of  saying — what  was  it  that  you 
felt  should  be  destroyed  because  if  the  enemy  got  hold  of  them  and  read 
them  that  something  bad  would  happen  to  you,  your  organization,  or 
you  can  say  to  your  country?  I  will  allow  you  to  say  anything  that 
you  have  in  mind, 

Mr.  SwENsoN.  Sir,  I  don't  know^  of  anything  definite.  It  is  just 
that  the  materia]  that  we  are  speaking  of  the  Communists  would  like 
to  get  their  hands  on  it.  Of  course,  I  imagine  they  have  it  now. 
Actually,  it  just  wasn't  supposed  to  be  where  it  could  be  stolen  by 
any  enemy  organization  of  our  country. 

The  CiiAiRMAX.  I  have  a  vei-y  few  questions.  I  don't  want  to  haggle 
with  you.    You  are  under  oath  and  time  will  tell  what  happens. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman".  Was  there,  in  addition  to  your  fear  that  they  might 
be  stolen  or  used  by  "the  enemy,"  a  feeling  on  your  part  that  they  might 
be  subpenaed  and  that  you  didn't  want  them  subpenaed  in  the  future? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  no,  sir.    No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  And  that  is  your  testimony  under  oath? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  This  was  March  of  1954,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  1964. 

Mr.  Swenson.  1964 ;  I  am  sorry. 

Mr.  Pool.  May  I  ask  some  questions  here?  Where  did  you  burn 
these  papers  and  records  and  things?  Where  were  you  when  you 
burned  them  ? 

Mr.  Savenson.  You  mean  the  city  ? 

Mr.  Pool.  Were  you  in  a  house,  a  barn,  out  in  the  country  ?  Where 
were  you  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  No,  sir ;  it  was  in  my  back  yard. 

Mr.  Pool.  Your  back  yard  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  "Wlio  was  there  with  you  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  No  one. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  have  a  witness  there  to  say  you  burned  them  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  No  one. 

Mr.  Pool.  In  the  daytime  or  night  ? 

Mr.  S^venson.  In  the  daytime. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  remember  what  day  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  No,  sir,  I  don't. 

Mr.  Pool.  Wliat  records  did  you  burn  ? 

Mr.  Sw^ENSON.  Sir,  I  burned  the  records  that  we  were  speaking  of 
just  now,  that  he  asked  me  about. 

Mr.  Pool.  Call  them  off.  Did  you  burn  the  minutes  of  the  meeting? 
Did  you  burn  the  membership  lists?  Call  off  the  things.  You  know 
wliat  they  are. 

If  you  were  afraid  the  Communists  would  get  hold  of  them  you  cer- 
tainly knew  what  they  were. 

Mr.  Sw^ENsoN.  Sir,  it  w\as  just  literature  or  documents.  It  was  no 
membership  list.    I  haven's  had  any  membership  list. 

The  Chairman.  Did  they  include  any  financial  records,  records  of 
money  you  received,  because  it  is  my  understanding  that  you  will  be 
questioned  about  financial  transactions.  This  is  a  proper  question,  as 
I  am  sure  your  lawyer  will  agree. 


2348  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

You  said  that  the  reason  for  burning  them  was  that  you  didn't  want 
them  to  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  which  you  described  as  the 
Communists. 

Then  I  asked  you,  in  addition  to  that  reason  were  you  fearful  that 
they  might  be  subpenaed.    You  said  "No." 

Now  I  am  asking  you  if  any  of  the  documents  that  you  burned  had 
to  do  with  financial  records,  that  is,  receipts,  evidence  of  money 
received  as  dues,  for  robes,  or  anything  else,  any  financial  records 
involved  that  were  burned  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  the  question  that  you  asked  me,  if  I  answer  that 
it  may  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  you  asking  for  certain  things. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  are  you  invoking  constitutional  privilege 
and  the  fifth  amendment  at  this  point? 

Mr,  SwENSON".  Fourth  and  fifth ;  yes. 

The  Chairman.  The  fourth  and  fifth. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Respectfully,  Mr.  Willis,  I  am  trying  my  best  to 

The  Chairman.  I  understand  that.  I  am  trying  my  best  to  be  fair 
and  yet  to  develop  evidence.  If  in  answer  to  my  question  as  to  whether 
there  were  any  financial  records  involved  you  invoke  the  fourth  and 
fifth  amendments,  I  at  least  accept  your  invocation  of  the  fifth  as  far 
as  I  am  concerned,  because  you  are  under  oath  and  you  can  invoke  your 
privileges. 

Mr.  Pool.  How  about  the  membership  list,  though?  You  don't 
remember  whether  they  were  in  there  or  not ;  do  you  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  that  is  something  I  have  never  had,  this  mem- 
bership list. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  have  never  had  custody,  control,  or  possession  of 
the  membership  list  of  any  Ku  Klux  Klan  organization  ?  Is  that  what 
you  are  saying  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  the  only  thing  I  am  saying  is  numbers. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  didn't  get  you.     You  haven't  answered  my  question. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Just  a  minute,  Mr.  Pool.    I  am  sorry. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  have  never  had  custody,  possession,  or  control  of  the 
membership  list  of  any  Ku  Klux  Klan  organization,  is  that  right,  the 
membership  list? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  what  do  you  mean  by  list,  sir  ? 

The  Chairman.  He  said,  Mr.  Pool,  the  only  thing  he  saw  was  num- 
bers.    Maybe  the  list  was  numbers  rather  than  names. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  understand.  You  are  referring  to  numbers  instead  of 
the  names.  Were  you  ever  in  control,  possession,  or  custody  o1  any 
lists  of  members  whether  by  numbers  or  by  names? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Would  you  give  me  just  a  few  minutes,  sir? 

Mr.  Pool.  Yes. 

Mr.  SwENSoN.  Sir,  this  answer  may  tend  to  incriminate  me.  I 
invoke  the  fifth  amendment  on  this  one,  sir,  respectfully,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  say  that  technically,  in  the  decisions  of  the 
Supreme  Court,  you  have  opened  yourself  to  examination  on  these 
questions.  I  do  not  want  to  be  suj^ertechnical,  but  I  will  have  to  direct 
you  to  answer  that  question.  I  think  you  opened  up  the  door  when 
you  said  the  only  thing  you  saw  was  numbers,  and  thereby  that  makes 
this  question  proper,  so  I  will  direct  you  to  answer  that  question — 
whether  or  not  you  ever  had  a  list  of  members,  whether  by  names  or  by 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2349 

numbers.     To  that  you  invoked  the  fifth  amendment.     I  simply  do 
not  accept  that  invocation  at  this  time. 

You  can  consult  with  counsel.  If  you  want  to  reinvoke  your 
privileges  under  my  order,  I  am  not  your  lawyer,  but  you  do  what 
your  lawyer  tells  you. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  The  question  was  did  I  ever  have  numbers. 

The  Chairman.  You  said  that  yourself. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  You  said  you  saw  numbers. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  The  only  thing  you  saw  was  numbers,  not  names. 
The  pending  question  is :  Did  you  have  possession  of  a  list  of  members, 
either  by  names  or  numbers,  and  was  that  list  or  series  of  numbers  on 
pieces  of  paper  included  in  the  bonfire  you  had  in  your  office? 

Mr.  Sw^ENSON.  What  numbers  I  had,  sir,  yes,  was  included  in  the 
bonfire. 

Mr.  Pool.  Yov,  testified  a  little  earlier  that  it  wasn't  in  there. 

Mr.  SwENsoN.  No,  sir,  if  it  is  read  back,  I  am  sorry,  sir,  respectfully. 

Sir,  all  the  records  that  I  had — I  don't  want  to  get  confused  and  I 
don't  want  to  cause  you  any  delay  here. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  did  you  iDurn  the  membership  list  when  you 
burned 

Mr.  SwENSON.  I  burned  everything  I  had  in  my  possession,  sir.  As 
far  as  membership  list  is  concerned,  all  I  know  anything  about  is 
numbers,  and  everything  that  was  in  my  possession  was  burned. 

The  Chairman.  Including  the  numbers  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Papers  with  Klans  by  numbers.    You  burned  them  ? 

Mr.  SwENsoN.  Sir,  it  was  numbers.     That  is  all  I  can 

Mr.  Pool.  He  hasn't  answered  the  question.  He  is  evading  the  ques- 
tion.    That  is  why  I  am  trying  to  pin  him  down. 

Did  you,  or  did  you  not,  burn  the  membership  list,  either  by  numbers 
or  names,  out  there  in  the  backyard  the  day  you  burned  all  the  other 
records  you  claimed  here  a  while  ago  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel. ) 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  the  numbers  that  you  are  speaking  of  were 
burned ;  yes,  sir.     Everything  that  I  had  in  my  possession  was  burned. 

Mr.  Pool.  What  Klavern  or  what  was  the  list  of  ?     What  Klavern  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  respectfully,  I  believe  we  were  speaking  of  docu- 
ments of  the  organization. 

Mr.  Pool.  Of  the  total  organization. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  You  asked  me  what  became  of  them. 

Mr.  Pool.  What  did  the  numbers  pertain  to?  What  membership 
did  they  pertain  to?     What  organization  are  we  talking  about? 

The  Chairman.  The  document  calls  for  matters  referring  to  the 
Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan — Louisiana.  That,  I  take  it, 
is  what  you  are  referring  to. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Let  me  talk  to  my  counsel. 
(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  I  respectfully  say  that  I  have  answered  your 
question  on  what  happened  to  the  records  which  you  asked  me  to 
produce  here.     They  were  destroyed.     The  question  which  is  being 


2350  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

asked  me  now  will  tend  to  incriminate  me  under  the  fifth  amendment — 
fourth  amendment. 

Mr.  Pool.  After  this  numbers  list  was  destroyed  or  misplaced  or 
whatever  happened  to  it,  how  did  the  organization  get  along  without 
a  numbers  list  ? 

Mr.  Savenson.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  heretofore 
stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Are  we  talking  about  tlie  numbers  list  or  membership  of 
the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ?  Is  that  the  list  you  are 
claiming  was  burned  in  that  fire  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
answer  because  I  think  he  opened  it  up  for  cross-examination  and  he 
should  be  directed  to  answer  the  question. 

The  Chairman.  I  have  already  ruled  that  these  questions  are  per- 
tinent under  the  decisions  and  might  lead  to  whatever  legal  remedy 
is  available  to  us  under  the  law.  I  have  directed  him  to  answer  the 
question  already,  and  he  has  reinvoked  his  amendment  on  which  he 
relies,  despite  my  admonition.  That  is  where  we  stand.  He  stands 
on  his  position,  and  I  stand  on  mine.  In  other  words,  I  have  already 
directed  him  to  answer  the  question. 

Mr.  Weltxer.  With  regard  to  the  documents  previously  discussed 
as  required  by  the  subpena  and  with  regard  to  the  witness'  explanation 
that  the  records  were  destroyed  pursuant  to  his  fear  that  they  would 
fall  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  I  would  ask  tlie  Chair's  permission 
to  read  briefly  from  transcript  of  the  executive  session  held  on  July 
28, 1965,  being  a  transcript  of  the  testimony  of  Royal  V.  Young,  Route 
1,  McDade,  Louisiana.  With  the  Chair's  permission  and  with  the  at- 
tention of  the  witness,  I  would  request  the  witness  pay  close  attention 
to  Mr.  Young's  sworn  testimony  with  regard  to  the  ''hands  of  the 
enemy." 

Mr.  Young  testified  concerning  a  division  in  the  Original  Knights, 
stating  that  he  was  assigned  to  various  offices  under  JNIr.  J.  D.  Swen- 
son,  the  witness  today.  Then  he  was  asked  about  the  nature  of  the 
faction.     Mr.  Young  stated,  now  quoting : 

There  is  no  explaining  to  it.  Some  people  wanted  to  take  over  the  manu- 
facturing of  the  robes,  and  one  man  had  it,  and  that  was  it.  That  is  the  only 
thing  I  can  tell  you.    Power  purge. 

Mr.  Appell.  Xow,  who  was  the  man  that  had  the  jurisdiction  of  the  manu- 
facturing of  the  robes? 

Mr.  Young.  Everyone  in  the  United  States  knows  that,  and  also  your  investiga- 
tors.   Mr.  Swenson. 

That  is  on  page  257  of  the  transcript.  On  page  293  the  witness 
Young  further  states : 

Let  me  straighten  this  out.  The  relationship  to  the  money  was  not  to  the 
money  of  the  Klan.  It  was  to  the  money  of  the  robe  money.  That  was  most 
of  the  argument. 

Further  on  page  262,  Mr.  Young  in  identifying  this  faction  stated 
under  oath  as  follows : 

Mr.  Appell.  Who  were  the  leaders  in  this  faction  against  you? 
Mr.  Young.  Sir,  this  was  the  Murry  Martin  and  Mr.  Wildei-. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2351 

Mr.  Chairman,  the  executive  testimony  of  Mr.  Young,  previously 
released,  shows  there  was  a  struggle  over  the  robe  money;  that  Mr. 
Swenson  had  the  concession  and  it  was  given  to  him  by  Mr.  Davis, 
of  the  State  of  Texas;  and  that  it  was  in  the  period  March  1964  that 
Swenson  and  Young  lost  out  on  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan. 

M}^  question  to  Mr.  Swenson  is  this — he  said  he  burned  the  records 
to  keep  them  from  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy :  Mr.  Swenson, 
you  were  afraid,  were  you  not,  that  these  records  would  fall  into  the 
hands  of  the  enemy,  Murry  H.  Martin  and  Billy  Skipper,  who  led 
this  revolt  against  your  leadership ;  is  that  not  true? 

Mr.  SwKxsoN.  Sir,  I  would  like  to  say  I  have  already  answered  who 
1  thought  the  enemy  might  be.  We  were  then  speaking  of  the  records. 
As  I  say,  I  am  not  an  attorney.  I  will  have  to  consult  with  my  at- 
t  orney.  The  books  and  records  that  you  asked,  that  were  subpenaed, 
that  you  asked  to  bring  here,  are  no  longer  to  be  obtained.  They  are 
not  here. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chairman,  he  has  burned  the  records.  Let  me 
restate  the  question  to  be  sure  the  witness  has  it  in  mind. 

You  stated,  Mr.  Swenson,  you  burned  the  records  in  March  of  1964 
for  fear  that  they  would  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  You  fur- 
tlier  stated  that  you  meant  by  the  enemy,  the  Communists.  You 
stated  also  that  they  are  probably  in  the  hands  of  the  Communists 
now,  anyway. 

I  have  directed  your  attention  to  the  sworn  testimony  of  Koyal  V. 
Young  concerning  this  controversy  in  March  of  1964.  I  am  asking 
you  whetlier  or  not  the  truth  of  the  matter  is  that  the  enemy  into 
whose  hands  you  feared  these  records  might  fall  were  Murry  Martin, 
Grady  Wilder,  and  Billy  Skipper,  who  challenged  you  and  Mr.  Young 
for  the  leadership  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of 
the  State  of  Louisiana.    Isn't  that  the  fact,  Mr.  Swenson? 

Mr.  SwENsox.  Sir,  I  didn't  fear  that  they  would  fall  into  Mr. 
Martin's  hands,  that  you  are  speaking  of,  or  anyone  else  except  the 
Communists,  that  I  w^as  speaking  of.  I  believe  that  is  about  the  only 
way  that  I  know  how  to  answer  you  on  that,  sir,  respectfully, 

Mr.  Weltner.  Did  you  consider  Messrs.  Martin,  Wilder,  and  Skip- 
per as  your  enemies  ? 

Mr.  SwKxsoN.  Sir,  on  your  question  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the 
grounds  hei'etofore  stated. 

The  CHAiRjvrAN.  You  mean  by  that,  the  1st,  the  4th,  the  5tli,  and  the 
14th  amendments,  and  particularly  the  5th  amendment? 

Mr.  SwExsox.  Yes,  sir,  respectfully. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to  an- 
swer the  question. 

The  Chatrimax.  I  will  direct  you  to  answer  that  question  because 
this  examination  is  quite  proper  and  perfectly  obvious.  Mr.  Swenson, 
the  reason  is  this:  It  is  just  as  simple  as  daylight.  A  witness  cannot 
very  well  appear  before  a  committee  and  extol  his  virtues  in  a  certain 
area  and  tlien,  having  done  that,  start  invoking  the  fourth  and  fifth 
amendments  under  cross-examination.  That  is  not  permissible.  The 
question  Mi-.  Weltner  is  asking  is  perfectly  proper,  and  I  think  quite 
obvious.    I  do  direct  you  to  answer  that  question. 


2352  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  SwEXSOX.  Sir,  you  are  still  talking  about  the  records  ? 

The  CwAiRMAx.  That  is  right.  That  is,  we  are  still  talking  about 
Mr.  Weltner's  question,  and  it  is  that  the  reason  for  burning  the  rec- 
oi'ds  was  not  so  much  fear  of  the  enemy,  meaning  the  Connnunists, 
but  you  were  afraid  that  these  records  might  fall  into  the  hands  of 
the  people  that  you  were  having  a  financial  struggle  and  intraorga- 
nizational  fuss  going  on  with.     That  is  what  he  is  asking. 

Mr.  SwExsoN.  Sir,  I  didn't  know  anything  about  this  fuss,  except 
what  you  have  read  there  which  Mr.  Young  has  said. 

The  Chairmax.  Let  me  say  that  Mr.  Young  when  he  appeared,  like 
you,  was  under  oath.  He  was  under  the  pains  and  penalties  of 
perjury.  Xow  you  are  opening  up  the  question  some  more.  We  want 
to  give  you  the  opportunity  to  talk  about  the  lack  of  any  intraorganiza- 
tional  struggle,  including  financial  transactions  concerning  robes  at 
that  time.  If  that  is  your  testimony  under  oath,  Mr.  Swenson,  that 
is  the  end  of  it  with  me. 

Mr.  Sw^ENSox.  Sir,  I  have  forgotten  the  first  question. 

The  Chairmax\  Just  once  more  and  then  it  will  be  over.  Will  you 
repeat  the  question  ? 

Mr.  Weltxer.  The  question  is  as  follows:  You  stated  in  response 
to  the  subpena  that  you  did  not  have  them  since  March  1964,  that 
you  destroyed  them  in  your  backyard,  and  the  reason  you  did  so  was 
to  prevent  their  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  and  you  identified 
the  enemy  as  the  Communists.  I  have  read  to  you  the  excerpt  from 
the  transcript  of  July  28,  1965,  concerning  a  struggle  between  you  and 
Mr.  Young  and  Grady  Wilder  and  Billy  Skipper  concerning  the  robe 
money  and  the  organization.  I  am  asking  you  if  it  is  not  true  that 
the  enemy  into  whose  hands  you  feared  these  records  might  fall  were 
not  the  Communists,  but  Grady  Wilder,  Billy  Skipper,  and  Murry 
Martin. 

Mr.  SwExsox.  No,  sir,  the  Communists  were  the  ones  I  was  afraid 
they  would  fall  into  the  hands  of. 

Mr.  Weltxer.  All  right,  that  is  an  answer  to  the  question. 

Were  there  among  the  records  that  you  destroyed  any  records  per- 
taining to  the  manufacture,  sale,  or  distribution  of  robes  among  mem- 
bers of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Swexsox'.  Sir,  on  this  question  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the 
grounds  heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  AVeltxer.  Do  you  have  knowledge  of  the  existence  or  location 
of  any  other  records  pertaining  to  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  or  any  other  Ku  Klux  Klan  organization,  Mr.  Swenson? 

Mr.  SwEXsox.  Sir,  will  you  give  me  that  question  once  more? 

Mr.  Weltx-^er.  Do  you  have  knowledge  of  the  existence  or  location 
of  any^other  records  pertaining  to  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  or  any  other  Ku  Klux  Klan  organization  ? 

Mr.  SwExsox.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  gi'ounds  heretofore 
stated,  on  the  fourth  and  fifth  amendments. 

Mr.  Weltxer.  Mr.  Swenson,  in  Mr.  Young's  testimony  of  July  28, 
1965,  concerning  the  internal  struggle  within  the  Original  Knights 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   INT   THE    U.S.  2353 

organizaion,  he  stated  in  response  to  a  question — the  question  is  as 
follows : 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Young,  what  did  the  dissenting  group  feel  was  the  proper 
program?     What  kind  of  activities  did  they  want  you  to  lead  them  into? 

Mr.  Young.  Sir,  I  don't  know.  I  will  decide,  and  show  you  one  incident  that 
might  suffice.  They  wanted  to  burn  crosses  at  the  polls  at  the  election  in  1963, 
and  I  put  out  specific  orders  that  was  to  be  ruled  out  because  I  did  not  believe 
in  intimidation  of  the  voters.  *  *  * 

Mr.  Weltner.  Did  you  consider  the  act  of  burning  the  cross  in  and  of  itself 
to  be  an  intimidation? 

Mr.  Young.  I  did.  I  figures  that  there  was  some  i)eople  might  see  those 
crosses  and  fail  to  go  to  vote. 

My  question  is,  Were  you  aware  of  the  controversy  identified  by 
Royal  V.  Young  concerning  burning  of  crosses  at  the  polls  in  1963? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  heretofore 
stated — the  first,  fourth,  and  fifth  amendments. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  have  no  further  questions,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  Are  there  any  further  questions  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  with  respect  to  your  reason  for  destroy- 
ing the  records  that  you  have  testified  to  in  response  to  questions  asked 
by  members  of  the  committee,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that,  imme- 
diately prior  to  the  destruction  of  the  records,  by  action  of  the  mem- 
bership you  were  voted  out  of  any  office  that  you  held,  together  with 
Mr.  Royal  V.  Young. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  the  reason  the  member- 
ship took  this  action,  or  the  leaders  took  this  action,  was  because  of 
charges  leveled  against  you  of  enriching  yourself  handsomely  over  the 
sale  of  robes. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  you,  if  these  records  which  you  destroyed  had 
fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  faction  that  was  opposing  you,  it  would 
have  documented  the  charges  they  were  making  against  you? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  heretofore 
stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  part  2  of  the  subpena  calls  for  you  to 
produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  past  member  and/or  officer  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and 
require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the 
same  being  in  your  posession,  custody  or  control. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  we  could  shorten  the  examination  on  item 
2  and  probably  item  3  of  the  subpena,  certainly  item  2,  if  I  made  this 
statement,  and  then  if  you  say  that  the  same  situation  with  reference 
to  these  documents  obtains  as  that  concerning  the  documents  required 
in  paragraph  1.  In  other  words,  you  took  the  position  with  reference 
to  paragraph  1  that  the  documents  therein  listed  were  not  in  your 
possession,  and  then  we  examined  you  as  to  whether  they  had  been  in 
your  possession.  Then  you  said  you  had  destroyed  them  by  fire.  Then 
we  examined  you  on  this.    Is  it  the  same  situation  that  your  answers 


2354  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAISP  IN    THE    U.S. 

with  reference  to  paragraph  2  would  be  the  same  as  with  reference 
to  paragraph  1  ? 

If  you  want  to  go  through  it  in  that  way,  it  is  all  right  with  me.  So 
I  ask  you  specifically :  Do  you  now  have  possession  of  these  documents  ? 
Do  you  now  have  possession  of  the  documents  called  for  in  para- 
graph 2  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  it  is  the  same  thing  in  paragraph  1. 

The  Chairman.  Your  answer  is  that  you  do  not  have  them  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Is  it  your  answer  that  they  were  consumed  by  fire 
under  the  same  circumstances  with  reference  to  paragraph  1  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Part  3,  Mr.  Swenson 

The  Chairman.  Counsel,  is  it  agreed  that  the  pertinent  questions 
and  answers  with  reference  to  paragraph  1  would  be  the  same  with 
reference  to  paragraph  2  ? 

Mr.  Venable.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  In  other  words.  No.  1,  your  answer  is  that  you  do 
not  have  those  documents ;  is  that  correct  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  No.  2  is  that  you  destroyed  them  in  a  bonfire 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  — under  the  same  circumstances  with  reference  to 
paragraph  1.  If  we  asked  you  the  same  questions,  your  answers  would 
be  the  same;  is  that  correct?    I  think  that  is  what  counsel  indicated. 

Mr.  Venable.  Yes,  sir.    That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  agreed  to,  Counsel  ? 

Mr.  Venable.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Could  I  ask  him  if  he  destroyed  by  fire  the  records 
that  the  ''Constitution  and  Laws''  of  said  organization  authorize  and 
require  be  maintained  by  him?     Were  these  also  destroyed  by  fire? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel. ) 

The  Chairman.  Is  that  correct  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool,  In  other  words,  you  burned  the  constitution  and  bylaws 
along  with  all  the  other  records ;  is  that  correct  ? 

The  Chairman.  No.  I  think  specifically  he  burned  the  records  re- 
quired by  the  constitution  and  bylaws  to  be  kept. 

Mr.  Pool.  Which  included  the  constitution  and  bylaws. 

Let  me  ask  it  of  you  in  another  way.  In  other  words,  you  burned 
the  very  documents  that  the  constitution  and  bylaws  required  that 
you  keep ;  is  that  correct  ? 

Mr.  SwExsoN.  Sir,  anything  that  I  had  in  my  possession,  as  I  stated 
in  paragraph  1  there,  was  destroyed. 

Mr.  Pool.  Including  these  documents  that  the  constitution  and  by- 
laws required  that  you  keep. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  respectfully,  all  the  paraphernalia  that  you 
asked  for  in  paragraph  1  and  paragraph  2  here  were  destroyed. 

Mr.  Pool.  Can  you  answer  my  question  and  say  "Yes"?  Is  that 
correct,  that  you  burned  the  documents  that  the  constitution  and  by- 
laws required  that  you  keep  ? 

The  Chairman.  Or  those  are  among  the  documents  that  you  de- 
stroyed, whatever  you  had. 

Mr.  Swenson.  What  you  have  stated  here,  sir 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2355 

The  Chairman.  What  you  are  answering  is  yes  in  a  roundabout 
way. 

Mr,  SwENSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  In  other  words,  your  constitution  and  byhiws  did  not 
mean  a  whole  lot  to  you ;  did  it  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  if  I  answer  this  question,  it  will  tend  to  incrimi- 
nate me  in  the  language  it  was  asked.  I  respectfully  answer  you  that 
I  have  none  of  these  records  in  my  possession. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  understand  that. 

The  Chairman.  But  you  are  refusing  to  answer  the  last  question 
on  the  grounds  of  the  privileges  afforded  to  you  under  the  constitu- 
tional amendments  which  you  have  previously  invoked.  That  is  what 
you  are  doing. 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Yes. 

Mr.  Pool.  That  is  fine  and  dandy.  I  think  it  is  a  terrible  situation 
when  you  just  ignored  the  constitution  and  laws  of  the  organization 
like  that  and  burned  the  records  which  you  were  supposed  to  keep 
under  the  constitution  and  bylaws.  That  is  all  I  am  trying  to  point 
out. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  paragraph  3  called  for  you  to  produce : 

Copies  of  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service,  Form  1040, 
"U.S.  Individual  Income  Tax  Return,"  for  the  calendar  years  1958  through 
1964,  filed  by  you  as  an  individual  taxpayer  with  the  U.S.  Treasury  Department, 
Internal  Revenue  Service. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Swenson.  May  I  consult  my  attorney  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  am  respectfully  refusing  to  produce  my  per- 
sonal income  tax  records  since  they  may  tend  to  incriminate  me,  on 
the  fifth  amendment. 

The  Chairman.  You  said  you  had  them  with  you  a  while  ago,  but 
I  am  not  going  to  insist  that  you  produce  the  income  tax  returns  if 
you  invoke  the  fifth  amendment  in  that  respect.  It  might  ease  a  lot 
of  pain  later  on,  because  we  will  question  you  about  the  finances. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny, 
that  the  cover  name  used  while  you  were  the  National  Kleagle  and 
Grand  Dragon  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  was  the 
Louisiana  Rifle  Association. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  heretofore 
stated,  on  the  first,  fourth,  and  fifth  amendments. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  ask  the  question  in  a  different  way.  Is  it 
not  a  fact  that  you  used  the  Louisiana  Rifle  Association  as  a  coverup 
and  as  a  phony  front  organization  for  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  organization  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  very  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the 
grounds  heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  you  said  that  you  have  with  you  retained 
copies  from  your  Income  Tax  Returns,  Form  1040.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a 
fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  from  your  retained  copies 
of  your  income  tax  returns  that  for  the  year  1962  you  reported  com- 
missions from  the  Louisiana  Rifle  Association  in  the  amount  of  $4,473 ; 
in  the  year  1963,  $10,690 ;  and  that  in  1964  up  until  the  time  you  were 
removed,  $1,781.66.  I  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact  that  these 
are  the  figures  that  you  reported  on  your  tax  returns. 


2356  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  SwENsoN.  May  I  confer  with  my  counsel  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated,  based  on  the  fifth  amendment  to  the  Constitution 
of  the  United  States. 

(Income  tax  returns  marked  "Jolin  Swenson  Exhibit  No.  2"  and 
retained  in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Then  the  charges  made  against  you  that  you  were  en- 
riching yourself  were  in  fact  trutlif ul.    Is  that  so  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  heretofore 
stated. 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Willis  left  the  hearing  room.) 

Mr.  Pool  (presiding).  Mr.  Appell,  this  is  in  addition  to  other  in- 
come he  reported  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Swenson,  what  part  of  the  income  from  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  maintained  a  national  account  and  a 
local  account  under  the  name  of  the  Louisiana  Rifle  Association,  did 
Royal  V.  Young  receive  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  heretofore 
stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  think  the  record  should  reflect  that 
in  the  interrogation  of  Mr.  Royal  V.  Young  on  July  28,  1965,  Mr. 
Young  also  invoked  constitutional  privileges  with  respect  to  the 
finances  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  of  which 
he  was  the  Imperial  Dragon,  as  to  whether  or  not  he  shared  in  the 
profits  made  by  Mr.  Swenson  on  the  exclusive  sale  of  robes  which 
Mr.  Swenson  had  received  as  a  commission  from  Roy  E.  Davis. 

Mr.  Pool,  If  there  is  no  objection,  the  record  will  so  show  and  it  is 
so  ordered. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  so  the  record  might  establish  that  the 
Louisiana  Rifle  Association  was,  in  fact,  the  cover  name  of  the 
Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact, 
and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  one  of  the  Klaverns  under 
your  jurisdiction  was  the  Monroe  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club  in 
Monroe,  Louisiana. 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Willis  returned  to  the  hearing  room.) 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  two  envelopes,  one  containing  canceled 
checks  drawn  against  the  account  of  the  Monroe  Hunting  and  Fishing 
Club,  payable  to  the  Louisiana  Rifle  Association,  endorsed  by  the 
Louisiana  Rifle  Association,  and  another  envelope  containing  checks 
against  the  account  of  the  Monroe  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club,  payable 
to  cash,  and  endorsed  by  J.  D.  Swenson.  I  ask  you,  after  you  examine 
tlie  contents  of  these  envelopes — will  you  also  examine  the  other 
envelope,  Mr.  Swenson,  and  the  checks  endorsed  by  J.  D.  Swenson? 

Mr.  Swenson,  do  the  checks  made  payable  to  the  Louisiana  Riflle 
xVssociation  by  the  Monroe  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club  represent  per 
capita  dues  to  the  state  and  national  office,  together  with  a  portion  of 
the  membership  fees  due  to  the  office  on  the  initiation  of  a  new 
member  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 


2357 


Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Eegarding-  the  checks  endorsed  by  J.  D.  Swenson,  do 
these  checks  represent  payments  for  robes  that  you  had  the  exclusive 
concession  for  ? 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  heretofore 
stated. 

(Checks  marked  "John  Swenson  Exhibits  Nos.  3  and  4,"  respec- 
tively. One  check  from  each  exhibit  follows;  balance  retained  in  com- 
mittee files.) 

John  Swenson  Exhibit  No.  3 


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2358 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 


John  Swenson  Exhibit  No.  4 


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The  Chairman.  The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  until  2  o'clock. 

(Subcommittee  members  present  at  time  of  recess:  Representatives 
Willis,  Pool,  Weltner,  and  Buchanan.) 

(Wliereupon,  at  12 :15  p.m.,  Tuesday,  January  4,  1966,  the  subcom- 
mittee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  2  p.m.  the  same  day.) 

AFTERNOON  SESSION— TUESDAY,  JANUARY  4,  1966 

(The  subcommittee  reconvened  at  2  p.m.,  Hon.  Edwin  E.  Willis, 
chairman,  presiding.) 

(Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Willis,  Pool, 
Weltner,  and  Buchanan.) 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    XJ.S.  2359 

The  Chairman.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 
Mr.  Appell,  I  suppose  you  want  to  recall  Mr.  Swenson. 
Mr.  Appell.  Will  Mr.  Swenson  take  the  stand,  please? 
The  Chairman.  Mr.  Swenson,  you  have  already  been  sworn.    Have 
a  seat,  please. 

TESTIMONY  OF  JOHN  DEASON  SWENSON— Resumed 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  as  the  National  Kleagle,  or  national  or- 
ganizer of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  I  put  it  to  you 
as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  organized 
members  into  the  Klan  in  the  State  of  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  answer — respectfully  refuse  to  an- 
swer on  the  grounds  heretofore  stated,  based  on  the  fourth  and  fifth 
amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  in  Mississippi  you  created  a  realm  of  the  Original 
Knights  and  that  you  recommended  to  Royal  V.  Young  for  appoint- 
ment to  the  position  of  Grand  Dragon  for  the  State  of  Mississippi 
Douglas  A.  Byrd. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  prior  to  your  removal  from  office  in  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  in  December  of  1963  you  banished  from  the 
Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  Douglas  A.  Byrd  and  Ed- 
ward L.  McDaniel. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  the  Klansmen  that  you  recruited  in  Mississippi  broke 
with  your  organizations  and  that  they  became  the  cadre  of  an  organ- 
ization now  operating  in  Mississippi  known  as  the  White  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  that  E.  L.  McDaniel,  whom  you  banished 
from  your  organization  in  December  1963,  is  now  the  Grand  Dragon 
for  Mississippi  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan,  Inc.  ? 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  possess  any  knowledge  of  violence,  bombings, 
or  cross-burnings  by  members  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan  during  the  period  of  time  that  you  were  the  Grand  Dragon? 

Mr.  Swenson.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  February  of  1962  there  was  a  bombing  at  the  home 
of  the  Negro  leader  in  Shreveport,  Louisiana,  C.  O.  Simpkins.  Was 
that  act  carried  out  by  members  of  the  Klan,  to  your  knowledge? 

Mr.  Swenson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 


59-222  O— 67— pt.  3- 


2360  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  April  1962  there  was  a  bombing  at  the  Negro 
Masonic  Lodge  in  Shreveport,  Louisiana.  Do  yon  possess  any  knowl- 
edge that  this  bombing  was  carried  out  by  members  of  your  Klan 
organization  ? 

Mr.  SwENSOx.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  May  of  1962  there  was  a  bombing  at  the  Simpkins' 
liome  in  Shreveport,  Ix)uisiana.  I  ask  you  if  you  possess  any  knowl- 
edge tliat  members  of  your  Klan  organizations  engaged  in  that  act? 

Mr.  SwENSox.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  September  1962  there  was  an  additional  bombing 
in  Shreveport,  Louisiana,  the  home  of  a  wliite  integrationist.  Do 
you  possess  any  knowledge  that  members  of  your  Klan  were  involved 
in  that  action? 

Mr.  SwEXSox.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  May  of  1963  there  was  A'iolence  on  the  campus  of 
the  Louisiana  State  University  at  Baton  Rouge.  "Were  members  of 
your  Klan  involved  in  that  violence  ? 

Mr.  SwExsox.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  answer,  respectfully  refuse  to  an- 
swer on  the  grounds  heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Swenson,  Mr.  Young  was  asked  in  his  testimony  on 
July  28,  1965,  page  294,  questions  concerning  the  takeover  of  the 
Original  Knights,  the  leadership  of  Mr.  Young  and  yourself.  The 
questioning  went  like  this — related  to  the  robe  concession.  Mr.  Young 
says  that  he  was  told  not  to  dig  into  the  fact  that  you  had  the  robe 
concession,  and  the  questioning  went  on  by  Mr.  Hitz : 

And  was  that  the  sole  accusation  of  mishandling  of  funds  that  was  again 
made  against  you,  Mr.  Young? 

Mr.  Young.  That  was  the  question  brought  up  to  me.  That  I  should  do  some- 
thing about  it. 

Mr.  Hitz.  AVell,  was  it  not  quite  easy  to  represent  to  anyone  who  accused 
you  of  that,  that  it  was  the  act  of  the  Imperial  Wizard  and  that  your  direction 
from  the  Imperial  Wizard,  who  gave  you  your  job  as  Imperial  Dragon,  was  to 
keep  out  of  it? 

^Ir.  YoiXG.  At  that  time,  it  made  no  difference.  There  was  a  power  purge 
on ;  and  if  I  had  to  have  told  them  that  anybody  had  told  me  to  stay  out  of  it. 
it  would  still  have  been  the  same  thing  over  and  over  again.  When  men  set 
their  mind  to  take  over  something,  the  fir-st  thing  they  go  through  is  your 
pocketbook. 

The  Chaikmax.  Is  Avhat? 

Mr,  Appell.  Your  pocketbook. 

Is  this  the  desire,  to  get  the  other  individuals  to  get  their  hands 
on  the  profit  that  you  and  Mr.  Young  were  making  that  caused  the 
split  in  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  in  March  of  1964? 

Mr.  Swexsox.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

The  Chaiumax.  Mr.  Swenson,  we  have  quoted  quite  extensively 
from  the  testimony  of  Mr.  Young  under  oath,  and  that  testimony, 
I  think  it  is  fair  to  say,  was  not  exactly  complimentary  to  you.  His 
testimony  was  under  oath.     It  was  part  of  our  investigation. 

Now,  would  you  care  to  say  what  you  think  of  Mr.  Young? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2361 

Mr.  SwENSON.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  this  question, 
sir,  on  the  grounds  heretofore  stated. 

The  Chairman.  I  just  wanted  to  give  you  that  opportunity  which 
would  be  a  doublecheck  on  the  credibility  of  liis  sworn  testimony. 

Mr.  ArPELL.  ]Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  of 
this  witness. 

I  would  like  to  ask  as  a  part  of  the  w^itness'  testimony  that  the 
subpena — that  the  records  obtained  of  the  account  in  the  name  of  the 
Louisiana  Rifle  Association  from  the  Louisiana  Bank  and  Trust 
Company,  Shreveport,  Louisiana,  and  from  the  Bossier  Bank  and 
Trust  Company,  Bossier  City,  Louisiana,  be  made  a  part  of  the  record 
of  Mr.  Swenson's  testimony. 

The  Chairman.  Those  documents  will  be  inserted  in  the  record 
at  the  point  where  ]\Ir.  Swenson  was  questioned  about  them,  so  in 
reading  the  whole  transcript  the  evidence  introduced  will  be  at  that 
point. 

(Bank  records  marked  "John  Swenson  Exhibit  No.  5"  and  retained 
in  cormnittee  nles. ) 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Swenson,  you  have  made  a  good  deal  of  the 
fact  that  you  have  burned  the  records  because  you  didn't  want  them 
to  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  which  you  said  w^as  commmiism, 
the  Communists.  Certainly  this  committee  is  concerned  about  Com- 
munist subversion,  and  continues  to  do  a  good  deal  of  work  in  that 
field.  However,  I  think  it  is  only  fair  to  point  out  that  whatever  your 
concern  might  have  been,  I  personally  very  much  doubt  that  the 
(Communists  would  have  any  reason  to  do  anything  to  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan  or  any  of  its  various  organizations,  because  I  can't  think  of  an 
outfit  that  has  more  consistently  served  the  purposes  of  the  Com- 
munists than  the  various  Klan  organizations,  however  unwittingly. 

It  seems  to  me  one  could  well  contend  that  the  Klan  organizations 
have  consistently  and  well  served  the  purposes  of  the  Communists  in 
feeding  propaganda  for  their  propaganda  mill,  and  there  would  be 
little  reason  for  them  to  try  to  do  away  wnth  your  organization,  sir, 
because  it  serves  them  too  well. 

Secondly,  I  would  like  to  point  out  that  not  being  a  Communist  does 
not  make  a  man  or  organization  a  sahit,  that  evil  has  many  faces  and 
the  evil  of  communism  is  just  one  of  those  faces. 

I  would  like  to  point  out  for  your  edification  that  Judas  Iscariot 
was  not  a  Communist,  nor  was  John  Dillinger,  nor  w'as  Jesse  James, 
nor  was  Adolf  Hitler,  and  the  fact  is  under  the  guise  of  anticommu- 
nism,  when  an  organization  under  this  guise  commits  acts  of  violence 
or  terrorism,  it  is  without  excuse  for  its  extra-legal  activities  and  being 
non-Communist  or  against  communism  is  hardly  justification  for  any 
act  that  is  illegal  or  that  is  wa*ong. 

Consequently,  I  would  say  in  light  of  these  things,  of  the  service 
that  the  Klan  organizations  have  rendered  to  worlcl  communism,  in 
light  of  the  nature  of  the  organization  of  which  it  is  said  you  are  the 
father,  I  wonder  if  you  aren't  very  much  ashamed  that  it  is  the  case 
that  you  are  at  least  known  to  be  the  father  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  in 
Louisiana,     Aren't  you  ashamed  of  that,  sir  ? 

I  will  withdraw  the  question.     No  further  questions. 

The  Chairman.  Call  your  next  w^itness. 


2362  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr,  SwENSON.  Thank  you,  gentlemen. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Murry  H.  Martin. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will 
be  the  truth,  the  Avhole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you 
God? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  do, 

TESTIMONY  OF  MURRY  H.  MARTIN,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 

JAMES  R.  VENABLE 

Mr.  Appfi.l.  Mr.  Martin,  will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the 
record  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  Murry  H.  Martin. 

Mr.  Appei-i..  When  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  June  1, 1924,  in  Tioga,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appkli-.  Where  do  you  presently  reside  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  In  Winnsboro,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Venable.  James  R.  Venable,  Atlanta,  Georgia. 

Mr.  Appfll.  Mr.  Martin,  you  are  appearing  here  this  morning  in 
accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  27th  day  of  October 
at  2303  Rowland  Street,  Winnsboro,  Louisiana,  and  subsequently  the 
appearance  was  postponed  by  telegram  ? 

Mr.  Martin  .  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  demands  for 
you  to  bring  with  you  and  produce  before  the  said  committee  docu- 
ments set  forth  in  an  attachment,  paragraph  1  of  which  reads : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  National  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Kln\  Klan,  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  affiliatetl  or- 
ganizations, namely,  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders,  in  your  iwssession, 
custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  Grand  Dragon 
and/or  member  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  and/or 
National  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

I  request  you  to  produce  the  documents  as  called  for  in  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Martin.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  these 
books,  documents,  and  records  on  the  constitutional  grounds  of  the 
fourth  and  fifth  amendment,  the  Constitution  "uaranteeinir  the  free- 
dom  of  unreasonable  search  and  seizure. 

The  Chahofan.  And  self-incrimination? 

Mr.  Martin.  And  self-incrimination. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  asked  to  produce  the  records 
asked  for  in  tlie  subpena. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Martin,  were  you  in  the  hearing  room  when 
Mr.  Swenson  testified? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  was ;  yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  I  ask  that  because  I  think,  though  I  assume  you 
are  not  a  lawyer,  you  understood  that,  from  our  point  of  view,  any- 
way, there  is  a  distinction  between  ordering  an  individual  to  produce 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  2363 

pereonal  records  such  as  an  income  tax  return,  and  a  subpena  served 
upon  liim  in  a  corporate  or  representative  capacity  which  he  holds,  not 
for  himself,  but  for  an  organization.  You  understood  my  explanation 
of  that? 

Mr.  IVIartin.  I  did ;  yes. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  for  that  reason  we  do  not  accept  as  valid 
reasons  for  refusing  to  produce  these  documents  your  reliance  on  these 
constitutional  amendments,  and  I  therefore  order  and  direct  you  to 
produce  them. 

Let  me  add  this :  I  do  so  because  the  court  decisions  require  me  to 
do  it.  It  is  a  cautionary  note  to  a  witness  w^hen  the  chairman  of  this 
committee,  despite  the  invocation  of  constitutional  grounds,  never- 
theless orders  a  witness  to  produce  documents.  It  means  we  do  not 
accept  your  position  as  a  matter  of  law  and  it  means  that  it  could  re- 
sult, for  further  consideration,  in  a  contempt  citation. 

I  am  saying  that  because  I  want  you  to  understand  it  and  because 
the  court  decisions  require  me  to  do  that;  therefore,  for  the  reasons 
that  I  have  stated,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  the  documents. 

Mr.  Martin.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  still  must  decline  to  answer. 

In  support  of  this,  I  would  like  to  say  that  the  Supreme  Court  in 
1961  knocked  down  a  Louisiana  statute  that  required  all  fraternal 
or 

The  Chairman.  Say  that  again. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  am  not  a  law^yer. 

The  Chairman.  I  just  want  to  caution  you  that  perhaps,  since  you 
are  not  a  law^yer,  I  am  not  sure  you  are  capable  of  carrying  on  this 
discussion.     Talk  to  your  lawyer  and  go  on  if  you  want  to. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  must  still  decline  to  answer  on  the  grounds  that  it 
may  incriminate  me  under  the  first,  fourth,  and  fifth  amendment  to 
the  Constitution. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  paragraph  2  of  the  attachment  com- 
manded you  to  bring  with  you,  and  to  produce : 

ah  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  member  or  oflScer  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  and/or  Chris- 
tian Constitutional  Crusaders  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  or- 
ganization authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer 
of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  requested  in  paragraph  2. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  these  documents  in 
question  on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Martin,  for  the  reasons  previously  pointed  out 
and  explained  in  detail,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  the 
documents. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  were  directed,  Mr.  Martin. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  must  decline. 

The  Chairman.  On  the  ground  previously  stated  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  Right,  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  you  inform  him  he  is  subject  to  possible  citation  for 
contempt  ? 

The  Chairman.  Yes.    That  is  the  reason  for  ordering  him. 


2364  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  paraofraph  3  of  the  subpena  calls  upon 
you  to  produce : 

Copies  of  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service,  Form  1040, 
"U.S.  Individual  Income  Tax  Return,"  for  the  calendar  years  1958  through  1964, 
filed  by  you  as  an  individual  taxpayer  with  the  U.S.  Treasury  Department, 
Internal  Revenue  Service. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  tax  returns. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  must  decline  to  produce  these  records  on  the  con- 
stitutional grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  I  hand  you  a  blank  form  of  application 
for  citizenship  in  the  Invisible  Empire  of  the  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan. 
I  ask  if  you  have  executed  an  application  identical  to  or  similar  to  that. 

Mr.  Martix.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Murrv  Martin  Exhibit  No.  1"  and  retained  in 
committee  files.) 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  a  copy  of  a  series  of  oaths  and  ask  you  if 
you  subscribe  to  those  series  of  oaths  in  any  organization  that  you 
might  liave  belonged  to  ? 

Mr.  Martin,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  '"John  Swenson  Exhibit  Xo.  1.'*) 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  the  reproduction  of  a  document,  the  "Kon- 
stitution  of  the  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan,  Realm  of  Louisiana."  I  ask 
you  if  this  constitution  was  adopted  by  the  Original  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  organization  which  you  at  one  time  headed. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Murry  5lartin  Exhibit  No.  2."  See  commit- 
tee report.  The  Present-Day  Ku  Klux  Klan  Movemenf.  pp.  297-319.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  were  you  acquainted  with  Mr.  Royal  V. 
Young,  the  Imperial  Dragon  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  hold  an  office  under  Mr.  Young  in  that  organ- 
ization? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Young  testified  that  after  he  was  appointed  to 
the  position  of  Imperial  Dragon  that  Murry  H.  Martin  was  appointed 
to  the  office  of  Grand  Giant.    Is  that  testimony  truthful  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  know  that  the  cover  name  for  the  Original 
Knights  during  that  period  of  time  was  the  Louisiana  Rifle  Associa- 
tion? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  2365 

The  Chairman.  I  prefer  to  put  it  this  way :  Is  it  not  within  your 
knowledge  that  that  Khm  organization,  as  part  of  its  efforts  to  remain 
completely  in  the  background  and  secret,  used  the  cover  name  or  front 
name  of  tlie  Louisiana  Kitle  Association  '^ 

In  other  words,  we  have  hoard,  wc  have  read  literature,  literature  of 
all  other  organizations  of  the  type  you  headed,  about  their  use  of  front 
organizations  and  all  the  rest  of  it.  ' 

I  am  trying  to  say  JNIr.  Appell  has  represented  to  you  as  a  cold  fact 
that  you  were  a  party  to  using  a  front  organization.  Is  that  true 
or  not  ? 

Mr.  Martix.  I  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  an  envelope  which  contains  five  checks 
totaling  $531.26  made  payable  to  "Murray"  H.  [Murry  H.  or  M.  H.] 
Martin,  drawn  against  the  account  of  the  Louisiana  Rifle  Association, 
Louisiana  Bank  and  Trust  Company,  Shreveport,  Louisiana,  and  ask 
3'OU  whether  you  affirm  or  deny  the  fact  that  you  are  the  payee  desig- 
nated on  those  checks. 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  j^reviously  stated. 

( Checks  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  3."  One  of  said  checks 
follows;  balance  retained  in  committee  files.) 

Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  3 


'-*T  "HHKVKIN.tfT.fe*.       April         29      IB    63  Q„gjj 

'•mi  i)..      ^*:  '    ■  "'f 

April     —  ^  */^iaiMU!,M>r\.K  AMOOMTMM. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  it  as  a  fact,  that  after  Mr.  Young  and  Mr.  Swenson 
were  removed  from  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  that  a 
deal  was  worked  out  among  those  responsible  for  removing  them  from 
office  whereby  you  would  take  over  the  position  of  Grand  Dragon  of 
the  organization.    I  ask  you  to  affirm  it  or  deny  it. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  took  office  without  being  elected  and  that  you  were 
supposed  to  hold  this  office  for  some  6  months,  at  which  time  there 
was  to  be  an  election  and  someone  else  other  than  yourself  was  sup- 


2366  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

posed  to  succeed  to  the  office  of  Grand  Dragon.  I  ask  yon  to  affirm 
or  deny  it. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  the  person  avIio  under  the  agreement  was  supposed  to 
take  over  was  Houston  P.  Morris,  who  was  the  grand  kleagle  of  your 
organization.     I  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  it. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  when  you  had  made  your  position  within  the  organiza- 
tion solid  enough  so  that  at  the  election  you  won  and  Mr.  Morris  did 
not  win,  that  he  broke  with  the  organization  and  created  a  new  Klan 
group  in  Louisiana  known  as  the  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America, 
Inc. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitutional  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  he  took  from  your  organization  certain  Klaverns  within 
it. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  he  later  took  this  group  of  people  into  the  United  Klans 
of  America,  Realm  of  Louisiana. 

The  Chairman.  Of  which  Mr.  Shelton  is  head  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Of  which  Mr.  Shelton  is  the  Imperial  Wizard. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  when  you  took  over  leadership  of  the  Original  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  that  you  adopted  as  a  cover  name  for  that  organiza- 
tion the  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  And  this  is  being  stated  to  you  as  a  fact  again,  that 
you  use  that  fancy  Christian  name  as  a  purely  phony  front  organiza- 
tion, just  as  false  as  a  2-foot  yardstick.     Is  that  true? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  a  signature  card  filed  in  the  account  of  the 
name  of  the  Cliristian  Constitutional  Crusaders  opened  in  the  Ouachita 
National  Bank  in  Monroe,  Louisiana.  In  examining  this  card  I  ask 
you — put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that 
the  card  reflects  that  the  president  of  the  Christian  Constitutional 
Crusaders  is  M.  H.  Martin ;  that  the  secretary  is  L.  G.  Wilder;  and  that 
the  treasurer  is  Henry  I.  Bayles. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  2367 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  o;rounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  4"  follows:) 

MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  4 

r  ..... 

LiI:^j^.^l^-C:fc^x1^stlan^i2ans  tj.tirtl  ', „_; 


f' r;  K 'J  iD  £?!">. 


v(r;r-;.pr;sr;:riE>4^-  • 

'^^ sire-? ETA ftJr^   ■ 
vy<R?.A.«Ur-eri5 


,'.  ■    "         .y 


i!:fj^__iff:>^..^      fi.:..:,.:! 


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tS5  oTriv:n  tics: 


7?c.^^.''.iit-wai,»<'.i:V'.'.>.  --'.^     k'  .  ..■■.^„-54». 


Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  during  the  appearance  of  Mr.  Swenson  we 
discussed  with  him  the  Monroe  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club,  Avhich 
made  checks  payable  to  the  Louisiana  Rifle  Association. 

According  to  the  bank  account  of  the  Monroe  Hunting  and  Fishing 
Club  maintained  at  the  Central  Savings  Bank  &  Trust  Co.  of 
Monroe,  Louisiana,  from  January  21, 1964,  to  June  3, 1964,  they  issued 
five  checks  which  were  endorsed  by  the  Christian  Constitutional  Cru- 
saders. I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the 
fact,  that  these  checks  covered  dues,  the  realm's  share  of  the  new  mem- 
bers' klectokon  or  membership  fees.  I  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the 
fact,  sir. 

Mr.  Martin.  Repeat  the  question,  please.  I  don't  quite  understand 
all  you  said  there. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  bank  records  of  the  Monroe  Hunting  and  Fishing 
Club  reflect  that  from  January  21,  1964,  to  June  3,  1964,  there  were 
five  checks  payable  to  cash  and  endorsed  by  the  Christian  Constitu- 
tional Crusaders.  I  ask  you  if  it  is  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or 
deny  the  fact,  that  these  cliecks  represented  dues  and  klectokon  or  mem- 
bership fees  owed  to  the  grand  office  on  the  part  of  this  Klavern. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Checks  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  5"  not  reproducible; 
retained  in  committee  files. ) 


2368  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Ill  May  of  1963  this  account  in  the  Central  Savings 
Bank  &  Trust  Co.  was  opened.  According  to  the  signature  card  of 
this  account,  Houston  P.  Morris  was  the  president,  or  exalted  cyclops. 
Did  you  know  this  to  be  a  fact,  sir  ? 

Mr,  Martin.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Bruce  Bairnsfather  was  the  secretary,  or  kligrapp. 
Did  you  know  this  to  be  a  fact  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  this  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  J.  R.  Douglas  was  the  klabee,  or  treasurer.  Did  you 
know  this  to  be  a  fact  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  6."     See  p.  2369.) 

Mr.  Appell.  This  signature  card  was  changed  on  August  21,  1963, 
with  Robert  Fuller  as  the  exalted  cyclops.  Did  you  know  that  Robert 
Fuller  was  the  exalted  cyclops  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  questions  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  know  that  Russell  A.  Price  was  the  secretary  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  know  that  the  Reverend  Louis  Warren  was  the 
treasurer  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  7.*'     See  p.  2370.) 

Mr.  Appell.  On  January  21,  1964,  the  signature  card  was  again 
changed  to  this  account  with  the  exalted  cyclops  being  James  C.  Oliver, 
who  was  employed  by  Louisiana  State  Highway  Department.  Did 
you  know  him  to  be  the  exalted  cyclops? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  That  F.  T.  Odom  according  to  the  bank  records  was  the 
vice  president.     Did  you  know  him  to  be  the  vice  president? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer. 

Mr.  Appell,  That  Russell  A.  Price  was  the  secretary.  Did  you 
know  him  to  be  the  secretary  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  8."-  See  p.  2371. 
Exhibits  Nos.  6,  7,  and  8  follow:) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  2369 


MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  6 
CENTRAL  SAVINGS  BANK  &  TRUST  CO. 

MONROE.   LOUISIANA 

Authority  of  Lodge,  Association  or  Other  Similar  Organization 

To  CENTRAL  SAVINGS  BANK  &  TRUST  CO. 

At  a  regular  meeting  of  th,.      /^ &-ViyiO-€      /JxA.^Ui^     d^M     ^ y^-^oA'-x^ej    cJiLp- 


of   the- 


held  on  the ^J "^^V  of jttjAiA^ 19w_^,  at  which  a  quorum 

was  present,  the  following  officers  were  cJuly  elected  for   the   ensuing    year   and    until    their    successors    shall    be 


elected  and  shall  have  qualified: 

Name  Title 


'hvtrvtA.i^^     /(A^.^*C^^    <n^u^    1-.J'^JL:^cl     ^K^ 


Under  the  rules  of  the_ 

osiled  to  its  credit  with  the  Central   Savings  Bank"S  Trust  Co.  may  be  withdrawn  by  the_ 


ntral   Savings  Bank  &  Trust  ' 


qyiA^    'TA^'iC^'A'cAjey^^  ^         /d^^^Vi.zjL     QaaJj-    <^^.c«M.-^iL.!<lC<^X^ 


(U»e   blank    ipaces   for    ti?lei   of    ngn.ng    officers   ar^d    Jt»le    whelher   ch?eki    w.ll    b^ar    one    sigriafor*    or    will    be    ligned    ancf    tounlefi-qned) 

who authorized  to  endorse  and  sign  Checks,  Drafts  and  Orders  for  the  payment  of  money. 

The  authority  herein  given  is  to  remain  irrevocable  so  far  as  the  above  bank   is  concerned  until   it  be  notifed 
in  writing  of  the  revocation  of  such  authority  and  shall   in  writing  acknowledge  receipt  thereof 


n 


Approved:  W^^"^ 


,^4^^/2^^*^_ 


TRUE  COPY 
Cenlfal  Savings  Bank  &  Tturt  C9« 

MONROE.  lOBtSlMl*        i. 


2370 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLTJX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 


MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  7 
CENTRAL  SAVINGS  BANK  &  TRUST  CO. 

MONROE.   LOUISIANA 

Authority  of  Lodge,  Association  or  Other  Similar  Organization 


To  CENTRAL  SAVINGS  BANK  &  TRUST  CO. 


n.,.        August   21 


MEMBERS 


At  a  regular  meeting  of  the 

gf  ,h» Monroe  Hunting  &  Fishing  Club 


.19- 


63 


held  on  the. 


_day  of_ 


.19. 


at  which  a  quorum 


wai  present,  the  following  officers  were  duly  elected  for   the  ensuing  year   and   until   their   successors   shall    be 
elected  and  shall  have  qualified: 

Name  Title  Specimen  Signature 

President ;//  ^i-Ax* 


Robert 

Full 

er 

Warren 

Russe 

11 

A. 

Price 

Treasurer 


Secretary 


Under  the  rules  of  lhe_ 


Any  funds  deposited  to  its  credit  with  the  Central  Savings  Bank  &  Trust  Co    may  be  withdrawn  by  the_ 
____^ Any   two   (2) 


(Use  blank  ipaect  for  tiHei  of  signing  officeri  and  sfate  whether  chscki  wll   bear   one   signaiurc  or   will   be   signed   and  countersigned) 

who ?£f — authorized  to  endorse  and  sign  Checks,  Drafts  and  Orders  for  the  payment  of  money 

The  authority  herein  given  is  to  remain  irrevocable  so  far  as  the  above  bank  is  concerned  until  it  be  notifed 
in  writing  of  the  revocation  of  such  authority  and  shall  in  writing  acknowledge  receipt  thereof 


r  ' 


n 


iiUjiil  U   r}l^i 


/- 


L 

Approved: 


J 


TRUE  C0P7 

Cmtral  Savines  Bank  S  Trust  Co^ 


MONROE.    lOUISlAMA 


V)  -  -- 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLTJX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2371 


MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  8 
CENTRAL  SAVINGS  BANK  &  TRUST  CO. 

MONROE,  LOUISIANA 
Authority  of  Lodge,  Association  or  Other  Similar  Organization 

To  CENTRAL  SAVINGS  BANK  &  TRUST  CO. 


n...  January    21,       , ,_64^ 


At  «  regular  meeting  of  the Membership 


of  the Monroe  Hunting  &  Fishing  Club 


held  on  the dey  of 19 ,  at  which  a  quorum 

wat  present,  the  following  officers  were  duly  elected  for  the  ensuing   year   and   until   their   successors   shall    be 
elected  and  ihall  have  qualified: 


Name 


Title  /I    Specimen  Signature 

James  C.  Oliver President        yr^<-  '----.r  'J-    (-    C     .t.. 

F.  T.  Odom Vice  President  /,/     / ,     (^yf  yf  ^  'j  p  l  ^. 

p    //rK 


Russell  A.   Price  Secretary  Kh)KL(  f./     ^'lU'L 


Under  the  rules  of  the By-laws 


Any  funds  deposited  to  its  credit  with  the  Central  Savings  Bank  &  Trust  Co.  may  be  withdrawn  by  the_ 
President    and   Vice   President   and   Secretary    (Any   Two    (2)    ) 


(Um  bUnk  ipactl  for  tillvl  of  ligning  officeri  and  Hale   whether  checki    will    bear    one    lignalure   or    will    be    ligned    and  counlertigned) 

who authorized  to  endorse  and  sign  Checks,  Drafts  and  Orders  for  the  payment  of  money 

The  authority  herein  given  is  to  remain  irrevocable  so  far  as  the  above  bank  is  concerned  until  it  be  notifed 
In  writing  of  the  revocation  of  such  authority  and  shall  in  writing  acknowledge  receipt  thereof 


r  n  .  KH-rn^  u  rn<-(i^ 


.  UL)yi//  U  /vH-a 


..Af^ 


<f-fx.-£ '-y— 


jT^^M^ 


True  copv 

BWiffBl  Savines  Bank  &  Trusf  Co. 

L                                                             J                                                                                   ,i«0««OE.    lO»ISIAII/>  / 

Approved:  f  '  ^)    -     c_ 


2372  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  as  the  Grand  Dragon  of  this  organization, 
can  you  tell  me  why  Klaverns  in  Louisiana  select  as  cover  names  for 
the  Klavern  rather  than  the  unit  designation  given  to  it  by  the  Klan 
organization  the  names  of  hunting  and  fishing  clubs  or  sportsmen's 
clubs? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  according  to  the  deposit  slips  contained  in 
the  bank  records  of  the  account  to  which  we  have  just  referred,  and 
also  in  the  Winnsboro  State  Bank  and  Trust  Company  in  Winnsboro, 
Louisiana,  in  the  name  of  the  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders,  I 
put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  the 
following  Klaverns  were  ^vithin  your  jurisdiction:  The  Ouachita 
Parish  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club;  the  Sterlington  Hunting  and  Fish- 
ing Club;  the  Concordia  Sportsman  Club;  the  Clinton  Hunting  and 
Fishing  Club;  the  Deere  Creek  Sportsman's  Club;  Jena  Hunting  and 
Fishing  Club;  Northeast  Gun  Club;  Tensas  Sportsman  Club;  Black 
Eiver  Lake  Sporting  Club;  Arcadia  Sportsman  Club;  West  Carroll 
Rifleman  Club;  Watson  Hunting  Club;  Delta  Sportsman  Club;  Baker 
Plunting  and  Fishing  Club;  Delhi  Sportsman  Club;  Okaloosa  Hunt- 
ing and  Fishing  Club;  Many  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club;  Catahoola 
Sportsman  Club;  Deville  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club;  Folsom  Sports- 
man's Club ;  Turkey  Creek  Rod  and  Gun  Club ;  Hineston  Hunting  and 
Fishing  Club ;  Madison  Parish  Rifle  Club ;  Boeuf  River  Hunting 
Club;  Vamado  Sportsmans  Club;  Vidalia  Sportsman's  Club;  New 
River  Rifle  Club;  Homer  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club;  Roseland  Hunt- 
ing Club;  Pride  Sportsman  League,  in  East  Baton  Rouge;  Swartz 
Hunting  and  Fishiiig  Club ;  The  Choudrant  Rod  and  Gun  Club ;  Val- 
ley Hunting  Club;  Covington  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club;  Pine  Grove 
Hunting  and  Fishing  Club;  Big  River  Sportsman's  Club. 

I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  deny  or  affirm  the  fact,  that 
these  were  organizations  within  your  organization. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  during  the  time  that  you  wei-e  Grand 
Dragon  of  the  Original  Knights  in  1964,  did  Russell  Magee  hold  a 
position  within  your  organization  as  related  to  the  Sixth  Congres- 
sional District  of  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  show  you  two  checks,  one  dated  6/29  and  the  other 
7/13  [1964]  drawn  against  the  account  of  the  Christian  Constitutional 
Crusaders,  check  of  6/29  in  the  amount  of  $o77.01  and  the  clieck  of 
7/13  in  the  amount  of  $40()^check  in  the  amount  of  $400  the  ])urpose 
for  which  drawn  being  the  "Sixth  District  Fund."  Will  you  examine 
these  checks  and  advise  the  committee  for  what  purpose  those  checks 
were  drawn  ? 

These  are  both  made  payable  to  Russell  Magee. 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question 
on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Checks  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  9"  follow  on  p.  2373.) 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Pool  left  tlie  hearing  room.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  I  liand  you  an  envelope  witli  checks  dated, 
the  first  one,  Februai-y  13,  1964,  and  the  last  one  Se])teml)er  12,  1964, 
all  but  one  payable  to  Muri*y  H.  Martin,  the  total  of  these  checks 
amounting  to  $3,558.09,  and  I  want  to  ask  you  after  you  examine  these 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2373 

MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  9 


Tlie  OVACHJTA  Nationm.  BANpt 

c 


Ihraa  hundrcd'^VTcnty-ac 


!»_-.,    m*  t»0»u*  tm  uWUmMir 


X 


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TiiE OiAciiiTA  Natwnal  Bank 


_^'.:r  hiriHred  k  WC/lOC 
10  nwarr«u*jMrwark«MW< 


t  — 


Cilll-OOiM 


checks  with  regard  to  the  purpose  for  which  these  checks  were  made 
payable  to  you. 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Checks  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  10.") 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  report  that  income  on  your  Federal  income 
tax  returns? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  show  you  an  envelope  containing  checks  payable  to 
Houston  P.  Morris  totaling  $628.46.  After  examining  them  I  ask  you 
the  purpose  for  which  those  checks  were  drawn. 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question 
on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Checks  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  11."") 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  I  show  you  an  envelope  containing  checks, 
all  but  one  payable  to  Robert  Fuller.  These  checks  starting  with 
February  11,  1964,  total  $3,955.47.  I  ask  you  what  purpose  these 
checks  were  drawn  for. 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Willis  left  the  hearing  room — Mr.  Weltner 
presiding.) 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Checks  marked  "Murry  Martin  Plxhibit  No.  12."") 

Mr.  Appell.  I  show  you  an  envelope  containing  checks  all  payable 
to  L.  G.  Wilder  totaling  $3,060.58.  I  ask  you  the  purpose  for  which 
those  checks  were  drawn. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 


2374 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


(Checks  marked  "Murry^  Martin  Exhibit  No.  13."  One  check  from 
each  of  said  exhibits  Nos.  10-13  follows;  balance  retained  in  committee 
files.) 


i 


MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  10 

• ' — ^"^TTrrrr- 

Tai  OUACBTTA  FlATIQ«JMtiL  j 


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MuRRY  M.\RTiN  Exhibit  No.  1 1 


TiiE  Oi'ACHiTA  National  Bank 

IN    MONROC 


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Tite       Houston  P.  Morrl 

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J      I    tfH¥ti>n  Coiiet.   Cru««<l«rt 

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MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  12 


i^aai. 


The  Oi!ACiiiTA  National  Bank 

IM   MOHMMI 

MOKMO*.  L*. 

Robert  Fuller 

•  Ml 

MO.  .62 

,3)6.50 

.....#«  AA 

Three   hundred   thlrty-«lx  t  50/100- 


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m 


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CIV  vn-oo  1  v<: 


Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  these  names  that  I  have  read  to  you,  I  put 
it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  they  were  the  leaders,  you  and  the  others  were 
the  leaders,  of  the  Original  Knights  following  the  leadership  of  Mr. 
Young  and  Mr.  Swenson,    I  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  that. 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Willis  returned  to  the  hearing  room.) 

Mr.  Martin.  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell,  Irrespective  of  what  the  constitutional  laws  of  the  or- 
ganization set  forth  as  their  purpose,  as  far  as  you  individuals  were 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2375 

MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  13 

The  OiAciiiTA  National  Bank  ,« 

IN   M4>NM>«  Nu.    ' 

.MuT?l..,    L.    ".    wilder         ^  ,   2'/3.53 


Two  Hundred   Ninty  TViTPe  ft  53/lCX)— *— — — r>f>txAM« 

I    Christian  Comat.   Crueacrers 


iU  i  i  l-OO  3  W 


concerned,  did  it  have  any  purpose  other  than  to  bring  money  into 
yourself  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constiutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  would  like  to  direct  a  question  or  two  to  Mr.  Ap- 
pell,  the  investigator. 

Mr.  Appell,  you  are  reminded  that  you  are  still  under  oath. 

As  chief  investigator,  and  after  having  made  an  examination  and 
analysis  of  the  several  packets  of  checks  which  you  just  referred  to,  I 
wonder  if  you  would  give  to  the  committee  your  conclusions  as  to  the 
nature,  character,  and  object  of  those  checks  insofar  as  those  con- 
clusions were  derived  from  your  examination. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Weltner,  an  examination  of  this  account  shows 
that  in  addition  to  the  checks  that  we  have  exhibited  to  the  witness 
that  very  few  people  benefited  from  the  funds  that  were  submitted  to 
the  grand  or  state  treasuiy,  and  it  appears  that  with  respect  to  some 
of  them  that  this  was  their  percentage  for  going  out  and  deceiving- 
people  into  believing  that  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan 
had  a  purpose  other  than  getting  members. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Are  these  for  robe  sales,  klectokons,  and  the  like  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  No,  sir.  The  items  that  you  describe  are  the  deposits 
to  the  account.  This  is  the  way  the  klectokons  and  initiation  fees  and 
dues'  and  other  assessments  were  disbursed  by  the  State  organization 
after  they  received  them  from  the  Klavern.  They  disbursed  them  to 
themselves. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  under  the  constitution  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  the  organizational  structure  calls  for, 
on  the  realm  level,  a  Grand  Dragon.  Under  him  there  is  a  Grand 
Titan,  who  is  the  assistant  to  the  Grand  Dragon.  I  ask  you  who  held 
that  office. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Referring  to  this  document,  Mr.  Martin,  I  see  that 
there  is  a  provision  for  several  committees:  education  committee, 

59-222  O— 67— pt.  3 4 


2376  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

membership  committee,  benevolence  committee,  building  committee, 
public  relations  committee,  and  klokan  committee.  Would  you  give 
the  committee  the  identities  of  tlie  chairmen  of  these  respective  com- 
mittees ? 

Mr.  Martix.  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  constitution  sets  forth  many  ways  in  which  the 
Klan  dedicates  itself,  but  then  it  sets  forth  under  a  title  ''The  AVay 
Of  TheKlavenr': 

The  following  should  be  given  to  each  new  member  immediately  after  the 
naturalization  ceremony. 

The  newly  made  member  be  conducted  to  the  Klocards'  station  by  the  Kladd. 
The  Klocard  will  then  instruct  the  new  members  as  follows : 

1.  Destroy  application 

»****♦« 

What  is  the  purpose  of  that,  Mr.  Martin  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question 
on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  it  not  a  fact  that  after  the  application  is  destroyed 
that  that  man  is  known  only  by  a  number  which  is  known  only  to  the 
secretary  of  the  Klavern  ? 

Mr.  Martix.  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  On  the  grand  or  state  level,  did  you  as  the  Grand 
Dragon  ever  receive  the  identity  of  a  member  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan 
no  matter  into  which  Klavern  he  was  naturalized  other  than  the 
Klavern  with  which  you  might  he  affiliated  yourself? 

Mr.  Martix.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Can  you  advise  the  committee  with  regard  to  the 
responsibilities  and  purposes  of  the  klokan  committee? 

Mr.  Martix.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  it  your  responsibility  to  concern  yourself  with 
the  appointment  by  the  klokan  office,  the  person  who  held  the  office 
of  klokan  in  the  Klavern,  as  to  an  organization  which  he  creates  under 
the  constitution  and  bylaws  known  as  the  wrecking  crew? 

Mr.  Martix.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  was  the  purpose  of  the  ''wrecking  crew*'? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  This  morning,  Mr.  Martin,  I  quoted  from  IVIr.  Sim- 
mons' testimony  about  "keep  the  secrets,  enjoy  life,  and  violate  them 
and  beware  of  death."  The  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan  Konstitution 
reads  as  follows : 

Any  Klansman  who  is  known  to  violate  our  rules,  especially  those  that  give 
information  to  any  aliens,  shall  be  expelled  immediately,  then  is  to  be  watched 
and  visited  by  the  Wrecking  Crew  if  necessary. 

Can  you  help  the  Congress  to  understand  this  function  that  is  ex- 
plained in  this  document  ? 

Mr.  Martix.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  tlie  question  on  tlie 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  this  not  for  the  purpose  of  intimidating  members 
of  the  Klan  if  they  ever  get  out  and  speak  against  it,  that  physical 
harm  will  come  to  them  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2377 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  This  document  also  says  with  respect  to  the  wrecking 
crew  that: 

Each  unit  will  set  up  at  least  one  team  of  six  men  to  be  used  for  wrecking 
trew.     These  men  should  be  appointed  by  the  Klokan  in  secrecy. 

Can  you  advise  the  committee  why  it  is  necessary  for  a  Klavern 
to  appoint  this  wrecking  crew  and  the  identity  of  the  wrecking  crew 
to  be  secret  from  all  members  of  the  Klavern  except  for  the  members 
who  serve  in  the  klokan  who  appoint  them  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  gromids  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  this  not  for  the  purpose  of  eliminating  exposure  in 
case  the  Klan  carries  out — the  wrecking  crew  carries  out  acts  of  vio- 
lence, that  people  will  not  know^  even  within  the  Klan  those  responsi- 
ble for  the  acts  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answ-er  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  If  the  Klan  organization  which  you  head  is  as  it  repre- 
sents itself  to  be,  can  you  explain  to  the  committee  this  language  con- 
tained in  the  constitution : 

All  Klaverns  will  have  at  least  five  armed  guards  with  flashlights  posted  dur- 
ing regular  meetings. 

(a)  No  one  will  be  allowed  to  carry  a  gun  inside  the  Klavern  during  regular 
meetings  except  the  Night  Hawk. 

(b)  No  one  will  carry  a  gun  inside  during  a  state  or  province  meeting  except 
those  appointed  by  the  Chief  KBI  or  Province  KBI. 

Can  you  explain  this  to  the  committee  in  light  of  what  the  Klan 
allegedly  stands  for  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  a  leader  of  the  Klan,  Mr.  Martin,  will  you  tell  this 
committee  of  the  Congress  what  your  organization  does  stand  for  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  ground  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Martin,  I  regret  you  take  that  position.  It 
would  be  helpful  to  this  committee  and  the  Congi'ess  to  know,  and  1 
sliould  say  that  dedicated  members  who  believe  and  talk  inside  about 
the  nobility  of  Klan  organizations  as  represented  by  you  and  other 
leaders  in  literature,  would  feel  better  if  someone  of  your  stature  repre- 
senting the  Klan  would  simply  come  up  before  this  committee  and 
just  tell  us  what  their  objectives  are.  What  does  it  stand  for?  What 
are  the  programs  of  the  Klan,  and  so  on  ? 

We  wish  someone  would  come,  talk,  and  tell  us.  Not  that  we  would 
accept  all  tliey  might  say,  but  the  truth  will  remain  indestructible 
wherever  it  is.  Here  is  your  opportunity  to  stand  up  and  tell  us  what 
you  stand  for  really,  in  addition  to  what  is  distributed  to  the  rank- 
and-file  members  with  regard  to  anticommunism,  national  defense, 
and  all  the  rest.    Here  is  your  chance. 

I  really  would  like  for  you  to  tell  us  what  I  know  you  must  have 
said  time  and  time  again  on  the  streets  in  your  hometown,  at  Klavern 
meetings.  You  appear  to  be  very  intelligent.  I  suppose  you  make  a 
pretty  good  speech.  I  know  you  have  spoken  about  those  things  before 
and  I  know  you  represent  yourself  as  believing  what  the  Klan 
stands  for. 


2378  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU   KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Our  job  is  to  (jive  information  to  Congress,  all  the  information, 
whatever  good  there  is  in  the  Klan  organization,  and  so  on.  Put  it  in 
the  record.  Here  is  your  splendid  chance.  I  want  you  to  talk  and  tell 
us  all  about  it.    AVould  you  care  to  avail  yourself  of  the  opportunity? 

I  say,  do  you  care  to  avail  yourself  of  the  opportunity  ? 

Mr.  Marti X.  No. 

The  Chairman,  You  do  not? 

Mr.  Martin.  No. 

The  Chairman.  You  nodded  your  head  in  the  negative.  Your 
answer  is  "No"  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  My  answer  is  I  most  respectfully  decline  to  answer 
the  question  on  the  constitutional  ground  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Afpei,l.  Mr.  Martin,  is  it  a  fact  that  Mr.  Swenson  was  removed 
from  the  offices  he  held  in  the  Original  Knights  because  of  profit  that 
he  was  making  on  the  sale  of  Klan  robes  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question 
on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  you  that,  Mr,  Martin,  because  in  the  constitution 
in  effect  under  your  regime  there  is  contained  this  language : 

Uniforms  (robes)  will  all  be  made  by  the  same  standards  by  Klansmen  in 
Realm.  We  shall  have  at  least  two  manufacturers.  One  for  South  La.  and  one 
for  North  La.  Since  there  is  considerable  profit  envolved  [sic]  in  this  project, 
the  following  has  been  suggested :  Determine  amount  of  profit  and  pay  makers 
accordingly  out  of  realm  treasury.  Orders  to  be  placed  with  secretary  who  will 
collect  $10.00  for  each.  Profit  will  thereby  go  to  Realm  to  be  used  for  Klan  ex- 
penses. 

Who  was  appointed  as  the  robe  manufacturer  for  north  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question 
on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr,  Appell.  Who  was  appointed  as  the  manufacturer  for  south 
Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  does  your  organization,  the  Original 
Knights,  have  any  relationship  or  affiliation  with  any  other  Klan 
group  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  affiliated  with  the  National  Knights  of  the 
KuKluxKlan? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  hold  the  office  of  klokan  in  the  [National] 
Knights? 

Mr.  Martin,  Sir,  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Within  that  organization  does  the  klokan  have  the 
responsibility  for  performing  wrecking  crews? 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  On  May  22  and  23,  1965,  did  you  attend  a  meeting  of 
the  National  Knights  held  at  the  Dobie  Motel  in  Montgomery, 
Alabama  ? 

Mr.  Martin,  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2379 

h 


Mr.  Appell.  During  the  course  of  that  meeting  did  friction  develo 
between  the  leader  of  the  organization,  James  Venable,  and  Hug 


Morris,  both  of  Georgia  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  nmst  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  there  discussion  as  to  w^hat  you  might  do,  that  is 
the  Klan  groups  affiliated  in  the  National  Knights,  with  people  who 
could  not  be  controlled  and  whom  the  groups  wished  to  be  quieted  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  there  discussed  the  subject  of  castration? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  it  reported  by  any  of  the  leaders  there  that  they 
would  not  engage  in  castration,  but  that  if  it  was  necessary  to  liquidate 
someone  to  prove  that  the  Klan  was  not  kidding,  that  this  would  be 
done  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  for  5  minutes. 

(Whereupon,  at  3 :25  p.m.,  the  subcommittee  recessed  and  recon- 
vened at  3:38  p.m.,  with  Representatives  Willis,  Weltner,  and 
Buchanan,  of  the  subcommittee,  present  at  time  of  recess  and  when 
hearings  resumed.) 

The  Chairman.  The  subcommittee  will  resume  the  hearings.  Please 
resume  the  stand,  Mr.  Martin. 

A  quorum  of  the  subcommittee  met  during  the  recess  and  voted 
unanimously  to  make  public  certain  excerpts  of  executive  testimony 
received  from  James  R.  Venable  on  October  6,  1965.  The  released 
excerpts  appear  from  line  25  on  page  1125  through  line  11  on  page 
1126,  also  from  line  21  on  page  1149  to  line  5  on  page  1150  of  the  tran- 
script of  that  day  of  the  executive  hearing. 

Mr.  Weltner  desires  to  propound  a  couple  of  questions  to  the  witness 
in  this  connection. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Martin,  I  would  like  to  read  the  first  portion  of 
this  testimony.  Prior  to  doing  that  I  would  like  to  say  to  the  witness 
and  to  the  committee  that  the  witness  James  R.  Venable  appeared  in 
Washington  on  October  6  voluntarily,  without  having  been  placed 
under  subpena,  and  he  continued  through  that  entire  day  and  answered 
all  the  questions  that  were  propounded  to  him  without  resorting  to 
any  kind  of  constitutional  claim  of  privilege.  I  want  to  make  that 
clear. 

The  portion  that  I  would  like  to  read  to  you  appears  on  page  1125. 
It  is  a  question  by  Mr.  Manuel  and  answered  by  Mr.  Venable : 

Mr.  Manuel.  Do  you  have  any  chartered  Klaverns  in  the  State  of  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Venable.  No,  the  National  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  has  not  got 
any,  to  my  knowledge.  I  know  the  other  two  Klan  groups  down  there.  I  don't 
know  under  what  names  they  operate.  I  know  the  two  gentlemen  who  are  al- 
leged to  head  them  ;  I  don't  know  the  names. 

The  Chairman.  Can  we  have  their  names?    Do  their  names  come  to  you? 

Mr.  Venable.  One  of  them  is  named  Mr.  P.  L.  Morgan  from  Coushatta  and 
the  other  gentleman's  name  is  M.  H.  Martin  of  Winnsboro. 

My  question  is.  Are  you  the  M.  H.  Martin  of  Winnsboro  referred 
to  in  the  testimony  on  the  part  of  the  Imperial  Wizard  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan,  James  R.  Venable? 


2380  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  q\iestion  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  AYeltner.  I  ask  you  whether  or  not  that  statement  given  under 
oath  by  Mr.  Venable  is  true  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  again  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  other  portion  of  this  testimony  concerned  a 
matter  previously  touched  upon  by  Mr.  Appell  and  the  inquiry  con- 
cerning "wrecking  crews."  This  colloquy  which  I  will  read  to  you 
has  to  do  with  the  Klan  as  it  was  reconstituted  in  1915  and  existed 
generally  through  a  30-year  period  thereafter,  referred  to  as  the 
Old  Klan. 

Mr.  Appell.  Recalling  back  in  your  young  days  and  your  knowledge  that 
there  did  exist  such  things  as  wrecking  crews,  it  would  be  only  the  members 
of  the  crew  that  would  know  the  identity  of  the  crew  members;  is  that  right? 

Mr.  Venable.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Appell.  So,  therefore,  the  average  Klansman,  while  he  might  understand 
there  is  a  crew,  he  would  know  nothing  about  it? 

Mr.  Venable.  He  would  not  know  who  they  were  or  what  they  do ;  they 
would  keep  it  secret  among  themselves. 

That  appears  on  page  1149  of  the  transcript  of  October  6,  1965. 

My  question  is,  in  the  light  of  that  testimony,  whether  or  not  the 
Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  or  any  successor  thereto,  in 
which  you  may  have  had  an  office  or  title  employed  a  wrecking  crew 
or  any  other  similar  committee  or  any  other  function  with  a  similar 
purpose. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  portions  which  I  have  read  I 
think  constitute  the  entire  portions  of  the  record  which  have  been 
released  to  the  public,  and  I  have  no  further  questions. 

The  Chairman,  Proceed,  Mr.  Appell, 

Mr.  Appell,  Mr,  Martin,  did  the  Louisiana  Joint  Legislative  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Activities  conduct  an  investigation  into  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  in  Louisiana  ?    Did  it,  sir? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell,  I  show  you  a  reproduction  of  certain  pages  from  a 
report  issued  by  that  committee.  This  is  a  "Q  and  A"  taken  by  the 
staff  director  of  that  committee  of  one  Mr.  "Murray"  Martin.  I  show 
you  this  and  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the 
fact,  that  you  are  the  "Murray"  H,  Martin  whose  testimony  is  re- 
corded in  that  document. 

Mr.  Martin,  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated, 

(Document  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  14."  See  pp.  2383- 
2393.) 

Mr,  Appell,  Mr,  Martin,  was  the  testimony  which  you  gave  to  the 
staff  director  of  the  joint  committee  truthful  in  all  respects? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  A  review  of  this  testimony  shows  that  in  questioning 
as  to  what  the  Original  Knights  stands  for,  you  picked  out  from  the 
oaths  taken  by  Klansmen  those  which  relate  to  the  Constitution  of 
the  United  States,  upholding  it.    I  would  like  to  ask  you  why  you 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2381 

did  not  put  into  this  record  those  oaths  under  [K]an]*ishncss,  espe- 
cially the  oath  which  says : 

I  swear  that  I  will  never  allow  any  animosity,  friction  nor  ill  will  to  arise  and 
remain  between  myself  and  a  [Klan.s]*man  but  will  be  cons^tant  in  my  efforts  to 
promote  real  [Klan]*ishness  among  the  members  of  this  Order.  I  swear  that  1 
will  keep  secure  to  myself  a  sielcret  of  a  [Klans]*man  when  same  has  been  com- 
mitted to  me  in  the  sacred  bond  of  [Klans]*manship.  The  crime  of  violating  this 
solemn  oath — ,  treason  against  the  United  States  of  America,  rape,  and  malicious 
murder  alone  excepted. 

"Why  did  you  not  put  this  into  this  transcript  and  give  a  true  picture 
of  your  Original  Knights  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Why  did  you  not  bring  to  the  attention  of  the  com- 
mittee the  existence  of  wrecking  crews  and  the  functions  of  wrecking 
crews  in  giving  a  picture  of  the  Original  lOiights  in  Louisiana?  I 
ask  you  why  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  light  of  the  oath  which  I  read  to  you,  Mr.  Martin, 
I  would  like  you  to  explain  to  the  committee  an  answer  to  a  question 
asked  of  you,  and  I  shall  read  to  you  both  the  question  and  your 
answer : 

Q. — Mr.  Martin,  what  protection  have  you  got  built  into  your  organizational 
structure  or  procedures  to  protect  your  Organization  from  people  who  would 
use  the  cover  of  the  existence  of  the  Klan  to  commit  crime? 

A. — Our  Organization  actually  is  based  upon,  and  its  primary  function  is  by, 
Committees ;  such  Committees  as  an  Investigating  Committee,  and  should  this 
violence,  or  lawbreaking,  or  crime  come  to  our  attention,  of  course,  this  Com- 
mittee would  investigate,  and  should  we  be  successful,  we  would  turn  the  person 
over  to  the  Law,  or  at  least  tell  the  Law  who  he  was  so  that  we  wouldn't  get  the 
blame  for  it.  We  have  gotten  the  blame  for  a  lot  of  it  in  the  past  and  we  hope 
we  can  help  to  stop  it.  Our  prime  purpose,  of  course,  is  not  to  avoid  the  blame, 
but  to  assist  the  law  enforcement  officers  in  their  duties.  As  I  have  already 
stated,  that's  in  our  Oath  that  we  should  do  so,  and  we  do. 

In  light  of  the  fact  that  a  Klansman  takes  an  oath  not  to  divulge 
a  secret  of  a  Klansman  except  in  the  case  of  treason  against  the  United 
States,  rape,  and  malicious  murder,  how  could  your  organization  turn 
any  information  over  to  law  enforcement  agencies  when  committed 
by  members  of  your  Klan  ? 

Mr.  IVIartin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  your  association  with  the  Klan,  have  you  ever  turned 
over  to  law  enforcement  agencies  any  knowledge  relating  to  violence  on 
the  part  of  a  Klansman  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  told  the  Louisiana  committee  that  you  distribute 
literature,  not  only  that  published  by  yourself,  but  that  published  by 
other  people.  As  an  exhibit  there  is  reproduced  a  document,  "The 
Meaning  Of  Americanism.''  I  would  like  to  ask  you  to  tell  me,  in 
light  of  the  constitution  and  laws,  the  existence  of  the  wrecking 
crews,  and  the  violence  on  the  part  of  members  of  your  organization, 
how  you  can  distribute  this  as  a  policy  and  principle  of  the  Klan: 

Americanism  holds  that  every  person  has  an  inherent  right  to  think,  to  act, 
to  express  opinions,  to  seek  redress  against  wrongs,  and  enlarge  his  personality 


2382  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

without  fear.  It  gives  eacii  American,  wtiether  ricli  or  poor,  white  or  black, 
Jew  or  Gentile,  the  right  to  challenge  wrong  and  oppression  without  the  threat 
of  retaliation.  It  means  that  every  American  be  given  the  right  to  invest  in  the 
soil  of  his  country  and  to  reap  the  benefits  from  his  labors  and  his  thrift.  Ameri- 
canism holds  that  these  rights  be  protected  for  all,  not  merely  for  the  privileged. 

Isn't  this  a  direct  contradiction  of  what  the  Original  Knights  of 
the  Kii  Khix  Klan  stands  for  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr  Martin,  in  presenting  yourself  for  interrogation 
by  the  staff  director  of  the  Louisiana  joint  committee,  were  you  under 
subpena  ? 

The  Chairman.  I  think  the  question  should  be  extended  by  saying, 
"Were  you  under  subpena  or  did  you  voluntarily  appear  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  the  transcript  indicates,  does  it  not,  Mr. 
Appell,  that  he  appeared  voluntarily  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  The  transcript  is  silent,  Mr.  Chairman.  It  just  shows 
he  was  sworn  and  gave  the  following  testimony,  and  does  not  say 
whether  the  staff  consultation  resulted  from  appearance  pursuant 
to  a  subpena. 

Mr.  Martin,  I  ask  if  you  can  explain  to  this  committee  why  you 
voluntarily  testified  or  why  you  did  answer  questions  there  and  not 
invoke  constitutional  privileges,  and  you  invoke  constitutional  privi- 
leges before  this  body  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr,  Weltner.  We  have  established  clearly  that  this  transcript  was 
of  a  consultation  held  on  April  17, 1965,  bearing  in  mind  that  that  was 
some  6  weeks  after  this  committee  of  the  Congress  resolved  unani- 
mously to  conduct  the  pending  investigation  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan 
organization.  The  transcript,  of  course,  speaks  for  itself,  but  it  says 
the  witness,  "Mr.  Murray  Martin,"  having  been  duly  sworn  to  tell 
the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  testified  as  fol- 
lows, and  the  transcript  is  some  28  pages  of  testimony,  including  ex- 
hibits, constituting  an  answer  to  each  ouestion  propounded  to  the  wit- 
ness.   April  17, 1965,  was  the  date  of  the  appearance. 

Let  me  ask  one  more  question. 

Mr.  Martin,  one  question — on  page  25  of  this  transcript  the  ques- 
tion : 

Does  your  Organization  in  any  way  propose  to  achieve  its  goals  by  violence, 
or  any  means  other  than  the  political  action  that  you  are  describing? 

The  answer  to  the  question  notes: 

No,  sir,  we  do  not  advocate  violence. 

I  would  like  to  propound  that  question  to  you  again,  sir.  Does  your 
organization  in  any  way  propose  to  achieve  its  goals  by  violence  or 
any  means  other  than  political  action  which  you  have  described? 
That  is  my  question. 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  No  further  questions. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

(Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  14  introduced  on  p.  2380  follows:) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2383 

MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  14 

[Excerpt  from  June  16,  1965,  hearings  before  The  Joint  Legislative  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  ol  Louisiana  held  in  Baton  Rouge,  La.  Hon.  Jesse  M.  Knowles,  chairman;  Jack  N 
Rogers,  Committee  counsel.      Report  No.  7,  July  26,  1965.] 

TRANSCRIPT  OF  STAFF  CONSULTATION  HELD  ON  APRIL 
17.  1965.  AT  7:22  P.  M:,  at  COLUMBIA,  LOUISIANA.  JACK  N. 
ROGERS,  ESQ..  COMMITTEE  COUNSEL  FOR  THE  JOINT  LEGIS- 
LATIVE COMMITTEE  ON  UNAMERICAN  ACTIVITIES,  PRE- 
SIDING. 

BY  MR.  ROGERS: 

Under  the  power  vested  in  me  by  Senate  Resolution  #12, 
Kfgular  Session,  1964,  and  the  Rules  of  the  Committee,  I  now  swear 
the  first  witness  in  this  Staff  Consultation. 

THE  WITNESS.  MR.  MURRAY  MARTIN,  AFTER  FIRST 
HAVING  BEEN  DULY  SWORN  TO  TELL  THE  TRUTH,  THE 
WHOLE  TRUTH,  AND  NOTHING  BUT  THE  TRUTH,  SO  HELP 
HIM  GOD,  TESTIFIED  AS  FOLLOWS: 

DIRECT  EXAMINATION 
BY  MR.  ROGERS: 

Q — Please  give  me  your  name,  sir? 

A — Murray  Martin. 

Q — Where  do  you  live,  Mr.  Martin? 
A — In  Winnsboro,  Louisiana. 

Q — Where  and  when  were  you  born? 
A — At  Tioga,  Louisiana,  1924,  June  1. 

Q  —  What  do  you  do  for  a  living? 
A  —  I  am  a  building  contractor. 

Q--What    is   the   correct   name   of   the    Klan    Organization   you 
represent? 

A— The  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

Q — What  is  the  title  of  your   Klan   office,   and   what   level    of 
K'a'ier.ship  does  that  title  mean? 

.v  —  I  am  Grand  Dragon,  artd  the  level  of  leadership  would  be 

17 


2384  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  14 — Continued 

the  same  as  the  Chairman  of  the  Board  of  Directors. 

Q — What  geographical  area  does  that  cover? 
A — The  State  of  Louisiana. 

Q — Isyour  Klan  Organization  connected  with  any  oiher   Klan 
Organization? 

A — We  are  loosely  connected  with  another   Klan  Organization, 
yes,  sir. 

Q — If  so,  which  one  is  that? 

A- — We  are  connected   with   the  National   Association   of    Klans 
known  as  the  Associated  Klans  of  America. 

()— Mr.  Martin,  who  i.-<  the  national  head  of  your  Klan  Organiza- 
tion? 

A — We  have  no  national  head. 

Q — As  I  understand  your  testimony,  you  are  the  head   in   the 
State  of  Louisiana,  is  that  correct? 

A— That's  true. 

Q — How  and  by  whom  are  the  objectives  of  your  organization 
determined? 

\ — They  are  determined  by  a  Board  of  Officei-s. 

Q — Is  it  a  large  Board? 
A — Relatively  small. 

Q — .Are  the  people  who  determine  your  policy   on   this   Board 
a!l  citizens  of  the  State  of  Louisiana? 

A — That  is  right,  that  is  true. 

Q — Is  your  organization  connected  in  any  v/ay  with  the  Com- 
munist  Party? 

.A — Definitely  not. 

i} — How  about  any  other  foreign  paity,  or  agency,  or  govern- 

inmt? 

18 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2385 

MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  14 — Continued 
A — No,  sir. 

Q — Would  you  care  to  elaborate  on  that,  sir? 

A — One  of  our  questions  asked  of  all  candidates  is  this:  "Do 
yiiu  esteem  the  United  States  of  America  and  its  institutions  above 
any  government,  civil,  political,  or  ecclesiastical  in  the  whole  world?" 
And  another  one  is:  "Are  you  absolutely  opposed  to  and  free  of  any 
allegiance  of  any  nature  to  any  cause,  government,  people,  sect,  or 
ruler  that  is  foreign  to  the  United  States  of  America?"  Both  of  these 
questions  must  be  answered  "yes"  before  the  candidate  can  proceed. 

Q — Are  these  questions  a.sked  your  prospective  members  under 
..ath? 

A — They  are. 

Q — Is  any  Pledge  or  Oath  of  Allegiance  required  of  all  of  your 
members? 

A— Yes. 

Q — Does  this  in  any  way   infringe  upon,  or  negate,  complete 

loyalty  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States? 

A — No,  sir,  in  fact  they  must  swear  allegiance  to  the  United 
States  to  become  a  member. 

() — Would  you  mind  telling  us  what  words  are  required  to  do 
this?  Can  you  do  this? 

A — I  can  and  I  will.  This  is  part  of  the  Oath:  "I  most  solemnly 
assert  and  affirm,  that  to  the  Government  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  and  any  State  thereof  of  which  I  may  become  a  member, 
1  sacredly  vow  unqualified  allegiance  above  any  other,  and  every 
kind  of  government  in  the  whole  world.  I  here  and  now  pledge  my 
life,  my  property,  my  vote,  and  my  sacred  honor  to  uphold  its 
tlag,  its  Constitution,  and  Constitutional  Laws  and  will  protect,  de- 
fend, and  enforce  same  unto  death." 

Q — Mr.  Martin,  what  is  the  policy  of  your  Organization  as  to 
law  violations? 

A— I  will  again  quote  from  our  Oath:  "I  swear  that  1  will 
always,  and  at  any  and  all  times,  and  in  all  places,  help,  aid,  and 
assist  the  duly  constituted  officers  of  the  Law  in  the  proper  perform- 

19 


2386  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  14 — Continued 

ance  of  their  legal  duties." 

Q — Would  you  explain  what  policy  your  Organization  has 
toward  a  member  who  might  be  involved  in  a  crime,  caught,  and 
convicted? 

A — If  and  when  he  is  convicted,  then  he  is  either  expelled  or 
banished  from  the  Organization.  Does  that  explain  it  pretty  well? 

A — Yes,  sir. 

Q — What  are  the  qualifications  for  membership  in  your  Organi- 
zation? 

A — Of  course,  a  man  must  be  of  good  character,  first. 

Q — How  do  you  determine  that,  Mr.  Martin? 

A — We  have  a  system  of  elections  whereby  a  man  may  enter 
into  our  Organization,  and  he  is  first  invited  to  join  after  having 
been  cleared  by  all  of  the  members,  and  his  name  is  published  in  two 
legular  meetings,  and  any  one  man  in  the  Organization  can,  if  he  so 
desires,  stop  the  admittance  of  any  man. 

Q — By  "Organization"  you  mean  on  the  local  level? 
A — On  the  local  level. 

Q — Do  you  have  any  special  name  for  the  local  level  group? 

A — Klavern.  This  also  is  in  our  Oath  and  I  would  like  to  give 
that  to  you. 

Q — Would  you,  please? 

A — The  candidate  or  the  man  being  initiated  has  to  swear 
that:  "I  will  never  recommend  any  person  for  membership  in  this 
Order  whose  mind  is  unsound,  or  whose  reputation  I  know  to  be  bad, 
or  whose  character  is  doubtful,  or  whose  loyalty  to  our  Country  is 
in  any  way  questionable." 

Q — What  other  qualifications  do  you  have  for  membership,  Mr. 
Martin? 

A — A  man  must  first  believe  in  the  tenets  of  the  Christian 
Religion.  Would  you  like  for  me  to  give  you  all  of  the  qualifying 
questions? 

20 


ACTIVrTIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2387 

MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  14 — Continued 

Q — Would  you,  please? 

A — All  of  these  questions  must  be  answered  "yes"  by  any  person 
>«'<'kin}?  admittance  into  our  Orj^^anization :  First,  "Is  the  motive 
pfdmpting  your  ambition  to  be  a  Klansman  serious  and  unselfish?" 
So(<.'nd,  "Are  you  a  native-born  white  gentile  American  citizen?" 
Third,  "Are  you  absolutely  opposed  to,  and  free  of  any  allegiance  of 
any  nature  to  any  cause,  government,  people,  sect,  or  ruler  that  is 
foreign  to  the  United  States  of  America?"  Fourth,  "Do  you  believe 
in  the  tenets  of  the  Christian  Religion?"  Fifth,  "do  you  esteem  the 
I'nited  States  of  America  and  its  institutions  above  any  other  Govern- 
TTiciit,  Civil,  Political,  or  Ecclesiastical  in  the  whole  world?"  Sixth, 
Will  you,  without  mental  reservation,  take  a  solemn  oath  to  defend, 
;  reserve,  and  enforce  same?"  Seventh,  "Do  you  believe  in  Klanishness 
ii.'id  will  you  practice  same  towards  Klansmen?"  Eighth,  "Do  you  be- 
i.eve  in,  and  will  you  faithfully  strive  for  the  eternal  maintenance 
"t  white  supremacy?"  Ninth,  "Will  you  faithfully  obey  our  Con- 
-titution  and  Laws  and  conform  with  them  to  all  of  our  usages,  re- 
(luirements,  and  regulations?"  Tenth,  "Can  you  always  be  depended 
upon?" 

Q — Mr.  Martin,  are  there  any  other  qualifications  for  member- 
ship other  than  the  ones  you  have  read  to  me? 

.A — 1  believe  not.  I  would  like  to  say  that  we  are  trying  our 
test  to  eliminate  any  undesirables  from  our  Organization.  I  would 
also  like  to  .state  that  we  have  no  sex-perverts,  or  homosexuals,  or 
hcatiiiks  in  our  Organization,  and  I  defy  anyone  to  find  them, 

Q — Approximately  how  many  members  do  you  have  in  the  State 
(»f  Louisiana? 

A — This,  I  must  respectfully  decline  to  answer,  since  to  answer 
!•  would  put  me  in  violation  of  the  Oath  that  I  have  taken  to  the 

Kian. 

Q — What  are  the  objectives  of  your  Organization? 

A — Our  objectives  are  to  return  our  (^lovernment  to  the  Con- 
stitution. We  believe  in  constitutional  government.  We  have  a  .set  of 
Koals.  a  written  one  that  I  would  be  glad  to  send  you.  I  am  sorry  I 
do  not  have  one  with  me.  It  lists  our  goals  and  our  hopes  for  the 
future.  Of  course,  our  prime  purpo.se  is  the  preservation  of  individual 
and   national  liberty. 

0 — Do  you  ascribe,  as  an  organization,  to  this  written  state- 

21 


2388  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  14 — Continued 

ment  of  principles  that  you   are   going  to  send   me — this   written 
statement  of  objectives? 

A — Yes,  I  do. 

Q — By  what  means  does  your  Organization  propose  to  realize 
these  objectives? 

A — Through  governmental  affairs,  the  education  of  ourselves 
and  the  general  public  as  to  the  trend  of  Government  towards  the 
left   and   continuing  headlong   flight   towards   Communism. 

Q — I  understand  from  this  that  you  mean  primarily  by  educa- 
'lon,  is  this  correct? 

A — Well,  no,  of  course,  after  you  educate  yourself,  then  we 
will  vote  at  the  polls  to  remove  such  scalawags  that  propose  and  keep 
proposing  legislation  to  sell  us  to  the  "tine  world  government." 

Q — Does  your  Organization  in  any  way  propose  to  achieve  its 
goals  by  violence,  or  any  means  other  than  the  political  action  that 
you  are  describing? 

A — No,  sir,  we  do  not  advocate  violence. 

Q — Mr.  Martin,  what  protection  have  you  got  built  into  your 
organizational  structure  or  procedures  to  protect  your  Organization 
from  people  who  would  use  the  cover  of  the  existence  of  the  Klan 
to  commit  crime? 

A — Our  Organization  actually  is  based  upon,  and  its  primary 
function  is  by,  Committees;  such  Committees  as  an  Investigating 
Committee,  and  should  this  violence,  or  lawbreaking,  or  crime  come 
to  iiur  attention,  of  course,  this  Committee  would  investigate,  and 
.-Mould  we  be  successful,  we  would  turn  the  person  over  to  the  Law, 
ur  at  least  tell  the  Law  who  he  was  so  that  we  wouldn't  get  the 
blame  for  it.  We  have  gotten  the  blame  for  a  lot  of  it  in  the  past 
and  we  hope  we  can  help  to  stop  it.  Our  prime  purpose,  of  course,  is 
not  to  avoid  the  blame,  but  to  assist  the  law  enforcement  officers  in 
their  duties.  As  I  have  already  stated,  that's  in  our  Oath  that  we 
should  do  so,  and  we  do. 

Q  -Will  youi*  furnish  our  Committee  with  samples  of  the  liter- 
ature and  printed  materials  u.sed  by  your  Organization?  You  under- 
stand, we  don't  expect  you  to  give  us  .something  that  you  have  sworn 
to  keep  secret,  but  we  would  like  samples  to  the  limit  of  what  you 

25 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2389 

MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  14 — Continued 

FIFTY  REASONS  WHY  YOO  SHOULD  BE  A  MEMBER  OF  THE  ORIGINAL  KU  KLUX  KUAN 

l-B*c*uM  the  Klaii  It  a  grt*t,   legal  American  Inticution  o(  Americai 

Z-B*cata*  It  a  tW  only  0((aiiiutica  on  lanh  when  only  native-born.   White,  Ccntilc  Anxiicaa  cMaaat  B«k*  Hp  Iti  niambaalilp. 
3-Becauae  It  It  «  mllitaat  C^HtUao  oigaiuiatloD,   oppoaad  to  all  formf  of  Athaltm. 
4-B*cais«  It  thrmn  la  itioai  arm  of  protcctioii  around  your  family  u  your  abaaaca 
S-B*catae  It  bellevaj  la  and  fighti  for  White  Supremacy 
6-B*c>»e  It  laved  the  South  twice,   and  will  lave  It  t%tin  and  a(aiB. 
7-Becaua«  It  It  compoaed  of  hS.  men  and  not  lilly  diliy  bumant 
&-Bacaut«  It  U  founded  deep  In  the  tenett  of  the  Cfarituan  rellgiaB 
9-ftecauae  It  It  an  open  luppoeter  of  the  Conttltutlon 

10-Bccaua<  u  It  the  CtC  oiganluiioa  fighting  for  repeal  cf  the  Segregation  lullng  by  the  Supram*  Couft  al  the  Itelud  Statai. 
Il-Bacaisa  It  baliavat  In  and  flgbtt  for  itate  lovercigiiry 

I2-Becauia  It  ii  aalthar  Democratic  or  Republican,   politically,   \xa  ALWAYS  AMERICAN. 
1)-B«caua«  It  flghn  ior  the  glory  of  the  flag  and  for  the  rigbti  of  tree  men. 
M-fiecai«a  It  bellevct  In  law  and  order  and  good  govemmeaL 
15-Bacaiaa  It  exalts  principle  above  men. 

16-kcauic  It  ttarxk  for  legregated  ichoolt,   NOV  and  ALWAYS! 
17-Becaute  It  It  oppoaad  to  Ixaermarriages  between  ni^ett  and  White  people      Several  ttstaa  have  aliea^  lagallMd  tuch  mantagat, 

and  more  ai«  to  foUow. 
18-Bacai»e  It  b«llcvat  that  the  White  race  It  Cod'i  race  through  which  Kie  wana  to  maintain  a  JiMt  chrUliatlaa 
19-Bccaisa  It  bellcvci  the  Klhlc  doctrine  of  the  leparatioc  of  the  racet. 
20-Becaisc  It  bellevai  that  Judlaitm  It  iKX  Che  lellgion  of  the  Bible,   b><  that  It  ii  •  nt  of  fiiaclplaa  lor  the  popoM  of  alavatia(  tb« 

Chrlttla*  >ew  beyond  the  White  race*. 
21 -Because  It  hat  an  effective  program  againtt  Socialism,  Communltm,   and  uloa  left  wtjig  liberalltaB. 
22-Becau>e  It  believes  the  highest  type  of  citiieoship  it  Chrlttian  citlarnahip. 

23-Becai«e  It  believes  all  Coistitubocal  changes  are  to  be  made  by  Congrcai,   and  racifled  by  the  StsM  lagltlafit 
24-Bccaute  It  believes  In  getting  the  United  Statet  out  of  the  United  Nationt  OlganliaClOB. 
2S-Bectuse  It  believes  that  every  preacher  holding  t  comrcgatlon  bttt  who  teach  iMcgratioa  tboold  ratln  from  Ut  piilptt,    etthai 

willingly  or  be  forced  out. 
26-Becauae  It  It  oppcsad  to  fcecing  defenselesi  children  to  have  nigger  playmstal 
27-Because  It  believes  in  free  speech  and  free  peeas,   at  oppoted  further  to  a  police  nmm. 
28-Beca>ae  we  bcUrve  it  to  be  the  most  effective  way  to  flfht  all  fbmit  of  lubveaiaB. 

29-Becttae  we  oppose  niggeit  teaching  White  children  in  public  ichools,  which  they  will  do  la  all  iMfntad  r^H""''  befora  loag. 
30-Bccauae  It  ic  the  moat  effective  way  to  fight  oeganized  alinc  In  a  community. 
31-Becai»e  It  teaches  men  ihould  love  theli  own  wives  and  let  other  woman  alona. 
32-BecauBe  It  It  opposed  to  Loan  Sharla  chafing  an  unlawful  rote  of  toteicat  to  the  poor  people 
33-Bccaiae  It  believes  in  trials  by  jury 
M-Becai»e  It  doe*  not  cadoBC  cither  the  Republican  or  Democratic  peitlet  politically  at  tuch,  bta  doat  tupport  caadldata*   la  both 

paitles  when  tald  cawtldttet  ttaad  for  a  100%  Amerlcaaitm 
3S-Becai»a  It  It  oppoted  to  dtaatmames  In  any  form  and  laulterally  la  favor  of  Che  rif  he  of  '^«^««—  to  bear  anat. 
36-Becaiae  it  teaches  that  every  icbool  teacher  la  our  public  tchoolt  ibould  be  retired  who  bellcvat  la  and  taachat  liCegratlOB  of 

the  blach  aad  White  meet 
37-Becaute  It  itaB<k  for  the  dlteafranrhltement  of  all  foralgnca  who  have   not  been  la  Aatartca  tor  the  lame  leafth  of  time  re- 
quired o\M  own  boys  and  gixls  to  reach  legal  votlag  age. 
38-Because  it  ttaixk  for  tagregstloa  on  Imnam  In  penal  aad  mental  latitutloat,   especially  the  Juvealle* 
39-Becaiae  It  opposes  free  Communis  Uteraturt  being  tea  thfough  (b»  Ubited  Stacaa  mall  to  Amerlcaat. 
40-Becaiae  It  It  unalterably  oppoaed  to  the  Zionist  jew  program. 
41  -Because  It  It  oppoted  to  the  And-Defamatian  league  in  all  respects. 
42-Becau*«  It  knows  the  Ublud  NaUoat  Chaiter  hat  ututped  the  ConatltutlOB  of  tlHse   Ualted  States,    aad  we   aie  tryt^  to  get  Che 

United  St^cs  out  of  the  UN 
43-Becsuse  It  wm  here  YESTERDAY,   aad  Is  here  TODAY,   aad  wlU  be  here  FORZVER. 
44-Bccautc  It  ltan«h  against  UNESCO  In  lo  attempt  Co  rewrite  our  American  hiatory. 
4S-Becaute  It  it  oppoted  to  a  police  state  which  lob*  the  Individual  of  hit  rtghn. 
46-Becaiae  It  does  not  believe  that  c<hjcatloBi  It  THE  remedy  for  our  political  Ills. 

47-Because  It  It  opposed  to  say  government  professing  to  be  firlendy  to  America,  while  at  Che  taaie  time  traJl^  with  aay  commu- 
nist-dominated  couKry 
4B-Bccstae  It  Is  oppoted  to  taxation  without  re  present  at  i  on. 
49-Becai«e  it  it  oppoted  to  the  income  tax  laws  as  prvseotly  existing. 

SO-Becsuie  It  u  oppoted  lo  Che  World  Health  OganiiatioB  and  the  Nsttoaal  Mental  Health  Act  anl  all  forms  of  pbychlatrtc  educa- 
tion of  our  children  and  cUixeat. 


Exhibit     4.     Policy     statement     furnished     by     Mr.     Murray     Martin. 

26 


2390  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  H^Continued 


THE  MEANING    OF  AMERICANISM 


iBsrlcanliB  1a  r   llTlnc,  (tyoaalc  fore*  fOTamlnc  th*  11«»«  uf  o«r 
paopla,  *o  u>s  pauuUariy  Uiw^ed  with  ttu  oppoi-tuulV  of  UtIc^ 
iBdar  k  r«pa»«»Lt«tlT»  rent  of  c^rtmaant,  pivtaotad  b7  Mm  Boat 
»aiiilT^  liuli  laaiil   o.'  hiaan  oa>M)uct     cvar  d«ri.c«d  tqr  ■«,  th*  OS- 

tealaBlM  ic.  •  foTB  of  contruUad  LltMity  in  *lch  t^a  rlcbta 
of  tte  ^aJl  snd  Um  lATf*  tJ^}  prut^xrtod  for  tha  (rjaWrt  («ad  u/ 
•Jl.  IW  prsetloal  BnitlTktli^  prLnclpiM  u-c  cljorlj  •Bueaiated  Id 
««•  OBOjUUtnCH  of  lUUVQIOtaCC  jnd  li-.  U>«  PRE^JCU  to  (<iir  30(311- 
rmm.  it*  rota^Uun  l*  th«  mrialU  dl^aigr  and  aorUi  oT  tb*  la- 

4iTiaMLi. 

Tha  aaaaBea  of  ^lOrlaaiilM  la  tpiriiiml.   It  bolda  tiu:t   ihvr*  U  a 

■am  GOO  la  tka  isa«»rM,  «»1  t^ut  (7  vl-toa  of  thla  lact,   thara  if 
a  ■oral  pwpuai  in  tha  offalra  of  askiad.  Onr  aorUl  aciaaoa  la  f■<^- 
dlcatad  OB  tba  tnaU  of  Uia  SHBOi  oi  Usa  OSUff  end  U»  TH  OCMUHD- 
■aiTB.  Tba  varr  imti  of  AaarlaaB  JorlaprudcBoa  la  t/x.  prot«>otiflD 
of  iiMPBal   llbarty  ani  prof>art7  frua  tti)  nooroactuBt  of  othora  anl 
froB  HIIIII1HI   Itaalf .  It  raaognlaac  ac  lU  aMi«r,  both  tba  aUl  ot 
tha  ^mot  e^  Um  MvImm  of  tha  Maaaa. 

jMrlOLDlaa  holda  tkat  ararr  pjraoo  haa  as  labarvot  rl^ht  to  ttdak, 
to  aot,   to  ojipraaa  (Hdalnna,    to  aaak  radrja*  a^olACt  «x«ca,   ead  <d- 
laiva  bla  puraoMlitr  altlwvt  faar.  It  |rl«aa  aaob  ..aancoa,  Matter 
rich  or  poor,   itilta  or  talsok,  Jtm  or  GantiJa,   tan  rl(0t  to  ohaUaafa 
■roBi  aad  iinaaaaliB  alttioul  tl-a  threat  01   ratadlatioa.    It  bmoj 
ttet  »nrr  tearlona  bn  (iric  tl  •  rljl.t  U>  Invwit  I1  tivj 
■all  ct  kla  ec^try,  ^  to  r-^.^  iho  o-sar^ta  froa  Ma  libera  (ad 
kla  ttolft.  iB^rlaaolOB  Iralur  tfi-t  U.r  ;   1  i«ht.c  Lr  -irotastod  for  ail, 
for  tha  prini(%ad. 

ola,  Oiv  ct^rchoa,   un  clvli  or^piunalUia*  <x.d  aur  aagiif- 
laaat  IhHoBtferoyiad,   -  eU  baop^^k  r   »mMt.  or  acia.''   abllgatlce  to 
n^fcira,  aad  a  arlrlt  cf  brotba^tood  tranaoLodlr^  tii.t  of  othar  paofiLa 
U  taa  <Bll7«  •orU. 


Bl^>  koWMcr,  If  not  a  oao  ttv  air jat.  It  li(joaoa  rlfbtful 

ff^llf^tiwa  191m  ladlvldaala  aad  frucp*  to  pluj  «fe*  gaaa  of  UtIoc 
■Itfe  a  aeaaani  far  Iba  aal/ara  of  tda  nn— ailTj.   atata,   and  oatloo. 


iaaalaa  la  laaaalt^'a  aaat  (lorioua  ajiparlaiBt  la  tha  aclo 
of  U*U(.   If  thl<  axparlaant  afe9\a<1  fill,   ctviUaatloc  Itaalf  al«bt 
ba  dooBad.  Tba  auraat  (uaTf-utov.   f  jr  coatlaaad  auocaaa  ia  u  p«raonil 
altia«^1p,  dadlcatoO  Vo   tha  idjLln  cmJ  purpor«a  u'  thia  (fact  XS- 
UHLIC.  iaarloaaii*  IP  lan^Aixl'a  raioinin,;  hope  ic-  c  Jaoaat  rad 
Jaat  aorU! 

iad  la  thli  htiW  Ji    arlri.t  a  crisla,   «.  jn  IMa  loft^  barito^a  ot 
iaorioaaJarf  la  aarioitair   U>ij'Utod  of  1.  rutlkiasa.  Codlaaa  Coaauaiat 
omiatriracy  cj  aall  c-  op  er   axK^iuing  'o]r:.ra  Str.ta,  iMkloh  oouid  d»- 
atror  tiM  laeaotlTa  of  our  cilii  «ir  to  cr  jct«  rad  produca  ca  »«U  aa 
i^alr  t^  will  to  dufaud  our  htrlU^*,    °.jt   jTurjr  io^eJ   .Laoric-m  taowa 
aablaaonad  on  hia  ooBaoiaBoa  tha  l^nrui  pl«)«a  of  tha  bTLVa  aoa  1M10 
fir»t  (aTB  artleulatlon  to  tha  lUodc  of  .aarlcanla  in  tha  DBCLJU- 

TicM  of  noraoMci. 


•MD  POR  TEE  SDPPOBT  Of  THIS 

oicuJUTioM,  wm  A  nm  n- 

UAHCB  on  THE  PBDTSCTIOIl  Of 

DivniE  p^viomcE,  he  wm- 

JUXT  PLEXE  TO  UCH     OTKEK 
con  LIV':.J     OOK  POKMIK,    /J*0 

OCR  sacr.v  iCkor; 


Exhibit   5.    Policy   statement   furnished    by    Mr.    Murray    Martin. 


27 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2391 

MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  14— Continued 

can  furnish  us,  to  see  what  type  of  thing  you   are  using  in  your 
training,  and  in  your  educational  program? 

A — I  will  be  glad  to  furnish  you  with  samples,  a  lot  of  which 
is  not  our  own.  We  use  other  Organizations'  literature,  and  we  learn 
by  it;  but  of  course,  we  have  literature  of  our  own,  and  I  can  and 
will  send  you  some  of  this. 

Q — Mr.  Martin,  do  you  have  anything  you  want  to  add  to  your 
testimony? 

A — Nothing  that  I  can  think  of. 

Q — I  would  like  to  thank  you  for  our  Committee.  This  is  the 
end  of  the  Staff  Consultation.  The  time  is  7:48  P.  M. 


28 

59-222  O— 67— pt.  3 5 


2392  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  14 — Continued 
DUTIES  OF  COMMITTEES 

POUTICAL  ACTION  COMMITTEE 
(a)  The  duty  of  the  political  action  committee  is  to  study  all  politi- 
cal activities  in  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Klavern. 

(b)  Keep  the  E.C.  and  the  members  of  the  Klavern  informed  on  all 
matters  of  political  interest.  This  Includes  State.  National  and 
International. 

(c)  Be  wf'M  enough  informed  to  recommend  what  political  candidates 
or  issues  to  support  or  oppose  and  give  recommendations  to 
Klavern  on  such. 

(d)  Keep  a  record  of  all  political  activities  within  the  Jurisdiction 
of  the  Klavern,  and  be  prepared  to  present  it  or  any  part  of  It 
to  the  Klavern  upon  request  of  K.C. 

(e)  Stay  out  of  other  Klavern  Klanton  unless  otherwise  agreed  by 
same. 

(f)  From  time  to  time  the  members  of  this  committee  will  l>e  re- 

quested to  effectively  contact  their  State  Representatives  and 
State  Senator,  as  well  as  their  Democratic  State  Central  Com- 
mitteemen for  one  or  more  of  the  following  purposes: 

(1)  To  determine  their  position  on  a  specific  matter  then  be- 

fore them. 

(2)  To  obtain  their  support  and  cooperation  in  either  passing, 

amending  or  defeating  that  measure,  or 

(3)  To  learn  and  report  the  person  or  persons  most  able  to  In- 

fluence them  on  such  matters. 
THE  MEMBERS  OF  THIS  COMMITTEE  WILL  BE  CONTACTED. 
FREQUENTLY  ON  VERY  SHORT  NOTICE,   FROM  TIME  TO  TIME 
TO  ASSIST  IN  LINING  UP  THEIR  REPRESENTATIVES,   SENATORS 
AND  COMMITTEEMEN  IN  SUPPORT  OF  OUR  POSITION. 

EDUCATION  COMMITTEE 

(a)  The  Education  Committee  is  responsible  for  the  educating  of 
the  public  In  all  matters  of  interest  within  the  jurisdiction  of 
the  Klavern. 

(b)  Collect  and  distribute  any  literature  that  they  can  obtain  that 
will  further  the  cause  of  our  organization. 

(c)  Write  letters  to  the  public  on  political  or  other  Issues  of  In- 
terest within  the  Jurisdiction  of  the  Klavern. 

(d)  Check  txwks  In  the  libraries  of  Schools,  Churches,  etc,  and 
check  any  books  or  literature  that  is  exposed  to  the  fxibllc  to 
assure  that  it  does  not  contain  communist  influence  material, 
(or  integration  material).. 

(e)  Write  letters  of  protest  to  individuals  or  ijrganizatlons    that 

(Mjbltcly  advocate  Integration,    or  communism. 

(f)  Write  letters  of  appreciation  to  those  who  are  working  to  fur- 

ther Americanism,  Segregation,  and  etc. 

MEMBERSHIP  COMMITTEE: 

(a)  The  membership  committee  keeps  all  records  of  the  members, 

(Not  excluding  the  sect.)  prospective  members,  and  rejected 
and/or  suspended  members. 

(b)  See  that  all  material  and  literature  in  the  possession  of  an  ex- 

pelled or  suspended  meml>er  is  returned  to  the  unit. 


Exhibit  6.  Statement  of  functions  of  committes  in   Klan  organizational  atructure, 
furnished    by    Mr.    Murray    Martin. 

29 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2393 

MuRRY  Martin  Exhibit  No.  14— Continued 

(c)  Incourage  regular  attendance  of  members. 

(d)  Report  on  all  members  unable  to  attend  regularly. 

(e)  Attempt  to  notify  all  members  of  special  events,  called  meet- 
ings,  summons,  etc. 

BENEVOLENCE  COMMITTEE: 

(a)  The  Benevolence  Committee  is  In  charge  of  all  charity  activity 
within  the  unit. 

(b)  Reports  on  all  sick  members,  send  flowers  or  cards  to  them 
and  asks  for  any  assistance  that  the  unit  might  provide  for  same. 

(c)  Reports  on  and  asks  for  assistance  for  persons  other  than  mem- 
t>ers  where  the  unit  can  be  of  assistance. 

BUILDING  COMMITTEE: 

(a)  The  building  committee  is  in  charge  of  the  construction  and 

maintenance  of  the  Klavern. 

(b)  Asks  for  or  appoints  members  to  work  on  the  building  or  the 
grounds  of  same. 

(c)  Sees  that  the  building  is  kept  clean,  the  grass  is  cut,  all  neces- 
sary repairs  are  made,  and  recommends  changes  or  additions 
to  the  building. 

PUBLIC  RELATIONS  COMMITTEE: 

(a)  The  Public  Relations  Committee  is  responsible  for  the  relations 
between  the  organization  and  the  non-member  public. 

(b)  Their  duties  are  advisory  only. 

(c)  Inspect  all  out  going  literature  and  determine  if  it  will  create  a 
good  image. 

(d)  Advise  on  all  activities  of  the  unit  that  concern  the  public  to  as- 
sure prestige  and  a  good  public  image  for  the  organization. 

KLOKAN  COMMITTEE: 

(a)  This  committee  is  appointed  by  the  Klokan  of  the  Klavern  and  is 
under  the  direct  supervision  of  the  Klokan. 

(b)  Takes  no  action  other  than  that  specifically  ordered  by  the  Klo- 
kan. 

THE  WAY  OF  THE  KLAVERN 

The  following  should  be  given  to  each  new  member  immediately 
after  the  naturalization  ceremony. 

The  newly  made  member  be  conducted  to  the  Klocards'  station  by 
the  Kladd.  The  Klocard  will  then  instruct  the  new  members  as  follows: 

1.  Destroy  application 

2.  Instruct  the  member  in  the  use  of  the  gavel. 


Exhibit   7.    Page   2  of   Exhibit    No.   6. 

30 


2394  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

The  Chairman.  Call  the  next  witness,  Mr.  Appell. 

^Ir.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilder. 

The  Chairmax,  Please  raise  your  right  hand.  Do  you  solemnly 
swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the 
whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  LLOYD  GRADY  WILDER,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  JAMES  R.  VENABLE 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilder,  will  you  state  your  name  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Lloyd  Grady  Wilder. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  September  11, 1922,  St.  Landry,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  L-a-n-d-r-y  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairivian.  That  is  the  name  of  a  parish.   "What  town? 

Mr.  Wilder.  It  is  also  the  name  entered  on  the  birth  certificate. 
Long  Pine. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  do  you  currently  reside  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Jena,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilder,  are  you  appearing  here  this  afternoon  in 
accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  27th  day  of  October 
at  Third  Street,  Jena,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  That  is  right,  gir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilder,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  commands 
you  to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce  documents  set  forth  in  the  attach- 
ment to  the  subpena  which  is  made  a  part  of  the  subpena.  Paragraph 
1  reads : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  and  affiliated  organizations,  namely,  Christian  Constitu- 
tional Crusaders,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you 
or  available  to  you  as  Secretary  or  other  officer  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  and/or  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents,  Mr.  Wilder. 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  those  documents 
for  the  reason  that  it  might  intend  to  violate  my  constitutional  rights 
under  the  1st  amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
guaranteeing  freedom  of  speech,  the  right  of  people  to  peacefully 
assemble  and  to  associate  together  for  the  exchange  of  ideas  in  matters 
of  public  concern,  and  further  on  the  constitutional  grounds  of  the 
4th  and  5th  amendments,  that  producing  such  documents  might  intend 
to  incriminate  me,  and  also  on  the  14th  amendment,  should  I  be  com- 
pelled to  answer  this  question  or  to  produce  such  documents,  then  I 
would  be  denied  my  constitutional  rights  as  provided  under  the  14th 
amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  2395 

Mr,  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  the  bank  records 
of  the  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders  show  that  Mr.  Wilder  held 
the  position  of  secretary,  I  request  that  he  be  directed  to  produce  the 
documents  called  for. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Wilder,  were  you  in  the  hearing  room  when 
Mr.  Swenson  and  Mr.  Martin  were  on  the  stand  today  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  You  heard  me  explain  to  both  Mr.  Swenson  and 
Mr.  Martin  that  this  subpena  requires  you  to  produce  these  documents 
and  papers  in  your  capacity  as  an  official  of  the  Klan  organization  to 
which  you  belong.  You  heard  me  say  that  and  you  understand  the 
position  of  the  committee. 

Mr.  Wilder.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  I  will  repeat  it  to  you.  I  am  required  to  do  that 
by  court  decision. 

We  do  not  accept  your  invocation  of  the  constitutional  amendments 
to  which  you  refer  because  the  subpena  requires  you  to  produce  the 
papers  and  documents  outlined  in  the  subpena  in  your  official  capacity 
indicated.  Therefore,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  those  docu- 
ments. 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  those  documents 
on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  he  set  forth  his  grounds  ? 

The  Chairman.  On  the  grounds  previously  stated.  You  mean  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilder,  paragraph  2  of  the  subpena  commands  you 
to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you  in  your  capacity  as 
Secretary  and/or  member  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  and/or 
Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said 
organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  oflBcer 
of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  those  documents 
for  the  same  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  For  the  reasons  previously  indicated,  I  order  and 
direct  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  the  documents  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilder,  paragraph  3  calls  for  you  to  produce : 

Copies  of  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service  Form  1120, 
"U.S.  Corporation  Income  Tax  Return,"  for  the  fiscal  years  1961  through  June  30, 
1965,  filed  by  you  as  Secretary  of  the  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders. 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  those  documents 
on  the  same  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  For  the  reasons  that  I  stated  previously,  I  now 
order  and  direct  you  to  produce  those  documents. 


2396  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLaN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  those  documents 
on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilder,  the  subpena  calls,  under  paragraph  4,  for 

you  to  produce : 

Copies  of  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service,  Form  1040, 
"U.S.  Individual  Tax  Return,"  for  tlie  calendar  years  1958  through  1964,  filed 
by  you  as  an  individual  taxpayer  with  the  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal 
Revenue  Service. 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  those  documents 
on  the  constitutional  grounds  that  it  might  tend  to  incriminate  me,  on 
the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilder,  will  you  set  forth  briefly  your  educational 
background  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  grounds  that  it  might  tend  to  incriminate  me. 

The  Chairman.  Please  talk  louder. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  briefly  set  forth  your  occupational  back- 
ground ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  principally  engaged  in  the  heating  and  air- 
conditioning  business  in  Jena,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilder,  the  committee's  investigation  establishes 
that  through  the  secretary,  whether  it  be  the  klavern  or  the  realm, 
paper  of  the  Klan  flows.  A  Klavern  making  a  report  to  the  realm 
makes  its  report  through  the  realm  secretary.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a 
fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  are  the  secre- 
tary of  the  organization  known  as  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan,  which  organization  used  as  a  cover  name  the  Christian 
Constitutional  Crusaders. 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  During  the  time  that  Royal  V.  Young  was  the  Im- 
perial Dragon  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  the 
period  ending  in  early  1964,  Mr.  Young  testified  that  you  held  the 
position  of  secretary-treasurer.     Was  Mr.  Young's  testimony  factual  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decine  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  1  hand  you  an  envelope  containing  three  checks  drawn 
by  the  Louisiana  Rifle  Association  against  their  account  at  the  Louisi- 
ana Rank  and  Trust  Company,  payable  to  L.  G.  Wilder,  Grady 
Wilder,  or  Mr.  L.  G.  Wilder.  I  will  ask  you  the  purpose  for  which 
those  checks  were  drawn. 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  i)reviously  stated. 

(Checks  marked  "Lloyd  Wilder  Exhibit  No.  1."  One  of  said  checks 
follows;  balance  retained  in  committee  files.) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2397 

Lloyd  Wilder  Exhibit  No.  1 


■i  v 
«ia*rKHHnr.  I.A.    April      29       i»63  j^^^jj 

H   ■"■■ 


I 


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<i»4t«01i%l.i{ 


Mr.  Appell.  With  Mr.  Young  being  deposed  as  the  Imperial 
Dragon  and  Mr.  Swenson  being  deposed  from  his  office,  did  you  know 
Mr.  Murry  H.  Martin  to  be  the  next  Grand  Dragon  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  the  signature  card  for  the  account  in  the 
name  of  the  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders  at  the  Ouachita  Na- 
tional Bank,  in  Monroe,  Louisiana,  and  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and 
ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  this  signature  card  shows  the 
president  of  the  organization  to  be  M.  H.  Martin,  the  secretary  to  be 
L.  G.  Wilder,  and  the  treasurer  to  be  Henry  I.  Bayles. 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  4."  See 
p.  2367.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilder,  how  many  Klan  organizations,  to  your 
knowledge,  are  existing  in  the  State  of  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  the  latter  part  of  1964  and  early  1965,  did  dissension 
grow  within  the  ranks  of  the  organization  headed  by  Mr.  Martin  so 
that  certain  Klaverns  and  leaders  defected  from  your  organization  and 
started  new  Klan  gt'oups  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  Houston  P.  Morris,  grand  kleagle  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  under  Mr.  Martin,  break  away  and 
take  his  following  with  him  and  form  the  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan  of 
America,  Incorporated  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 


2398  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  a  group  of  Klansmen  in  the  Sixth  Congressional 
District  at  the  same  time  break  away  from  the  leadership  of  Mr.  Mar- 
tin and  go  as  an  independent  Klan  organization  sometimes  known  as 
the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  Henry  I.  Bayles,  who  was  the  treasurer  of  the 
organization  at  the  same  time  that  you  were  the  secretary,  break  with 
the  organization  and  is  he  now  with  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilder,  a  review  of  deposit  slips  filed  or  appended 
to  deposits  to  the  account  of  the  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders 
at  the  Ouachita  National  Bank,  in  Monroe,  Louisiana,  contains  a  list 
of  the  following  individuals.  I  hand  you  a  list  and  I  put  it  to  you 
as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  these  people 
were  members  of  your  Klan  organization. 

The  Chairman.  The  reporter  will  make  note  of  the  fact  to  insert  at 
the  points  where  the  previous  witnesses  and  this  witness  testified  with 
reference  to  documents,  that  those  documents  should  be  included  in 
the  printed  record  at  those  respective  points. 

Mr.  Wilder.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Lloyd  Wilder  Exhibit  No.  2"  follows:) 

Lloyd  Wilder  Exhibit  No.  2 

Subject :  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders 
Bank  Account, 

The  Ouachita  National  Bank 
Monroe,  Louisiana 

(Deposit  slips  from  January  31,  1964,  to  October  19,  1964) 

Following  is  a  list  of  individuals  (only  those  positively  deciphered)  listed  on 
the  deposit  slips  for  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders  bank  account : 

Marvin  C.  Brister  L.  D.  Starns 

Dale  Blaekman  H.  W.  Nickens 

Norman  D.  McFerran  Clarence  Boykin 

A.  J.  Kidd  Cecil  Cliburn 

Carl  J.  Teal  Melvin  Jackson 

Earnest  Martin  J.  D.  Baker  » 

C.  C.  Charles  Paul  Loft 

L.  G.  Wilder  C.  Tigner 

Eddie  J.  Moore  R.  C.  Colvin 

Ed  Leggett  Tilman  C.  Rinehart 

W.  Jenkins  Harold  E.  Gordon 

Harold  Smith  Mrs.  T.  R.  King 

W.  J.  Williams  W.  R.  Watson 

Gary  Core  Eric  Peterson 

Bobby  Lang  James  Manning 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  2399 

Lloyd  Welder  Exhibit  No.  2 — Continued 

E.  B.  Smith  J.  A.  McGee 

R.  S.  Wright  Frank  Cooper 

Frank  Cooper  J.  H.  Droddy 

Gene  Halford  W.  J.  Hester 

Edward  H.  Browning  Anthony  V.  Brown 

Gerald  Myers  Joseph  S.  Reeves 

Aubrey  Gerald  Myers  Alex  J.  Langer,  Jr. 

James  R.  Dunaway  John  R.  Smith 

E.  L.  Murray  Jimmie  N.  Atkins 

C.  R.  Watts  James  L.  Collins 

Tommie  Thompson  C.  R.  Moore 

Mrs.  Hattie  J.  Atkinson  Hardy  J.  Penton 

L.  R.  Rinehart  Phillip  Harrell 

Donald  Varnado  Bert  N.  Stafford 

Browning  Grocery  Milton  H.  Ballard 

Donald  Ray  Martin  Don  Hudson 

James  W.  Ford  Angus  Rogers 

Donnie  Mann  (608  Wat-  Ronald  Byrd 
son) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilder,  did  the  Little  Kiver  Rod  and  Gun  Club 
which  maintained  a  banking  account  at  the  Guaranty  Bank  and  Trust 
Company,  Alexandria,  Louisiana,  make  checks  payable  to  you  as 
secretary  for  their  dues  and  the  realm's  share  of  the  initiation  fee  col- 
lected from  members  of  that  Klavern  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilder,  would  you  be  willing  to  explain  to  the 
committee  the  purposes  and  functions  of  the  wrecking  crew  which 
is  provided  for  by  the  constitution  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku 
KluxKlan? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  possess  knowdedge  of  any  act  of  violence 
carried  out  by  members  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  To  your  knowledge,  did  the  Original  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  ever  carry  out  any  of  its  programs  or  objectives  with- 
out the  use  of  intimidation  or  violence  ? 

Mr.  Wilder.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  no  further  questions  of  this 
witness. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused.    Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Henry  I.  Bayles. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give 
will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help 
you  God  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  do. 


2400  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

TESTIMONY  OF  HENRY  I.  BAYLES 

Mr,  Appell.  Will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  Henry  I.  Bayles. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  Xovember  19,  1932,  in  West  ^Monroe,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  No. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  desire  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Have  you  had  the  advice  of  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  Yes, 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  Mr.  Chalmers  your  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  I 
feel  the  answer  might  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as 
guaranteed  me  by  amendments  5,  4,  1,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of 
the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bayles,  are  you  appearing  before  the  committee 
this  afternoon  in  accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  ? 

The  Chairman.  Before  you  ask  that  question,  Mr.  Bayles,  you  are 
appearing  here  without  counsel.  You  were  asked  whether  you  wanted 
counsel.  You  said  you  did  not.  I  think  I  should  tell  you  that  if 
you  want  it,  you  have  a  right  to  invoke  the  fifth  amendment  in  your 
own  way  and  within  your  own  right.  I  just  want  to  let  you  know 
that.  We  respect  your  invocation  in  that  respect  in  the  same  way 
and  to  the  same  extent  as  though  you  had  a  lawyer. 

You  understand  what  I  am  saying?  I  am  not  asking  you  a  ques- 
tion.    I  am  just  telling  you  that. 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  understand. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bayles,  are  you  appearing  before  the  committee 
this  afternoon  in  accordance  wi<^h  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  the 
26th  day  of  October  1965,  at  2006  DeSiard  Street,  Monroe,  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Bayles.  November  15. 

Mr.  Appell.  That  is  the  date  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  That  I  was  to  appear. 

Mr.  Appell,  You  were  served  on  October  26  by  the  United  States 
marshal  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  ITnder  the  terms  of  that  subpena,  you  were  commanded 
to  bring  with  you  and  produce  documents  set  forth  in  an  attachment 
that  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  and  affiliatetl  organizations,  namely,  the  Christian 
Constitutional  Crusaders,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained 
by  you  or  available  to  you  as  Treasurer  and/or  member  of  Original  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  and/or  the  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders. 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2401 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Bayles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
any  and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  the  subpena 
dated  November  15,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to 
do  so  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guar- 
anteed to  me  by  amendments  5,  4,  1,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States  of  America. 

Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all 
records  as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  Novem- 
ber 15,  1965,  for  the  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the 
subject  under  investigation  and  does  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  con- 
sideration of  valid  or  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within 
the  scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules 
adopted  by  the  89th  Congress  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  Jan- 
uary 4, 1965. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  a  good  one. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to  produce  the  docu- 
ments called  for. 

The  Chairman.  You  were  in  the  hearing  room  when  I  instructed 
the  previous  witnesses  concerning  the  production  of  records  under 
subpenas  served  on  them,  and  on  you,  in  a  representative  capacity. 
Were  you  in  the  room  at  that  time  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  I  am  not 

Mr.  Bayles.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  You  appear  to  be  a  very  bright  young  man,  and  I 
suppose  you  understand,  or  understood  what  I  said,  that  is,  that  since 
this  subpena  calls  for  you  to  produce  documents  to  this  committee  in 
a  representative  capacity,  I  do  not  accept  your  invocation. 

Do  you  understand  what  I  am  saying? 

For  that  reason,  and  I  am  sure  you  follow  me,  I  direct  you  to  produce 
the  documents- 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  demanded  by  the  committee  in  the  subpena  dated 
November  15, 1965,  because  I  honestly  feel  it  would  tend  to  incriminate 
my  rights  contained  in  amendments  5,  4, 1,  and  14  of  the  Constitution 
of  the  United  States. 

I  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  all  records  requested  by  the 
committee  under  subpena  dated  November  15,  1965,  for  that  informa- 
tion is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  said  investigation  and  the 
same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  consideration  of  any  valid 
remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within  the  scope  of  that 
authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules  adopted  by  the 
89th  Congress  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  January  4,  1965. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 


2402  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appeli..  Mr.  Bayles,  I  might  advise  you,  if  you  have  discussed 
with  counsel  you  might  know,  that  in  the  future,  with  respect  to  the 
productio'^  of  documents,  the  committee  will  accept  all  of  those  reasons 
in  an  answer  which  would  encompass  "for  the  reasons  previously 
stated,"  which  would  not  require  you  to  repeat  all  the  language  each 
time. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  understand  that  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  What  he  is  trying  to  tell  you  is,  if  you  want  to  you 
may,  from  here  on,  if  that  is  to  be  your  course  of  action,  say,  "I  decline 
to  answer  the  questions  on  the  grounds  previously  stated." 

Mr.  Appell.  Paragraph  2  calls  for  you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you.  in  your  capacity 
as  Treasurer,  past  or  present,  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan 
and/or  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws" 
of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any 
other  oflScer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody 
or  control. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for  in  paragraph  2. 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  refuse  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  docu- 
ments demanded  for  the  reasons  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  And  for  the  reasons  I  stated,  I  order  you  to  pro- 
duce the  documents. 

Mr.  Bayles.  For  the  constitutional  reasons  previously  stated,  I  de- 
cline to  do  so. 

Mr.  Appell.  Paragraph  3  calls  for  you  to  produce : 

Copies  of  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service.  Form  1120, 
"U.S.  Corporation  Income  Tax  Return,"  for  the  fiscal  years  1961  through  June 
30,  1965,  filed  by  you  as  Treasurer  of  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders. 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  for  the  constitution- 
al reasons  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  And  for  the  reasons  I  previously  stated,  I  order 
and  direct  you  to  produce  them. 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  demanded  by  the  committee  for  the  constitutional 
reasons  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell,  Paragraph  4  calls  for  you  to  produce : 

Copies  of  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service,  Form  1040, 
"U.S.  Individual  Income  Tax  Return,"  for  the  calendar  years  1958  through  1964, 
filed  by  you  as  an  individual  taxpayer  with  the  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  In- 
ternal Revenue  Service. 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  for  the  constitution- 
al reasons  previously  stated. 


ACTWITIES    OF   KU   KLUX   KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2403 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bayles,  where  do  you  presently  reside  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  incriminate  my  rights  as 
guaranteed  by  amendments  5,  4, 1,  and  14  of  the  Constitution. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  reside  at  201  Elmwood  Drive,  Monroe,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  my  answer  might 
tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me 
by  amendments  5,  4, 1,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  are  you  currently  employed  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  because 
I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  as  guar- 
anteed to  me  by  amenclments  5,  4,  1,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Bayles,  if  you  wish  to,  you  may  say  in  answer 
to  following  questions  you  refuse  to  answer  the  questions  on  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  are  employed  by  the  Gregg  Implement  Company, 
2006  DeSiard  Street,  Monroe,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Bayles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for 
the  reasons  previously  given. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  have  held  the  position  of  Grand  Dragon,  great  titan, 
and  treasurer. 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  decline  to  answer  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bayles,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  during  the  days  when  the  Original 
Knights  were  under  the  leadership  of  Mr.  Young  and  Mr.  Swenson, 
that  it  used  as  a  cover  name  the  Louisiana  Rifle  Association. 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  previously  given. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or 
deny  the  fact,  that  you  signed  a  signature  card  on  account  of  the 
Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  on  February  3,  1964,  at  the 
Ouachita  National  Bank  of  Monroe,  Louisiana,  in  the  name  of  the 
Christian  Constitutional  Cmsaders?  (See  Murry  Martin  Exhibit 
No.  4,  p.  2367.) 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
constitutional  reasons  previously  given. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bayles,  as  the  treasurer  of  the  Original  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  you  were  responsible  for  cosigning  checks  drawn 
against  the  account  maintained  in  its  banking  institutions.  Can  you 
tell  the  committee  the  purpose  for  which  checks  were  drawn  to  your- 


2404  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

self,  L.  G.  Wilder,  Robert  Fuller,  Houston  P.  Morris,  and  Murry 
Martin  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for 
the  constitutional  reasons  given  previously. 

Mr.  Appell.  Under  the  constitution  and  laws  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  Realm  of  Louisiana,  there  is  provision 
for  the  creation  within  Klaverns  of  a  body  known  as  the  wrecking 
crew.  Can  you  tell  the  committee  the  purpose  and  function  of  the 
wrecking  crew  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for 
the  constitutional  reasons  previously  given. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  ever  serve  as  a  member  of  a  wrecking  crew? 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reasons  previously  given. 

Mr.  Appell.  Have  you,  as  a  Klansman,  ever  engaged  in  active 
violence  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
constitutional  reasons  previously  given. 

Mr.  Appei,l.  Early  in  1965,  Mr.  Houston  P.  Morris  broke  from  the 
Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  and  formed  the  Original  Ku 
Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc. 

Did  you  join  with  him  in  this  organization  ? 

Mr.  Bayles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for 
the  constitutional  reasons  previously  given. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  the  summer  of  1965,  the  bulk  of  its  membership 
disbanded  from  the  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  and 
became  affiliated  with  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  under  the 
Realm  of  Ix)uisiana  under  the  Imperial  Wizard,  Robert  Shelton,  Tus- 
caloosa, Alabama.  Are  you  one  of  the  membei's  that  took  that  coui^se 
of  action? 

Mr.  Bayles.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
constitutional  reasons  previously  given. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have  no  further  questions  of  this  witness. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  may  be  excused. 

The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  for  5  minutes. 

(Whereupon,  at  4:35  p.m.,  the  subcommittee  recessed  and  recon- 
vened at  4 :57  p.m.  with  the  following  subcommittee  membei's :  Rep- 
resentatives Willis,  Weltner,  and  Buchanan,  present  at  time  of  recess 
and  when  hearing  resumed.) 

The  Chairman.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 

Counsel  will  call  the  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  would  like,  Mr.  Chairman,  to  call  Billy  Skipper. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand.  Do  you  solemnly 
swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the 
whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  do. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2405 

TESTIMONY    OF    BILLY    SKIPPER,    ACCOMPANIED    BY    COUNSEL, 

JAMES  R.  VENABLE 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr. 
Skipper? 

Mr.  Skipper.  Billy  Skipper. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  In  Baskin,  New  Orleans,  1933. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  month  and  day  of  1933  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  April  22. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  before  the  committee  with  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  Sir? 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  with  coimsel  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  state  his  name  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Venable.  James  R.  Venable,  attorney,  Atlanta,  Georgia. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Skipper,  are  you  appearmg  before  the  committee 
in  accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  by  United  States  mar- 
shal on  the  30th  day  of  October  1965  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Skipper,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  has  an 
attachment  which  is  made  part  of  the  subpena,  and  it  directs  you  to 
produce  for  the  committee  those  documents  described  in  two  para- 
graphs. 

Paragraph  1 : 

AH  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  and  affiliated  organizations,  in  your  possession,  custody 
or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  Klan  Bureau  Investigator 
and/or  member  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Skipper.  Sir,  I  decline  to  produce  those  documents  on  the  con- 
stitutional grounds  of  the  4th  amendment  of  the  Constitution — the 
■4th,  5th,  and  14th  amendments. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
produce  the  documents  called  for  in  paragraph  1. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Skipper,  you  were  in  the  audience,  were  you 
not,  when  I  explained  to  the  previous  witnesses  what  this  subpena 
called  for,  that  is,  that  they  called  on  you  to  produce  documents  which 
you  hold  in  a  representative  capacity?     You  understand  that? 

Mr.  Skipper.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  We  do  not  accept  your  right  to  invoke  the  consti- 
tutional amendments  you  outlined,  as  I  previously  stated.  Therefore 
I  direct  you  to  answer  this  question. 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  decline  to  produce  these  documents  and  records  on 
f  he  grounds  previously  stated. 


2406  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Skipper,  paragraph  2  calls  for  the  production  of: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  past  Klan  Bureau  Investigator  and/or  member  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organi- 
zation authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of 
said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

I  direct  that  you  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  decline  to  produce  those  documents  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  And  for  the  reasons  you  previously  stated  you 
decline  to  produce  them  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  For  the  reasons  I  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Skipper,  would  you  give  the  committee  your  edu- 
cational background  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  have  had  a  seventh-grade  grammar  school  edu- 
cation. 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline,  on  the  constitutional  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wliat  is  your  employment  background  from  the  year 
1960? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  are  presently  self-employed  as  a  plumbing  contrac- 
tor. 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Skipper,  have  you  had  any  military  service? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  gi-ounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  AppELii.  1  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  to  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  served  in  the  United  States  Army  from  May  5, 1953, 
to  April  21,  1955,  and  transferred  into  the  United  States  Army  Re- 
serve to  complete  your  military  obligation  and  were  in  the  Reserve 
from  April  1955  to  June  1961. 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  While  a  member  on  active  duty  in  the  United  States 
Army  were  you  ever  court-martialed  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2407 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you 

The  Chairman.  One  moment,  please. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Skipper,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  in  March  of' 1965  you  attended  a  meeting 
of  four  factions  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  meet- 
ing held  in  Baton  Rouge,  Louisiana 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully 

Mr.  Appell. — for  the  purpose  of  attempting  to  reunite  these  groups 
under  one  head. 

Mv.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Skipper,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  were  the  chief  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of 
Investigation  for  the  Sixth  Congressional  District  of  Louisiana  of  the 
Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

]Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Skipper,  under  the  constitution  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  it  states  that  no  one  will 
carry  a  gun  inside  the  state  or  province  meeting  except  those  ap- 
pointed by  the  "Chief  KBI  or  Province  KBI."  Would  you  tell  us  the 
functions  of  the  province  KBI  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  The  word  "province"  in  this  instance  as  I  recall 
it,  Mr,  Appell,  encompasses  a  congressional  district.     Is  that  right? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir,  and  in  the  case  of  Mr.  Skipper  it  is  the  Sixth 
Congressional  District. 

Mr.  Skipper,  have  you  received  from  the  Federal  Communications 
Commission  authority  to  operate  a  Class  D  citizens  band  radio? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Skipper,  I  will  show  you  a  copy  of  an  application 
sigiied  Billy  Skipper,  dated  August  21, 1964,  application  for  a  Class  D 
citizens  band  license.  I  wish  to  read  from  that  application  language 
which  appears  on  the  reverse  side.    It  reads: 

On  the  application  I  mailed  the  15  transmitters  I  requested  was  a  mistake 
in  filling  out  the  application.  I  only  need  10  because  I  am  self-employed  in 
Plumbing  &  Heating.    Thank  you.    Billy  Skipper. 

I  ask  you  to  look  at  this  and  ask  you  whether  this  is  a  true  copy  of 
the  application  you  executed  and  filed  with  the  Federal  Communica- 
tions Commission. 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Billy  Skipper  Exhibit  No.  1"  follows:) 


59-222  O— 67— pt.  3- 


2408 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


Billy  Skipper  Exhibit  No.  1 


mc  roim  w 


UN1TCD  stahs  of  AUrRIC* 

FEDERAL  COMMUNICATIONS  COMMISSION 

WASHIftCTON.  D.C.     WM 


TOHM  •PPfiOVED 
■UO&CT  MjRCAtJ  NO.  UHtlLLIO 


APPLICATION  FOR  CLASS  B,  C,  OR  D  STATION  LICCrt;e.>4N  TBE         "l}/?',  ^ 


OO  NOT  WRITE  IS  THIS  BLOCK  ^ 
F  f  r 


li^ 


CITIZENS  RADIO  SERVICE  'r{y 

1.  Applicillnr/tmJ'Us,   Ap/JtSnlMrL' 

2.  Compli-lo  ilrQVnfwriIrr  nr^iiil  f^'-aUy;^ 


30287 


:2-AUG2764 


[U-VtAMiiNr.inN.  p.  c. 


mudl  tf^^fWi 


orwFrc  j^onft*  100. 


rffi^of Blication  to  Frdcr*!  Com- 
munifBtionYjinjn mission,  G«l>^lm»K.  P«.,  M^I^'J  C 

CASH        Mal^-fWw   f>r   monry   nrd.  r   pB>/it.:?vy\   E.  jW»l  ,C'>mmunn-»tinom 
Cnmmiwon     ^^'[^"^n  19.  Volume    VI   aj   Kjjf   '"'«■*»  dMrrtrtinb   i-hrthH 


•  tf>e  j*  required 


^ 


^^.^^fEW 


NAME  OF  APPLICANT 


euSiNtiS  r.AK|  ,0«  LAST  NAME.  IF  AN  lhOIVltKj«l» 


^/</jPA-n>  l9/,.^}.,A/p  ^/Jul/Vo 


ir  AN  INDIVIDUAL  OPERATING  UNDER  A  TRADE  NAME  GIVE  INDIVIDUAL 
NAME,  OR  IF  PARTNERSHIP,  LIST  NAMES  OF  PARTNERS  (Do  niX  rtptal 
any  namt  vted  in  iUm  I) 


JlMJ^ 


ej^ 


FIRST  NAMES 


MsA 


MAILING  ADDRESS 


NUMBER  AND  StRCa 


IP  CODE  I  CbuWr  OR  tQUIVAttNT  SUBOIvTslON 


I  C0UH7V  OR  eQUIVAANT  SUBDIvTsK 


CLASSIFICATION  OF  APPLICANT  (S«  ifwirurj ion*) 


(3^0 


iNOiyipUAL 


■g' 


n 


ASSOCIATION 


Dl 


I      I   PARTNEHUtir  Q   CORfOHATlOM  Q]   OTHER  fSptti/f): 


CLASS  OF  STATION  (CAnt  oi.l»  inu) 


D' 


D- 


B^" 


IS  THIS  APPLICATION  TO  MODIFY  OR  RENEW  AN  EXISTING  STATION  LICENSE* 
[     I  VC»  (Cit<  eaU  •t"Bii); 


B^ 


00  YOU  NOW  HOLD  ANY  STATION  LICENSE   OTHER  THAN  THAT  COVtRtO  BV  ITEM  6, 
Of  THE  SAME  CLASS  AS  THAT  REQUESTED  BT  THIS  APPLICATION? 


D' 


^ 


TOTAL  NUMBER  Of  TRANSMITTERS  TO  eC  AUTHORIZED  UNDfR  REQUEST EJMTAT ION 


DOES  EACH  TRANSMITTER  TO  BE  OPERATED  APPEAR  ON  THE  COMMIS 
SION  S  "RADIO  EQUIPMENT  LIST  PART  C  OR,  IF  FOR  CLASS  C  OR 
CLASS  0  STATIONS.  IS  IT  CRYSTAL  CONTROLLED?  (1/  "«.  aUoek 
detaiUd  dttcription:  att  nbparl  C  o/  Part  19) 


A    WILL  APPLICANT  OWN  ALL  THE  RADIO  EQUIPMENT?     (//  HO.  aiuwrr 
D  and  C  btlow) 


NAME  OF  OWNER 


IS  THE  APPLICANT  A  PARTT  TO  A  WRITTEN  ICASEOR  OTHER  AGREEMENT  UNDER 
WHICH  THE  CWNERSMIP  OR  CONTROL  MIlL  BE  E  VERCIStD  IN  THE  SAME  MAN 
NEB  AS  IF  THE  EQUIPMENT  WERE  OWNED  BT  THE  APPLICANT? 


HAS  APPLICANT  BEAD  AND  UNDERSTOOD  THE  PROVISIONS  OF  PART  19 
SUBPART  D  DEALING  WITH  PERMISSIBLE  COMMUNICATIONS  FOR  WHICH 
THIS  CLASS  OF  STATION  MAY  BE  USED' 


WILL  THE  USE  OF  THE  STATION  CONFORM  IN  ALL  RESPECTS  WITH  THE 
PERMISSIBLE  COMMUNICATIONS  AS  SET  FORTH  IN  PART  19.  SUBPART  0? 


WILL  THE  STATION  BE  OPfRATED  BY  ANY  PERSON  OTHfR  THAN  THE 
APPLICANT  MEMBERS  OF  HIS  IMMEDIATE  FAMILY  OR  HIS  EMPLOYEES' 
{If  urn,  attach  a  ifparatr  thrft  linttng  tht  namf»  and  relalionship  of  all 
aucn  p€Tiont  and  eiee  a  detaxUd  reiuon  for  tAtir  optralion  of  your 
atation) 


IF  APPLICANT  IS  AN  INDIVIDUAL  OR  A  PARTNERSHIP.  ARE  VOO  OH  ANY 
OF  THE  PARTNERS  AN  ALIEN' 


IS  APPLICANT  THE  REPRESENTATIVE  Of  ANY  ALIEN  OR  ANY  FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENT?     (//  ytB.  explain  fuUy) 


WITHIN  10  YEARS  PREVIOUS  TO  THE  DATE  OF  THIS  APPLICATION  HAS 
THE  APPLICANT  OR  ANY  PARTY  TO  THIS  APPLICATION  BEEN  CONVICTED 
IN  A  FEDERAL  STATE  OR  LOCAL  COURT  OF  ANY  CRIME  FOR  WHICH  THE 
PENALTY  IMPOSED  WAS  A  FINE  OF  i500  OR  MORE  OR  AN  IMPRISONMENT 
OF  6  MONTHS  OR  MORE'  fSre  inntrurlront.  If  yet.allach  a  arparalt 
nhetl  (riving  drtaiU  of  eath  tuch  contichon) 


IF  APPLICANT  IS  AN  INDIVIDUAL  OR  A  PARTNERSHIP  ARE  YOU  OH  ANY 
PARTNER  LESS  THAN  IB  YEARS  OF  AGE  (LESS  THAN  IJ  YEARS  OF  AGE  IF 
FOR  CLASS  C  STATION  LICENSE)? 


cy' 


7;^ 


L^ 


I 


^A 


Vi 


IF  THE  PRINCIPAL  LOCATION  WHERE  THE  STATION  WILL  BE 
USED  IS  DIFFERENT  FROM  THE  MAILING  ADDRESS  (ITEM  3). 
GIVE  THAT  LOCATION.  (DO  NOT  GIVE  FOST  OFFICE  BOX  OR 
RFD  NO^ 


NUMKR  AND  STREtT 


DO  NOT" 
SCREENING 


K^ifra  IN 

(Ty      d  n 


^ASa^^ 


tIGH  AND  DATE  THE  APPLICATION   ON  REVERSE  SIDE 


V 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    EST    THE    U.S. 


2409 


Billy  Skipper  Exhibit  No.  I — Continued 


19    IF  APPLICANT  IS  A  NONGOVERNMENTAL 

CORPORATION.   ANSWER   THE  FOLLOWING   ITEMS 


IS  CORPORVTiON  ORGANIZED  UNDeR  LAWS  OF  ANY  FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENT? 


IS  ANY  OFFICER  OR  DIRECTOR  Of  THE  CORPORATION  AN  ALIEN? 


IS  MORE  THAN  ONE  FIFTH  OF  THE  CAPiTAL  STOCK  EITHER  OWNED  OF 
RECORD  OR  MAY  tr  BE  VOTED  BY  ALIENS  OR  THEIR  REPRESENTATIVES 
OR  BY  A  FOREIGN  GOVERNMENT  OR  REPRESENTATIVE  THEREOF  OR  BY 
ANY  CORPORATION  ORGANIZED  UNDER  THE  LAWS  OF  A  FOREIGN 
COUNTRY? 


IS  APPLICANT  DIRECTLY  OR  INDIRECTLY  CONTROLLED  BY  ANY  OTHER 
CORPORATION)     (//  yta,  antwtT  iirniJ  E  Ihrou0A  K  btlow) 


GIVE  NAME  AND  ADDRESS  OF  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION 


UNDER  THE  LAWS  OF  WHAT  STATE  OR  COUNTRY  IS  THE  CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION  ORGANIZtDT 


IS  MORE  THAN  ONE  FOURTH  OF  THE  CAPITAL  STOCK  OF  CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION  EITHER  OWNED  OF  RECORD  OR  MAY  IT  BE  VOTED  BY 
ALIENS  OR  THEIR  HtPRESENTATIvtS  OH  Bit  A  FOREIGN  GOVERNMENT 
OR  REPRESENTATUE  THEREOF  OR  BY  ANY  CORPORATION  QRGANItED 
UNDER  THE  LAWS  OF  A  FOREIGN  COUNTRY!     (//  yet,  gyvt  dttaxU) 


IS  ANY  OFFICER  OR  MORE  THAN  ONE  FOURTH  OF  THE  DIRECTORS  OF 
THE  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION  AN  ALIEN?  (//  ye;  anawtr  ilfm» 
7  arid  J  btlow) 


TOTAL  NUMBER  OF  DIRECTORS  IN  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION 


LIST  ALL  OFFICERS  AND  DIRECTORS  WHO  ARE  ALIENS  IN  CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION  AND  GIVE  BRIEF  BIOGRAPHICAL  STATEMENT  FOR  ^CH 
ALIEN 


IS  THE  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION   IN    TuRN    CONTROLLED 

BY  OTHER  COMPANIES?     {If  yet,  attack  tn/ormatxon  fur  each  I — I       ,. 

of  Ihete  controtlino  companies  covering  the  informalxon  re-  l_J 
qutiled  tfi  lUmt  £'  through  J,  above) 


D' 


iO    IF  APPLICANT  IS  AN  UNINCORPORATED 

SSOCtATION.   ANSWER   THE  FOLLOWING   ITEMS 


f  ANY  OFFICER  OR  DIRECTOR  OF  THE  ASSOCIATION  AN  ALIEN? 


ARE  MORE  THAN  ONE  FIFTH  OF  THE  VOTING  MEMBERS  OF  THE  ASSOCIA 
TIOH  ALIENS  OR  REPRESENTATIVES  OF  ALIENS  FOREIGN  GOVERNMENTS 
OR  REPRESENTATIVES  THEREOF  OR  CORPORATIONS  ORGANIZED  UNDER 
THE  LAWS  OF  A  FOREIGN  COUNTRY? 


IS  THE  ASSOCIATION  DIRECTLY  OR  INDIRECTLY  CONTROLLED  BY  ANY 
OTHER  ORGANIZATION?     (//  ytt.  give  dtlatled  explunatton) 


USE  THIS  SPACE  FOR  ANr  ADOIIJONAL  INfORMAIlQN  OR  REMARKS 


A<~^ 


{^A^  s^-P^.^Jlyl^ 


~m-^^j>ritM<^ 


^iJ^iil^^ 


Signature 


I>ato 


WILLFUL  FALSE  STATEMENTS  MADE  ON  THIS  FORM  ARE  PUN- 
ISHABLE   BY    FINE    AND    IMPRISONMENT.     U.S.  CODE,  TITLE  18, 
SECTION   1001. 


ALL  THC  STATEMENTS  MADE   IN  THE  APPLICATION  AND  ATTACHED  EXHIBITS  ARE  CONSIDERED   MATERIAL  REPRESENTATIONS,  AND  ALL  THE  EXHIBITS  ARE 
A    MATERIAL   PART    HEREOF   AND    ARE    INCORPORATED   HEREIN   AS    ir   SET    OUT    IN    FULL    IN    THE    APPLICATION. 

I   CERTIFY  THAT: 

The  applicant  has  (or  has  ordered  from  the  Government  Printing  Office)  a  current  copy  of  Part  19  of  the  Commission's  rules  governing 
the  Citizens  Radio  Service: 

The  applicant  waives  any  claim  to  the  use  of  any  particular  frequency  or  of  the  ether  as  against  the  regulatory  power  of  the  United 
States  because  of  the  previous  use  of  the  same,  whether  by  license  or  otherwise, 

The  applicant  accepts  full  responsibility  for  the  operation  of.  and  will  retain  control  of  any  citizens  radio  station  licensed  to  him  pursuant 
to  this  application  ; 

The  station  will  be  operated  in  full  accordance  with  the  applicable  law  and  the  current  rules  of  the  Federal  Communications  Commission  , 

The  said  station  will  not  be  used  for  any  purpose  contrary  to  Federal.  State  or  local  law; 

The  applicant  will  have  unlimited  access  to  the  radio  equipment  and  effective  measures  will  be  taken  to  prevent  its  use  by  unautlionzed 
persons ;  and 


The  statements  in  this  application  are  true,  complete,  and  correct  to  the  best  of  my  knowledge  and  belief  and  are  made  in  good  faith. 


DO  NOT  OPERATE  UNTIL  VOU  HAVE 
VOUR    OWN    LICCNSEi 

USE  OF  ANY  CALL  SIGN  NOT  VOUR 
OWN   IS  PROHIBITED. 


ilCMATUHE.      t<^,y  .^.^[^^ 

{Chmck  appro^rj^ia  bot  below/ 

f-j/ INDIVIDUAL  I 1   MtMBER  OF 

I/)   APPLICANT  I I    APPLICANT 


BATE  SIGNED! 


PARTNERSHIP 


□   OFFICER  OF  APPLICANT         I 1   OFFICKL  OF 
CORPORATION   OR                       GOVERNMENTAL 


ASSOCIATION 


U.5  GOVERNMENT  PRINTING  Of  net    IMJ-O-^M-^OI 
Reprinted   by  E.  F.  Johnion  Company 


2410  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  would  like  to  ask  you,  Mr.  Skipper,  whether  or  not 
these  10  transmitters  were  requested  for  use  in  your  plumbing  and 
heatinfij  business  or  for  use  of  the  Ori^nal  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  the  transmitters  were  used  on  Klan  business. 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Skipper,  on  October  6,  1964,  Howard  M.  Lee,  who 
possessed  an  Alcoholic  Tax  Unit  License  to  sell  firearms,  was  arrested 
by  the  Treasury  Department.  He  was  charged  with  failing  to  keep 
adequate  records  for  rifles  which  he  had  obtained  from  several  whole- 
salers and  which  he  had  distributed  throughout  the  Bogalusa  area, 
most  of  them  to  members  of  the  Klan. 

Howard  Lee,  according  to  the  committee's  investigation  and  accord- 
ing to  an  interview  with  Howard  Lee  in  the  Federal  penitentiary  in 
Texarkana,  Texas,  was  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Mitch  Community 
Unit  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  the  Mitch  Com- 
munity being  located  in  Bogalusa. 

Did  you  know  Howard  M.  Lee  to  be  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  unit? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  Howard  M.  Lee  visit  with  you  at  your  residence 
in  connection  with  Klan  business? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  show  you  a  sketch,  a  hand-drawn  sketch,  of  how  a 
person  would  outline  the  route  which  he  would  travel  to  get  to  your 
home.     I  ask  you  if  this  is  factual  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
con'^titutional  grounds  previouslv  stated. 

(Map  sketch  marked  "Billy  Skipper  Exhibit  No.  2"  and  retained  in 
committee  files.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Howard  Lee  drew  that  sketch  in  order  to  locate  your 
residence.  Did  Howard  Lee  meet  with  you  at  your  residence  and  dis- 
cuss the  business  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appfxi..  Howard  Lee  had  in  his  possession  a  list  containing 
names  of  people.  I  hand  you  this  list  in  his  hand  and  ask  you  if  you 
knew  those  persons  to  be  members  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  ground-^  nrpviouslv  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Billy  Skipper  Exhibit  No.  3"  follows:) 


ACTIVITIES    OF   RU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


2411 


Billy  Skipper  Exhibit  No.  3 


/-^ 


Huston   l{kJii>f\A/     J- 

[OWN    sne/v/s^ 

Boots    Qf  /fj^i.])  ^^ 
fi^D    Bu /^ o  j^ rr  '^""'^ 


Muni     Pof'e     "^ 


A^-; 


sWH*- 


!#, 


L^' 


■^^ 


2412 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 


Mr.  Appeli,.  Did  you  purchase  pistols  or  rifles  from  Howard  M. 
Lee? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  records  obtained  by  the  Treasury  Department 
from  Howard  Lee — and  by  the  way,  Mr.  Chairman,  I  think  the  record 
should  reflect  that  Howard  Lee  purcliased  for  sale  some  684  rifles  and 
his  records  showed  disposition  of  the  rifles  by  him  except  in  the  case 
of  184.  It  was  the  failure  to  keep  records  of  these  that  he  was  later 
indicted,  tried,  and  sentenced  to  3  years  for,  which  he  is  now  serving 
in  the  Federal  penitentiary  in  Texarkana,  Texas. 

In  1964  he  sold  Billy  Skipper,  Denham  Springs,  Louisiana,  one  .303 
Jungle  carbine  number  MKF937A239,  price  $32.50. 

Did  you  purchase  that  rifle  from  Mr,  Lee  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Entry  under  the  same  date,  sold  to  Billy  Skipper, 
Denham  Springs,  Louisiana,  one  30  calibre  U.S. Ml.  carbine,  E-563, 
amount  $57.50.  I  show  you  this  entry  which  contains  a  signature, 
Billy  Skipper,  and  ask  you  if  you  purchased  the  rifle  and  if  that  is 
your  signature. 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Excerpt  from  Howard  Lee's  records  marked  "Billy  Skipper  Ex- 
hibit No.  4"  follows :) 

Billy  Skipper  Exhibit  No.  4 


>ifi?«j(f 


Qujt/^ 


~>-Z? 


■N 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU   KLUX   KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2413 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Skipper,  when  interviewed  by  agents  of  the 
Treasury  Department  did  you  admit  that  you  had  purchased  from 
Mr.  Lee  one  of  the  carbines  that  I  have  described  to  you  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  "What  weapons  do  you  own  other  than  those  that  I 
have  described  to  you  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  April  1965,  following  an  argument,  did  you  pull 
a  gun  on  a  Denham  Springs  police  officer? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Skipper,  in  May  of  1964,  the  Klan  in  Bogalusa, 
a  part  of  the  Sixth  Congressional  District,  held  a  rally  in  which  the 
Klansmen  were  masked  in  public  in  violation  of  Louisiana  State  law. 
Do  you  possess  any  knowledge  of  whether  assurances  were  received  by 
the  Klan  that  they  would  not  be  prosecuted  for  violating  the  State 
law? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  chief  of  the  KBI  in  1964  and  early  1965,  did  cross- 
burning,  throwing  of  tacks  on  people's  lawns,  threatening  telephone 
calls,  come  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  KBI? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  personally  engage  in  any  of  these  acts  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  no  further  questions  to  ask  of 
this  witness. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Skipper,  is  it  not  a  fact  that  the  application 
you  filed  with  the  Federal  Communications  Commission  for  a  citizens 
band  radio  license  was  applied  for  by  you  for  use  by  you  not  only  as 
a  member  and  official  of  the  Klan  group  to  which  you  belong,  but 
also  in  your  capacity  as  a  member  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of 
Investigation  ? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Is  it  not  a  fact  that  the  gun,  or  guns,  you  pur- 
chased from  Mr.  Lee  were  so  purchased  by  you  for  use  bv  you  in 
your  capacity  as  a  member  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation  in  the 
Sixth  Congressional  District,  which  is  the  area  that  you  represent? 

Mr.  Skipper.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  have  no  questions. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  I  have  no  questions. 

The  Chairman.  The  documents  we  have  just  examined  the  witness 
on  will  be  inserted  in  the  record  at  the  points  where  Mr.  Appell 
previously  questioned  the  witness. 

Mr.  Appell  now  has  an  additional  question  to  ask  and  an  additional 
document  to  offer  in  evidence. 


2414  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    EST    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  the  record  to  show  that 
the  sketch  which  I  exhibited  to  the  witness,  directions  to  his  residence, 
was  drawn  by  Howard  M.  Lee,  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Mitch  Com- 
munity Unit  of  the  United  Klans  of  America. 

The  Chairman.  That  drawing  will  be  a  part  of  the  record. 

Is  that  all  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  That  is  all,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  until  10  o'clock 
tomorrow  morning. 

(Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Willis,  Weltner, 
and  Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon,  at  5:20  p.m.,  Tuesday,  January  4,  1966,  the  subcom- 
mittee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  10  a.m.,  Wednesday,  January  5, 1966.) 


ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLUX  KLAN  ORGANIZATIONS 
IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 

Part  3 


WEDNESDAY,  JANUARY  5,  1966 

United  States  House  of  Representatives, 

Subcommittee  of  the 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 

Washington,  D.G. 

PUBLIC   HEARINGS 

The  subcommitt'ee  met,  pursuant  to  recess,  as  10  a.m.  in  the  Caucus 
Room,  Cannon  House  Office  Building,  Washington,  D.C.,  Hon.  Edwin 
E.  Willis  (chairman)  presiding. 

(Subcommittee  members:  Representatives  Edwin  E.  Willis,  of 
Louisiana,  chairman ;  Joe  R.  Pool,  of  Texas ;  Charles  L.  Weltner,  of 
Georgia ;  John  M.  Ashbrook,  of  Ohio ;  and  John  H.  Buchanan,  Jr.,  of 
Alabama. ) 

Subcommittee  members  present :  Representatives  Willis,  Pool,  Welt- 
ner, and  Buchanan. 

Staff  members  present:  Francis  J.  McNamara,  director;  William 
Hite,  general  counsel;  Alfred  M.  Nittle,  counsel;  Donald  T.  Appell, 
chief  investigator,  and  Philip  R.  Manuel,  investigator. 

The  Chairman.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 

Mr.  Manuel,  will  you  call  the  first  witness. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  would  like  to  call  at  this  time 
Mr.  Ralph  Blumberg. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand,  sir. 

Do  your  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will 
be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you 
God? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  RALPH  BLTJMBERG 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Blumberg,  would  you  please  state  your  full  name 
for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Ralph  Blumberg. 

Mr.  Manuel.  And  when  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Blumberg  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  February  27,  1921,  Cotton  Plant,  Arkansas. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Would  you  please  give  the  committee  a  brief  resume 
of  your  educational  background  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  completed  2  years  at  the  University  of  Missouri. 

2415 


2416  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Manuel.  And  would  you  please  frive  the  committee  a  resume 
of  your  career  in  the  Armed  Forces  of  the  United  States  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  served  a  little  over  4  years  in  the  United  States 
Coast  Guard. 

Mr.  Manuel.  What  were  the  years  of  your  service  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  From  1941  to  1945. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Would  you  p;ive  the  committee  a  brief  resume  of  your 
business  and  professional  background  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  have  been  in  broadcasting  since  1945. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Were  you  ever  a  resident  of  Bogalusa,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  A  little  louder. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes.    I  went  to  Bogalusa  in  July  1961. 

Mr.  Manuel.  And  what  did  you  do  in  Bogalusa  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  We  purchased  Radio  Station  WBOX,  and  I  oper- 
ated it  as  an  owner  and  operator  of  the  station. 

Mr.  Manuel.  That  was  in  July  1961 ;  is  that  correct,  sir? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Manuel.  During  that  period  of  time,  July  1961  and  shortly 
thereafter,  would  you  inform  the  committee  as  to  your  opinion  as  a 
private  citizen  of  the  racial  situation  which  existed  at  that  time  in 
Bogalusa  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  As  far  as  I  knew,  from  1961,  the  next  3  or  4  years, 
I  knew  of  no  racial  tension  or  any  racial  problems.  Wliether  they 
existed  or  not  is  another  question,  but  I  knew  of  none  of  this. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Prior  to  approximately  May  of  1964,  were  you  aware 
as  a  private  citizen  of  the  existence  of  a  Ku  Klux  Klan  organization 
in  the  area  of  Bogalusa,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  had  heard  some  rumors  to  that  effect,  but  they 
were  merely  rumors.  I  really  couldn't  say  that  I  definitely  knew 
factually,  because  I  didn't. 

Mr.  Manuel.  When  did  you  first  become  aware  of  such  a  group  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  When  they  held  an  open  rally  in  the  city  of  Boga- 
lusa in  May  of  1964.  It  was  an  open  rally  with  all  the  regalia,  hooded 
sheets  and  20-foot  crosses,  this  kind  of  thing. 

The  Chairman.  Were  they  masked  ?  Were  any  of  them  masked  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes.  I  didn't  attend  that  rally.  This  is  what  was 
told  to  me. 

The  Chairman.  From  the  reports  and  so  on,  it  was  a  meeting  where 
Klansmen  appeared  in  hooded  sheets  or  regalia  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Regalia. 

Mr.  Manuel.  During  that  time.  May  of  1964,  were  there  any  racial 
demonstrations  in  Bogalusa  at  that  time  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  No,  not  that  I  know  of. 

Mr.  Manuel.  As  a  private  citizen  did  you  detect  any  racial  tension 
at  that  time  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  No.  I  have  to  be  honest,  as  a  private  citizen  I  knew 
of  no  racial  tension  whatsoever  or  of  any  activity  at  that  time. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Blumberg,  in  October  of  1964  did  you,  with 
others,  meet  in  order  to  form  an  organization  to  better  deal  with  racial 
problems  in  the  Bogalusa  area  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes.  In  October  of  1964  I  was  invited  to  the  home 
of  an  attorney  in  Bogalusa,  Mr.  Bascom  Talley,  who  had  been  ap- 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN    EST    THE    U.S.  2417 

pointed  a  Community  Relations  ^  official  for  Bogalusa,  and  when  I  ar- 
rived at  his  home  I  found  a  group  of  other  citizens,  including  two  men 
from  Community  Relations.  I  think  at  that  time  it  was  headed  by 
former  Governor  LeRoy  Collins.  We  were  told  they  felt  there  was 
possible  trouble  coming  to  Bogalusa  with  the  racial  question  and  they 
wanted  a  group  of  citizens  to  get  together  and  bring  a  speaker  into 
Bogalusa  in  order  to  help  Bogalusa  avoid  the  racial  pitfalls  some  of 
the  other  communities  in  the  South  had  already  experienced. 

The  Chairman.  By  "they"  you  mean  former  Governor  Collins? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes. 

Mr.  Manuel.  From  the  period  May  1964  until  your  initial  meeting 
with  this  group  which  you  have  just  described  in  October  of  1964,  did 
you  as  a  private  citizen  detect  Klan  activities,  recruitings,  or  rallies  or 
anything  of  that  sort  in  the  Bogalusa  area  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  What  period  was  that  ? 

Mr.  Manuel.  From  May  1964,  when  you  told  the  committee  there 
was  an  open  rally  in  Bogalusa,  until  October  1964  when  you  met  with 
this  group  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  had  heard  rumors  of  recruitment.  I  am  not  sure 
there  were  any  open  Klan  activities.  There  may  have  been  a  few 
cross-burnings  in  this  period.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  I  think  it  was  the 
editor  of  the  newspaper,  Lou  Major,  who  had  cross-burnings  on  his 
lawn  at  that  time. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Was  Mr.  Major  one  of  the  men  who  comprised  the 
group  you  met  with  in  October,  1964  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes,  he  was. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Who  were  the  other  members  of  that  group  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Reverend  Jerry  Chance,  minister  of  the  Main  Street 
Baptist  Church ;  Reverend  Paul  Gillespie,  minister  of  the  Memorial 
Baptist  Church ;  Reverend  Bruce  Shepherd,  minister  of  the  St.  Mat- 
thew's Episcopal  Church;  Lou  Major,  editor  of  the  Bogalusa  News; 
and  Bascom  Talley,  an  attorney  and  Community  Relations  representa- 
tive. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Talley  was  then,  or  before  or  since,  an  official 
of  the  Louisiana  Bar  Association ;  was  he  not? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  He  was  past  president  of  the  Louisiana  Bar  Asso- 
ciation. I  think  he  was  president  2  years  ago  or  perhaps  1  year  ago. 
And  myself.    We  were  the  six. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Specifically,  Mr.  Blumberg,  what  activities  did  this 
group  engage  in,  in  order  to  improve  racial  relations  in  Bogalusa? 
Wliat  did  you  plan  to  do  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  We  had  decided  to  bring  Brooks  Hays  to  Bogalusa 
to  speak  to  the  professional  and  business  community. 

The  Chairman.  We  know  who  he  is,  but  for  the  record  would  you 
describe  who  he  is  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Mr.  Hays  is  an  ex-Congressman  from  the  State  of 
Arkansas,  and  I  understand  he  now  has  been  working  directly  with 
the  President,  going  around  and  speaking,  especially  in  the  Southern 
States. 

The  Chairman.  He  was  an  active  religious  leader;  was  he  not? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  He  was.  I  started  to  say  we  wanted  him  because 
he  was  a  prominent  Baptist  layman  and  we  were  told  he  was  an  engag- 

1  Community  Relations  Service. 


2418  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

ing  speaker,  somewhat  of  a  humorist.  And  we  felt  if  he  talked  to  the 
professional  and  business  community  of  Bogalusa,  we  possibly  could 
avoid  some  of  these  racial  pitfalls  that  some  of  the  other  communities 
had  experienced  prior  to  our  problem.  This  actually  was  the  main 
purpose  of  our  organization. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Was  your  purpose  at  any  time  to  force  integration  on 
the  city  of  Bogalusa? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Absolutely  not. 

Mr.  Manuel.  When  was  it  decided  to  invite  Mr.  Hays  to  speak  in 
Bogalusa  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  We  decided  around  the  first  part  of  December. 

The  Chairman.  You  are  now  in  the  year  1964  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  In  the  year  1964;  yes,  sir.  Mr.  Talley  had  con- 
tacted Mr.  Hays  and  invited  him  to  speak  in  Bogalusa  and  Mr.  Hays 
had  accepted  and  we  set  the  date  around  January  7. 

Mr.  Manuel.  After  the  decision  was  made  by  the  six  of  you  gentle- 
men, what  action  did  you  take  to  implement  the  appearance  of  Mr. 
Hays  in  Bogalusa  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  The  first  thing  we  did,  we  went  to  talk  to  the  city 
administrator,  because  we  wanted  the  mayor  and  commission  council 
to  sponsor  the  speech.  We  wanted  the  mayor  to  introduce  Mr.  Hays 
and,  frankly,  we  were  going  to  step  out  of  the  picture. 

We  set  up  a  meeting  with  Mayor  Cutrer  and  the  city  council  in  the 
City  Hall.  This  was  the  period  right  before  Christmas,  perhaps  mid.- 
December  of  1964.  We  met  with  the  mayor  and  the  commission  coun- 
cil and  we  told  the  mayor  what  we  wanted  to  do. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Did  you  act  as  spokesman  for  this  group  at  that  time? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes,  I  did. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Please  proceed. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Basically,  what  we  told  the  commission  council  was 
that  we  wanted  to  bring  Mr.  Hays  in.  We  explained  why.  In  es- 
sence, what  we  were  really  after  was  to  get  the  entire  business  and 
professional  community  behind  the  mayor  and  commission  council  if 
trouble  started  in  Bogalusa.  We  felt  they  were  out  on  a  limb  and 
somebody  was  getting  ready  to  saw  it  off.  But  the  mayor  felt  our  tim- 
ing was  bad.  We  also  made  the  statement  that  he  was  afraid  the 
Klan  would  violently  object  to  the  meeting. 

There  is  one  thing  I  left  out,  and  it  was  very  important.  We  were 
told  by  Community  Relations  that  since  Mr.  Hays  was  with  the  Federal 
Government  we  had  to  have  an  integrated  audience.  So  we  decided  to 
invite  8  Negroes  who  had  been  working  with  the  mayor  in  the  past  to 
this  meeting.  We  also  felt  it  should  be  a  private  meeting.  We  felt  if 
it  was  public  there  would  be  trouble.  We  had  a  list  of  approximately 
100  names  of  business  and  professional  people  in  the  community  and 
8  Negro  leaders. 

Mr.  Manuel.  So  there  would  have  been  a  total  of  108  people? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  I  would  like  to  say  for  the  record,  in  further  refer- 
ence to  Mr.  Hays,  that  he  served  as  president  of  the  Southern  Baptist 
Convention  of  more  than  10  million  members  and  is  a  very  prominent 
Baptist  layman. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2419 

]Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Blumberg,  in  addition  to  the  mayor  of  Bogalusa 
what  other  officials  were  present  at  your  meeting? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  The  city  attorney,  Robert  Rester;  also  the  four 
commissioners,  Andy  Overton,  Arnold  Spiers,  Jim  Talbot,  and  Mar- 
shall Holloway. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Did  any  of  them  contribute  anything  to  the  conversa- 
tion about  the  appearance  of  Mr.  Hays  in  Bogalusa  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  The  only  one  who  spoke  was  the  mayor  and  the 
chief  of  police,  Arnold  Spiers,  and  they  both  agreed  the  Klan  w^ould 
violently  object  to  an  integrated  meeting  and  they  felt  it  was  not  the 
time  to  hold  a  meeting.  However,  we  asked  the  administration  if  they 
would  at  least  attend  the  meeting,  and  they  agreed  to  do  this. 

Right  before  we  left,  which  was  a  little  before  3  o'clock,  we  asked 
that  they  keep  this  information  quiet.  No  one  else  in  the  community 
knew  about  it  at  the  time,  and  we  wanted  it  kept  quiet  because  we 
didn't  want  the  whole  story  out  at  that  time.  We  had  not  issued  the 
invitations  yet.     That  was  3  o'clock  in  the  afternoon. 

At  5  o'clock  tliat  same  afternoon,  Reverend  Shepherd  received  a 
knock  at  the  door ;  and  the  man  at  the  door  was  a  well-known  charac- 
ter in  Bogalusa — I  can't  recall  his  name — "Buddy"  somebody,  and  he 
told  the  Reverend  Shepherd  that  the  Masons  in  tow^n  had  just  heard 
about  Brooks  Hays  being  invited  and  they  didn't  think  it  was  a  good 
idea  to  bring  Mr.  Hays  to  Bogalusa.  Of  course,  I  am  being  nice  in 
saying  it.    I  was  told  he  was  not  that  nice  in  relating  the  message. 

Mr.  Manuel.  To  go  back  to  the  meeting  with  the  mayor  and  city 
council,  I  understood  you  to  say  the  mayor  said  the  Klan  would 
object  to  Mr.  Hays  speaking  in  Bogalusa.  As  a  private  citizen,  was 
this  your  first  encounter  with  the  Klan  as  a  powerful  force  in 
Bogalusa  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  This  was  our  baptism.  This  was  the  first  time  we 
had  heard  the  word  "Klan"  as  it  dealt  with  fear  and  power,  yes. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Subsequent  to  the  meeting,  will  you  tell  the  commit- 
tee what  your  group's  activities  were  in  trying  to  obtain  a  place  for 
Mr.  Hays  to  speak  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  We  first  wanted  to  hold  the  meeting  in  the  Episco- 
pal Church,  Reverend  Shepherd's  church,  but  there  was  so  much  dif- 
ficulty in  obtaining  the  meeting  place  that  his  congregation  asked 
him  not  to  have  the  meeting  there.  And  all  six  of  us  tried  all  over 
town,  any  place  we  could  think  of  that  was  practical,  to  hold  the 
meeting,  but  we  were  turned  down  everywhere.  We  talked  to  the 
gentleman  in  charge  of  the  armory  and  were  turned  down  there.  We 
talked  to  the  mayor  to  try  to  get  the  City  Hall,  and  they  refused. 
Finally  we  just  had  to  give  up  finding  a  place  to  hold  the  meeting 
because  there  was  no  place  to  be  had. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  want  to  clarify  something  for  the  record.  I  didn't 
get  what  you  said  about  the  man  quoting  the  Masons. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  He  merely  used  the  word  that  the  "Masons"  had 
heard  Brooks  Hays  was  coming  to  Bogalusa  and  they  didn't  feel 
Mr.  Hays  should  come,  but  I  am  sure  when  he  used  the  word  "Masons" 
he  was  just  pulling  it  out  of  the  air. 

Mr.  Pool.  In  other  words,  so  far  as  you  know,  the  Masons  were  not 
involved  in  this  ? 


2420  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  No  ;  not  at  all. 

The  CiiAiRMAx.  In  fact,  yon  referred  to  the  so-called  Buddy  as  a 
"well-known  character,"  so  you  are  not  subscribing  to  what  he  was 
saying? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Absolutely  not. 

The  Chairman.  It  might  be  advisable  for  you  to  speak  a  little  about 
that.  By  "character,"  do  you  means  he  was  known  as  a  segregationist 
or  possible  Klansman  then  or  subsequently  known?  IMiat  did  you 
mean  by  that  word  "character"  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Number  one,  I  understand  he  was  quite  a  drunkard. 
He  used  to  love  to  brawl  all  the  time,  and  I  was  told  he  was  at  one 
time  a  deputy  sheriff  who  was  taken  off  the  force.  I  don't  know  if  he 
was  a  policeman  or  not,  but  let  us  put  it  this  way :  he  was  a  great 
candidate  for  the  Klan. 

The  Chairman.  "Wliat  do  you  mean  by  that  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  He  was  a  great  candidate  for  Klan  membership. 

The  Chairman.  I  assumed  that  was  what  you  meant  from  the  way 
you  said  it.     I  wanted  it  for  the  record. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Let  us  get  it  for  the  record. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Blumberg,  in  your  attempts  to  secure  a  speaking 
place  for  Mr.  Hays,  what  were  the  reasons  that  your  group  was  turned 
down  at  the  places  that  you  visited,  by  the  persons  that  you  visited? 

The  Chairman.  I  think  I  have  the  background  for  that.  I  take  it 
by  this  time,  includine;  the  encounter  with  the  minister  you  referred 
to,  I  assume  by  this  time  in  the  chronology  of  your  discussion  it  was 
then  quite  well  known  in  town  that  Brooks  Hays  had  been  invited  or 
might  come  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  After  the  minister  had  been  visited? 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Actually,  no.  It  wasn't.  This  is  what  surprised 
us  because  nobody  in  town  knew  about  this  except  the  six  of  us. 

The  Chairman.  We  have  learned,  even  in  Congress,  that  three  is 
a  crowd. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  We  learned  it  back  in  1964.  But  anyway,  this  was 
the  first  time  we  realized  there  was  a  leak  in  the  city  administration, 
because  they  were  the  only  ones  who  knew  about  this. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Were  any  members  of  the  city  administration  with 
whom  you  met  that  day  later  known  to  be  members  that  day  of  the 
KuKluxKlan? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes.  As  a  result  of  a  Federal  hearing  in  New 
Orleans  a  few  weeks  ago,  the  city  attorney  was  named  as  a  member 
of  the  Klan. 

Mr.  Manuel.  That  was  Robert  Rester  ? 

Mr.  Bluiviberg.  Yes ;  and  he  was  at  that  meeting. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Did  there  come  a  time  when  your  group  made  an 
announcement  in  the  paper  as  to  the  invitation  issued  to  Mr.  Brooks 
Hays? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes. 

First,  I  think,  to  keep  the  record  straight  chronologically,  right  after 
Reverend  Shepherd  had  received  this  visit,  I  had  gone  to  St.  Louis 
with  my  family  for  the  holidays.     Christmas  and  New  Year's,  and 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2421 

while  there  I  received  a  phone  call  from  the  radio  station  saying  that 
a  pamphlet  had  been  distributed  in  Bogalusa  by  the  Klan.  They  said 
in  this  pamphlet  that  Brooks  Hays  was  coming  to  Bogalusa  and  we 
were  going  to  try  to  integrate  them. 

Mr.  Maxuel.  Do  you  have  a  copy  of  that  pamphlet,  Mr.  Blumberg? 

Mr.  Bli  :mberg.  Yes,  I  do. 

(Document  marked  "Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  1."  See  p.  2454.) 

Mr.  Manuel.  Would  you  be  good  enough  to  read  the  pamphlet  for 
the  committee  ^ 

Mr.  Bluriberg.  Yes.    [Reading:] 

"On  Sundav,  December  27, 1964," 

The  CHAIR3I AN.  Wliat  is  the  date  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  December  27, 1964.    [Reading :] 

On  Sunday,  December  27,  1964,  the  Bogalusa  Daily  News  announced  that  a 

"renowned  layman"  Brooks  Hayes,  is  to  speak  in  Bogalusa,  on  January  7,  1965. 

His  subject  will  be  better  community  relations.    The  Bogalusa  Daily  News  stated, 

"a  group  of  civic,  religious  and  business  leaders  of  Bogalusa  have  invited 

Hayes  to  speak  here  at  the  St.  Matthew's  Espiscopal  Church  Parish  House. 

Due  to  limited  seating  facilities,  the  meeting  will  be  by  invitation." 

The  Daily  News  did  not  tell  you  the  whole  true  story  concerning  this  meeting 
and  it  is  the  purpose  of  this  leaflet  to  give  you  the  full  story  concerning  this 
meeting. 

In  the  first  place,  this  meeting  of  January  7,  1965,  is  to  be  an  integrated  meet- 
ing. The  meeting  was  arranged  by  Bascom  D.  Talley,  Jr.,  the  local  public  or 
community  relations  commissioner  who  is  holding  this  job  by  appointment  of 
Lyndon  B.  Johnson  under  the  infamous  civil  rights  act.  Bascom  D.  Talley 
formed  a  committee  to  help  shoulder  the  responsibility  of  this  meeting.  This 
committee  of  integration  minded  people  are  the  group  of  "civic,  religious  and 
business  leaders"  referred  to  by  the  Daily  News.  Mr.  Talley's  committee  is 
composed  of  Bruce  H.  Shepherd,  Minister  of  the  St.  Matthew's  Episcopal 
Church,  V^ertrees  Young,  a  member  of  the  Episcopal  Church,  Reverend  Jerry 
Chance,  Minister  of  the  Main  Street  Baptist  Church,  Reverend  Paul  G.  Gillespie. 
Minister  of  the  Memorial  Baptist  Church,  Reverend  James  T.  Harris,  Minister 
of  the  Methodist  Church,  Reverend  Bob  Lambright  whose  similar  escapades  have 
made  him  a  Minister  without  a  church,  Ralp  Blumberg,  owner  and  operator  of 
the  radio  station  WBOX,  and,  of  course,  Lou  Major,  Mr.  Talley's  favorite  puppet. 

In  the  second  place,  this  integrated  meeting  is  for  the  sole  purpose  of  planning 
the  integration  of  your  Church,  Schools,  Businesses,  Restaurants,  Hotels,  Motels, 
etc.,  and  those  who  will  receive  invitations  to  the  January  7th  meeting  will  be 
people  who  Bascom  D.  Talley  hopes  that  Brooks  Hayes  can  convince  that  they 
should  change  their  social  and  religious  lives,  and  that  in  turn  will  try  to  con- 
vince you  that  you  should  help  integration  by  sitting  in  Church  with  the  black 
man,  hiring  more  of  them  in  your  businesses,  serving  and  eating  with  them  in 
your  cafes,  and  allowing  your  children  to  sit  by  filthy,  runny-nosed,  ragged,  ugly 
little  niggers  in  your  public  schools. 

In  the  third  place,  the  Bogalusa  Daily  News  did  not  tell  you  the  whole  story 
about  Brooks  Hayes.  He  is  a  traitor  to  the  South.  He  assisted  Sherman 
Adams  draw  the  order  to  send  Federal  Troops  into  his  own  State  of  Arkansas 
to  put  nine  little  niggers  into  white  schools,  the  result  of  which  was  spending 
.$5,000,000  of  the  taxpayers  money  as  well  as  the  beating  and  jailing  of  hundreds 
of  white  citizens.  As  a  result  of  Hayes'  integration  efforts,  he  was  defeated 
in  his  efforts  for  re-election  to  Congress  by  a  political  unknown.  Dr.  Dale 
Alford.  Brooks  Hayes  is  now  a  member  of  the  Civil  Rights  Community  Relations 
Committee  and  he  is  paid  a  lucrative  salary  by  the  Federal  Government  to 
make  talks  such  as  he  is  scheduled  to  make  in  Bogalusa,  on  January  7th.,  1965. 

The  Ku  Klux  Klan  is  strongly  organized  in  Bogalusa  and  throughout  Wash- 
ington and  St.  Tammany  Parishes.  Being  a  secret  organization,  we  have  KLAN 
members  in  every  conceivable  business  in  this  area.  We  will  know  the  names 
of  all  who  are  invited  to  the  Brooks  Hayes  meeting  and  we  will  know  who  did 
and  did  not  attend  this  meeting.  Accordingly,  we  take  this  means  to  urge  all 
of  you  to  refrain  from  attending  this  meeting.     Those  who  do  attend  this  meet- 


2422  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

ing  will  be  tagged  as  Integra tionists  and  will  be  delt  [sic]  with  accordingly  bv 
the  Knights  of  the  KU  KLUX  KLAN. 

There  is  in  Bogalusa  a  man  named  Talley, 

who  with  a  hand  picked  committee  has  planned  an  integrated  rally; 

This  man  would  love  the  nigger. 

in  order  to  grow  financially  bigger ; 

He  and  his  committee  have  come  up  with  an  integration  plan,  which  is 

bitterly  opposed  by  the  KU  KLUX  KLAN ; 
Talley  has  attended  Nigger  Churches  to  sing, 
this  was  done  to  please  Martin  Luther  King ; 
While  Talley  sings  with  his  nigger  group, 
the  KU  KLUX  KLAN  will  more  Knights  recruit ; 
Soon  Talley  and  his  committee  will  know  who  is  boss, 
as  the  KU  KLUX  KLAN  lights  the  fiery  cross. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Blumberg,  is  the  source  of  this  leaflet  which  you 
?iave  read  identified  on  the  flyer  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes,  it  is.  At  the  top  it  says :  "Published  By  The 
Original  Ku  Klux  Klan  Of  Louisiana." 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  ask  you  two  questions : 

Was  this  to  be  a  meeting  by  invitation  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes;  yes,  this  was  to  be  a  meeting  by  invitation. 

The  Chairman.  Was  the  purpose  of  the  meeting  to  force  integration 
or  to  accomplish  the  objectives  suggested  in  that  pamphlet  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Absolutely  not.  Nothing  could  have  been  further 
from  the  truth. 

The  Chairman.  Why  had  it  been  decided  to  make  the  meeting  by 
invitation  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  We  decided  this  because  we  were  told  by  Commu- 
nity Relations  that  Mr.  Hays  had  to  speak  to  an  integrated  audience 
since  be  worked  for  the  Federal  Government.  And  we  felt  if  we  made 
it  an  open  meeting  and  it  was  to  be  integrated,  there  probably  would 
be  a  great  deal  of  trouble;  and  we  felt  if  we  made  it  private,  we  could 
keep  the  possibility  of  trouble  down.  Also,  we  were  very,  very  anxious 
to  see  to  it  that  the  power  structure  in  the  community  attended  the 
meeting,  and  that  is  why  we  were  going  to  make  it  private  by  invita- 
tion. However,  we  never  did  have  the  opportunity  to  issue  the 
invitations. 

The  Chairman.  As  it  turned  out,  based  on  subsequent  events,  did 
you  come  to  the  conclusion  that  Mayor  Cutrer,  in  expressing  himself 
as  he  did  at  the  meeting  you  had  with  his  council,  was  expressing  a 
factual  opinion  rather  than  personal  involvement  in  approbation  of 
what  might  have  developed  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Mr.  Willis,  this  is  a  difficult  question  to  answer. 
Perhaps  I  should  say  this,  in  all  fairness  to  Mayor  Cutrer. 

The  Chairman.  I  want  the  record  straight  on  that. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  think  the  mayor  has  tried  to  do  his  very  level  best 
as  mayor  of  a  deep  South  community.  Here  is  a  man  who  grew  up 
in  Bogalusa,  and  many,  many  members  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  were 
friends  of  his,  and  I  am  sure  this  man  felt  a  moral  obligation,  as  the 
mayor.  But  I  don't  think  I  am  qualified,  or  anyone  else  is  qualified, 
to  criticize  a  man  in  his  position.  I  don't  know  all  of  his  problems, 
and  whatever  his  decisions  have  been,  whatever  his  actions  have  been, 
I  am  sure  they  were  made  in  sincerity  and  honesty. 

The  Chairman.  I  am  glad  to  hear  you  say  that  because  subsequent 
events  as  a  factual  matter  proved  trouble  did  arise. 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU   KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2423 

Mr.  Blijmberg.  That  is  true. 

The  Chairman.  I  liave  never  met  the  man  and  don't  want  to  charge 
hun  for  making  a  factual  statement  at  that  time. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chairman,  may  I  ask  a  question  ? 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  stated  Robert  Rester  was  city  attorney  and  in 
attendance  at  the  meeting  and  subsequently  was  disclosed  as  being  a 
member  of  the  Klan  through  Federal  court  proceedings.  Do  you  know 
if  he  was  elected  by  the  people  or  appointed  by  the  mayor  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  He  was  elected  by  the  people. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Thank  you. 

Mr.  Pool.  Let  me  see  that  pamjihlet.  Were  there  any  direct  threats 
to  anyone  attending  the  meeting  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes. 

Mr.  Pool.  Read  what  it  says  about  that. 

Mr.  Blumberg.   [Reading:] 

We  will  know  the  names  of  all  who  are  invited  to  the  Brooks  Hayes  meeting 
and  we  will  know  who  did  and  did  not  attend  this  meeting.  Accordingly,  we 
take  this  means  to  urge  all  of  you  to  refrain  from  attending  this  meeting.  Those 
who  do  attend  this  meeting  will  be  tagged  as  integrationists  and  will  be  delt  fsic] 
with  accordingly  by  the  Knights  of  the  KU  KLUX  KLAN. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  words  "dealt  with  accordingly"  is  that  a  threat? 
Mr.  Blumberg.  I  would  say  it  is  a  threat;  yes,  sir.     I  think  it  is 
about  as  definite  a  threat  as  you  can  make. 
The  Chairman.  I  think  the  word  "intimidation''  would  certainly 

apply- 

Mr.  Pool.  Is  the  word  "intimidation'  m  there? 

The  Chairman.  No.  I  think  you  asked  if  the  words  "dealt  with 
accordingly"  could  be  construed  as  a  threat.  I  think  if  you  wanted  to 
use  a  word  which,  in  my  opinion,  could  not  be  questioned,  it  would  be 
an  "intimidation"  if  not  a  "threat." 

Mr.  Pool.  To  be  fair,  you  could  say  they  would  be  dealt  with  ac- 
cordingly in  the  next  election,  which  would  be  all  right. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  That  is  true. 

Mr.  Pool.  We  are  looking  for  acts  of  violence  and  threats.  There 
is  a  question  in  my  mind  whether  you  can  call  this  a  direct  threat  or 
not. 

Mr.  Weltner.  May  I  ask  a  question  at  this  point,  Mr.  Chairman? 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Would  you  read  that  part  of  the  pamphlet  tliat  says 
being  members  of  a  secret  organization  we  have  members  in  every 
conceivable  place,  or  words  to  that  effect  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes.   [Reading :] 

"Being  a  secret  organization,  we  have  KLAN  members  in  every  con- 
ceivable business  in  this  area." 

Mr.  Weltner.  On  the  basis  of  the  disclosures  that  have  been  made 
subsequent  to  the  distribution  of  this  pamphlet,  would  you  describe 
that  as  an  accurate  statement  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  will  be  honest  with  you.  I  think  it  is  a  very 
honest  statement ;  yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  That  is  my  opinion  too. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  And  I  have  never  changed  my  opinion. 


59-222  O— 67— pt.  3- 


2424  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr,  Weltner.  The  Klaii  in  Bopihisa  did  have  Klan  members,  may- 
be not  in  every  conceivable  position,  but  in  many  positions  of  im- 
portance, and  I  think  that  point  should  be  developed. 

Mr.  Pool,  Are  you  goinjr  to  tie  the  Klan  into  threats  later  on  in 
your  testimony  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes. 

Mr.  BuciiAXAN.  Mr,  Chairman,  may  I  say,  by  way  of  being:  "dealt 
with  accordingly,"'  as  I  understand  it,  there  were  very  few  elected 
officers  there,  weren't  there?  Weren't  most  of  them  church  and  busi- 
ness and  professional  people?  I  don't  know  how  they  could  deal 
"accordingly"  with  ministers  or  editors  on  election  day.  And  what 
about  business  and  professional  men  being  "dealt  with"  on  election 
day? 

Mr.  Pool.  I  was  thinking  of  the  political  leaders. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  These  were  primarily  other  than  elected  officials. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  am  not  defending  it.  I  am  saying,  in  my  opinion,  it 
is  not  a  definite  threat. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  I  am  joining  you  in  clarifying  the  record. 

Mr.  Weltner.  That  sounds  like  the  man  who  said  he  didn't  know 
if  it  was  a  threat  or  not  but  they  had  authority  to  do  away  with  him. 

The  Chairman.  All  right.     Proceed, 

Mr,  Manuel.  Following  the  distribution  of  the  pamphlet  you  have 
just  read  and  following  the  fact  you  could  not  provide  adequate 
speaking  facilities  to  Mr.  Hays,  did  your  group  cancel  the  engage- 
ment with  Mr.  Hays  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  We  met  at  the  newspaper  office  the  first  week  in 
January,  I  don't  know  the  exact  date,  and  we  discussed  this.  In 
saying  "we,"  I  am  talking  about  the  six  in  our  group  and  the  two 
men  from  Community  Relations.  We  talked  from  8  o'clock  in  the 
evening  until  12  o'clock  that  night  trying  to  make  a  decision  on  what 
to  do.  We  decided  to  cancel  the  meeting  but  to  put  a  statement  in 
the  paper  explaining  why  we  canceled  it.  We  came  back  at  8  o'clock 
the  next  morning  and  we  all  helped  to  draft  the  statement,  and  that 
afternoon  we  published  the  statement  in  the  paper. 

Mr.  Manuel.  In  general  terms,  what  did  the  statement  say? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  am  a  little  hazy  on  the  statement.  However,  as 
I  remember  it,  we  told  the  public  we  had  to  cancel  the  Brooks  Hays 
meeting  because  everybody  had  feared  the  Klan  in  the  community 
and  we  couldn't  find  a  place  to  hold  the  meeting,  and  we  felt  there 
was  no  freedom  of  assembly  in  Bogalusa  and  we  were  ashamed  of 
this  fact  that  we  couldn't  hold  a  public  meeting  because  of  fear.  This, 
in  essence,  was  the  general  theme  of  the  statement. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Subsequent  to  the  appearance  of  this  statement  in  the 
Bogalusa  Daily  News,  were  you  personally  or  your  family  the  objects 
or  victims  of  any  harassment? 

The  Chairman.  Before  coming  to  that,  let  me  develop  a  thought  or 
two  here, 

I  have  before  me  a  copy  of  the  opinion  of  the  circuit  court  of 
appeals  decided  recently  iii  coiniection  with  an  injunction  suit  filed 
by  the  United  States  of  America  against  the  following — and  I  will 
name  them  and  I  want  you  to  make  a  mental  note  if  one  of  these  de- 
fendants in  this  suit  comes  to  your  mind  as  being  the  man  called  Buddy 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2425 

who  appeared  at  the  minister's  home.  I  don't  know  if  it  is  a  fact.  I 
see  Mr.  Appell  shaking  his  head  so  maybe  he  knows  the  answer.  Do 
you  know  the  answer,  whether  this  man  "Buddy"  was  one  of  the 
defendants  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  He  was  not  a  defendant. 

The  Chairman.  I  am  now  advised  that  this  man  "Buddy"  you  re- 
ferred to  was  not  a  defendant.  But  this  suit  was  an  injunction  suit 
filed  by  the  United  States  against  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan,  an  unincorporated  association;  the  Anti-Communist 
Christian  Association,  which  we  will  talk  about  later;  and  then  quite 
a  long  list  of  individuals.^ 

Referring  to  your  testimony  thus  far  concerning  the  proposed  speech 
to  be  made  by  former  Congressman  Brooks  Hays,  the  court,  having 
heard  the  evidence  in  the  whole  in  that  case,  said  the  following : 

"Specific  Findings" — this  is  a  subheading — "Specific  Findings  of 
Klan  Intimidation  and  Violence" : 

We  select  the  following  examples  of  the  defendants'  acts  of  intimidation  and 
violence. 

(1)  January  7,  1965,  former  Congressman  Brooks  Hays  of  Arkansas,  at  the 
invitation  of  religious,  business,  and  civic  leaders  of  Bogalusa,  was  scheduled  to 
speak  in  Bogalusa  at  St.  Matthews  Episcopal  Church  Parish  House  on  the  sub- 
ject of  community  relations.  The  meeting  was  to  be  open  to  both  Negroes  and 
whites  and  it  was  planned  that  seating  would  be  on  a  racially  non-segregated 
basis.  After  learning  of  the  proposed  appearance  of  Mr.  Hays  and  the  arrange- 
ments for  an  unsegregated  meeting,  the  Klan  and  its  members  protested  to  the 
Mayor  and  the  members  of  the  Commission  Council  and,  by  means  of  threats  of 
civil  disorder  and  economic  retaliation  against  local  businessmen  who  supported 
the  meeting,  caused  the  withdrawal  of  the  invitation  to  Mr.  Hays  to  speak. 
December  18,  1964,  before  the  Hays  invitation  was  withdrawn,  the  Mayor  of 
Bogalusa  and  Police  Commissioner  Arnold  Spiers,  in  an  effort  to  head  off  possible 
civil  disorder,  appeared  at  a  Klan  meeting  at  the  Disabled  Veterans  Hall.  The 
show  of  force  at  this  meeting  by  over  150  hooded  Klansmen — 

and  [to  Mr.  Pool]  I  quote  now  for  your  information — 

unquestionably  intimidated  public  oflScials  in  Bogalusa  and,  later,  hindered  effec- 
tive police  action  against  Klan  violence.  On  the  stand.  Mayor  Cutrer  admitted 
that  he  teas  "frightened  when  he  looked  into  150  pairs  of  eyes."  [Emphasis  in 
original.] 

So  at  that  point  in  your  chronology,  I  think  it  is  valuable  for  the 
record  to  have  the  findings  of  the  Fifth  Circuit  Court  of  Appeals. 

(Document  marked  "Ealph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2."  (See 
pp.  2475-2519.) 

Mr.  Pool.  It  does  not  have  too  much  importance  to  the  question  of 
the  pamphlet  he  was  raising. 

The  Chairman.  I  don't  know. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  "150  pairs  of  eyes"  were  the  most  important. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Pool.  That  is  what  I  was  pointing  out  a  while  ago. 


1  United  States  of  America,  by  Nicholax  deB.  Katzenhach,  Attorney  General  of  the 
United  States  v.  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  an  unincorporated  association  ; 
Anti-Communist  Christian  Association,  a  corporation ;  Saxon  Farmer;  Charles  Christmas ; 
Russell  Magee;  Dewey  Smith;  Virgil  Corkern ;  Albert  Applewhite;  E.  J.  (Jack)  Dixon; 
Delos  Williams;  James  M.  Ellis;  Hardie  Adrian  Goings,  Jr.;  Esley  Freeman;  Arthur  Ray 
Applewhite;  James  A.  Hollingsworth,  Jr.;  Randle  C.  Pounds;  Sidney  August  Warner; 
Billy  Alford;  Rawlin  Williamson;  Louis  Applewhite ;  Willis  BlackweU;  J.  A.  Hollings- 
worth, Sr.  ;  Lattimore  McNeese;  Ira  Dunaway  ;  Doyle  Tynes ;  Charles  Ray  Williams  ;  Frank- 
lin Harris;  Charles  McClendon ;  Delton  Graves;  Milton  Earl  Parker;  Mervin  Taylor;  Van 
Day;  Ray  Risner ;  James  D.  Terrell;  .J.  D.  Jones;  Richard  E.  Krebs ;  Michael  R.  Holden; 
James  Burke;  Albert  Simmons,  Jr.;  and  Noel  Ball,  Jr.,  — •  U.S.  District  Court  for  the 
Eastern  District  of  Louisiana,  New  Orleans  Division,  Civil  Action  No.  15793  ;  250  F.  Supp. 
330,  decided  Dec.  1,  1965. 


2426  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Blumber^,  would  you  please  tell  the  committee 
what  actions  of  harassment  or  intimidation  were  directed  against  you 
and  in  what  form,  sir? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  After  we  put  the  statement  in  the  paper — we  signed 
our  names,  all  six  of  us,  to  the  statement,  and  then  the  following  day 
we  broadcast  our  first  editorial  since  we  had  been  in  Bogalusa  about 
the  civil  rights  problem. 

Mr.  Manuel.  This  is  over  your  radio  station  WBOX  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  WBOX ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  And  we  merely  explained  why  we  participated  in 
the  Brooks  Hays  affair,  for  the  reasons  I  have  given  you  before.  And 
also  we  told  the  people  that  the  civil  rights  law  was  now  the  law  of 
the  land  and,  regardless  of  how  you  felt  about  it,  it  must  be  complied 
with  or  the  community  was  going  to  be  in  trouble.  And  this,  in  es- 
sence, was  exactly  what  we  had  stated  editorially. 

Of  course,  this  editorial  and  the  statement  in  the  paper  was  like 
setting  off  a  time  bomb.  "We  received  threatening  telephone  calls  at 
the  station  and  at  home,  and  the  essence  of  the  calls — not  only  myself, 
but  the  other  five  men  involved.  And  the  pattern  was  pretty  much 
the  same : 

"When  you  signed  this  statement  you  have  signed  your  death  war- 
rant."' And  some  of  the  calls  stated  that  "we  are  going  to  kill  your 
wife  and  your  children"  or  "we  are  going  to  take  care  of  your  wife  and 
your  children.-'    This  type  of  thing. 

Mr.  Pool.  To  whom  were  these  calls  made  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  They  were  made  to  myself,  my  wife  answered  some, 
some  of  the  announcers  at  the  station  answered  some,  and  they  were 
also  made  to  the  other  five  members. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  you  recognize  any  of  the  voices  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  No,  sir.    They  were  completely  anonymous. 

Mr.  Pool.  Completely  anonymous,  and  you  couldn't  pinpoint  them  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  you  report  it  to  the  police  department? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  No,  sir,  I  didn't. 

Mr.  Pool.  Why  didn't  you  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Frankly,  I  didn't  think  about  it.  As  I  look  back 
on  it,  I  should  have  as  a  matter  of  record,  but  I  didn't  and  I  don't  think 
any  of  the  other  men  did. 

Mr.  Pool.  AVas  it  your  feeling  the  police  department  wouldn't  do 
anything  about  it  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Frankly,  I  don't  see  what  anybody  could  do  about 
it,  being  anonymous  phone  calls. 

Mr.  Pool.  How  about  the  FBI  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  No. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  didn't  report  it  to  them  either  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  No. 

Then  around  this  time,  I  guess  a  few  days  later,  a  man  walked  into 
the  station  that  we  knew  fairly  well,  and  I  wasn't  there.  He  talked 
to  my  wife.  He  sat  down  in  front  of  her  and  he  made  a  statement  that 
friends  of  his  were  very  surprised  I  signed  the  statement  in  the  paper 
and  they  felt  that  I  had  been  hoodwinked  into  getting  involved,  and 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2427 

thev  felt  I  should  publicly  apologize  for  signing  the  statement  and 
I  should  explain  that  all  of  this  was,  in  essence,  a  bunch  of  lies  and 
that  I  really  didn't  intend  to  have  anything  to  do  with  it. 

And  my  wife  told  him  that  I  wasn't  going  to  apologize  for  any- 
thing ;  I  knew  exactly  what  I  had  done. 

And  he  shrugged  his  shoulders  and  he  made  this  statement,  he  said : 
'•AVell,  these  friends  of  mine  don't  want  to  harm  women  and  chil- 
dren."  He  shinigged  his  shoulders  and  walked  away. 

Mr.  IVIanuel.  Did  he  identify  the  friends  of  his  of  whom  he  was 
speaking  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  No.  That  is  merely  what  it  was.  And  then  after 
that  I  sent  my  wife  and  family  to  St.  Louis  to  stay  for  a  while. 

Mr.  Manuel.  As  far  as  the  phone-call  harassment  is  concerned,  did 
it  take  any  particular  pattern  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Well,  the  most  annoying  thing  was  the  fact  we  re- 
ceived phone  calls  perhaps  every  2  hours  all  throughout  the  evening, 
all  night  long.  Nobody  would  say  anything.  Pick  up  the  receiver 
and  there  would  be  nothing  on  the  other  end. 

Mr.  Manuel.  How  long  did  this  last,  Mr.  Blumberg  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  It  is  kind  of  hard  to  say.  I  imagine,  if  I  could  pin- 
point it,  perhaps  about  3  weeks. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  you  ever  ask  the  telephone  company  to  give  you  an 
unlisted  number  ?    Or  don't  they  do  that  now  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  No.  Actually,  what  I  did,  after  a  while  I  just  took 
it  off  the  hook  and  left  it  off. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Were  there  any  other  acts  of  intimidation  and  har- 
assment directed  toward  you,  such  as  tacks  in  your  tires,  and  so  forth? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes.  I  had  the  car  windows  of  my  automobile 
smashed,  my  wife's  smashed,  and  we  had  tacks  put  in  the  driveway 
and  ruined,  you  know,  a  set  of  tires,  and  that  is  about  it. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  didn't  report  this  to  the  police  department? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  We  reported  this. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  did  report  it  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Was  there  any  trouble  at  your  transmitting  tower  in 
Bogalusa? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes.  After  we  made  our  plight  jDublic  nationally 
and  editorialized,  we  decided  to  fight  the  Klan.  Eight  after  our  first 
editorial,  which  was  on  a  Thursday,  some  time  in  March,  that  evening 
we  received  seven  bullet  holes  in  our  transmitter  house  fired  by  a  high- 
powered  rifle. 

Mr.  Weltner.  May  I  interrupt  as  a  matter  of  chronology? 

This  meeting  with  Mr.  Hays  was  supposed  to  have  been  on  January 

r? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  at  the  time  there  was  a  statement  in  the  paper 
which  bore  your  name  and  the  editorial,  and  the  general  acts  of  har- 
assment continued  all  through  the  month  of  March  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  There  were  no  other  statements  and  editorials, 
but 

Mr.  Blumberg.  We  skipped.    I  haven't  told  the  rest  of  it  yet. 


2428  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Eight  after  the  January  7  editorial,  the  most  effective  weapon  the 
Klan,  of  course,  used  against  me  was  the  boycott.  They  would  call  our 
sponsors  by  telephone  and  tell  them  if  they  didn't  stop  advertising  on 
the  station  that  they  would  boycott  their  place  of  business.  And  they 
received  numerous  phone  calls  and  finally  the  advertisers  had  to  go 
off  the  station  and  they  pretty  well  reduced  our  income. 

And  then — and  I  think  this  should  be  told  for  the  record  because  I 
made  a  big  mistake — right  after  we  lost  most  of  our  sponsors,  around 
the  middle  of  January,  I  didn't  say  another  word — no  editorializing, 
no  nothing.  I  simply  tried  to  get  our  sponsors  back  on  the  radio  sta- 
tion. To  be  honest  about  it,  I  think  I  was  actually  appeasing  the  Klan. 
And  then  around  March,  the  1st  of  March,  we  had  most  of  the  spon- 
sors back  on,  and  they  started  the  phone  call  routine  again.  It  was 
very  organized  this  time,  and  they  reduced  us  down  from  approxi- 
mately 75  sponsors  a  month  to  around  6.  This  is  when  I  knew  I  had 
made  a  mistake,  because  you  just  can't  compromise  with  the  devil,  and 
that  is  what  I  was  trying  to  do.  And  I  think  this  is  important  that 
this  be  told  for  the  record,  because  there  is  no  compromise  with  this 
sort  of  evil. 

And  they  had  reduced  our  sponsorship  to  about  6.  We  had  to 
make  up  our  mind  at  this  time  what  to  do.  I  am  sure  the  Klan  felt 
we  would  close  our  doors  and  walk  away  quietly  and  do  nothing,  but 
we  decided  to  make  a  fight,  for  two  reasons : 

One,  if  we  could  keep  our  doors  open  long  enough  with  outside  help, 
perhaps  the  merchants  would  come  back  and  advertise  again. 

And,  number  two,  which  is  real  important,  the  longer  we  could  keep 
our  doors  open,  we  felt  the  better  it  was  going  to  be  for  small  radio 
stations  and  small  communication  media  in  small  markets,  especially 
in  the  South.  Because,  if  the  Klan  could  close  our  doors  easily,  this 
would  be  a  tremendous  display  of  strength.  And  the  longer  we  could 
keep  our  doors  open,  I  felt  the  more  frustrated  and  more  confused  we 
would  get  these  people  and  perhaps  they  would  think  twice  before 
hitting  a  communications  media  again. 

This  actually  has  been  our  purpose  in  this  fight,  and  our  fight 
basically  has  been  for  freedom  of  speech.  It's  that  simple.  It  has 
nothing  to  do  with  integration  or  segregation,  regardless  of  what  the 
Klan  wants  to  make  out.  It  is  strictly  a  matter  of  freedom  of  speech. 
And  this,  gentlemen,  has  been  exactly  what  the  fight  has  been  about, 
as  far  as  I  am  concerned,  with  the  Klan. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Blumberg,  what  reason  do  you  have  to  believe 
that  this  boycott  of  which  you  speak  was  initiated  and  carried  through 
bytheKuKluxKlan? 

Mr,  Blumberg.  I  didn't  know  at  the  beginning,  and  even  in  our 
editorials  we  never  mentioned  the  name  of  the  Klan  until  they  came 
out  with  one  of  their  own  publications  and  publicly  stated  that  they 
were  behind  the  boycott. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Do  you  have  a  copy  of  that  particular  publication? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Was  it  likewise,  as  the  other  publications  which  you 
read,  distributed  by  the  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Would  you  please  read  that,  Mr,  Blumberg,  for  the 
committee  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2429 

Mr.  Blumberg.  The  entire  article  ? 
Mr.  Manuel.  Would  3'ou,  please?    Yes,  sir. 
The  Chairman.  What  is  the  date  of  it,  so  we  will  know  ? 
Mr.  Bltjmberg.  I  don't  have  a  date. 
Mr.  Appell.  It  is  not  dated. 

The  Chairman.  It  is  not  dated.    Could  you  fix  about  the  day  so 
that  we  could  put  in  the  record  a  chronological  understanding? 
]Mr.  Blumberg.  It  must  have  been  around  March  or  April,  I  guess. 
The  Chairman.  1965? 

Mr.  Manuel.  The  early  part  of  1965,  Mr.  Chairman. 
Mr.  Bluimberg.  [Reading:] 

As  a  result  of  the  statement  issued  in  the  Bogalusa  Daily  News,  signed  by 
Bascom  D.  Talley,  Jr.,  Bruce  Shepherd,  Paul  Gillespie,  Jerry  Chance,  Ralph 
Blumberg  and  Lou  Major  announcing  the  cancellation  of  the  invitational,  inte- 
grated, speaking  engagement  in  this  city  by  Brooks  Hays,  our  City,  as  well  as 
the  Klan,  received  unfair,  biased,  national  publicity  from  television  and  news- 
papers throughout  the  country.  The  national  news  media  quoted  Bascom  Talley 
as  saying  that  Bogalusa  has  a  "leadership  vacuum".  They  quoted  Bruce 
Shepherd  as  saying  "Bogalusa  has  a  high  rate  of  alcoholism  and  mental  illness". 
The  national  press  even  misquoted  Brooks  Hays  who  was  supposed  to  have  said 
"Bogalusa  is  a  city  in  the  grips  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan."  Even  one  magazine 
contained  an  article  entitled  "Klan  Town  U.S.A."  which  accused  Bogalusa  of 
being  dominated  by  the  Ku  Klux  Klan.  This  article  was  written  by  a  free  lance, 
alcoholic  reporter — Paul  Good,  who  spent  over  $100.00  on  alcoholic  beverages, 
who  wrecked  his  car,  and  who  was  charged  with  reckless  driving  during  his 
short  visit  to  Bogalusa. 

Bruce  Shepherd  was  quoted  as  saying  that  he  had  received  calls  threaten- 
ing to  bomb  his  church  if  Brooks  Hays  were  allowed  to  speak  there.  We  accuse 
Bruce  Shepherd  of  lying.  There  was  no  such  threat  or  threats  made  and  we 
challenge  Bruce  Shepherd  to  prove  that  he  made  such  a  report  to  the  police. 

Mr.  Manuel.  At  that  point  let  me  interrupt  you  for  a  moment  and 
ask,  did  you  know  whether  as  a  matter  of  fact  Reverend  Shepherd  had 
received  threats  to  bomb  his  church  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  don't  know.    I  really  don't  know. 

Mr.  Manuel.  All  right. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  [Reading:] 

Bruce  Shepherd  must  have  had  his  family  in  mind  rather  than  our  city  when 
he  stated  we  had  a  high  rate  of  alcoholism  and  mental  illness  because  Bruce 
Shepherd  himself  can  be  observed  frequently  emerging  from  the  Cuban  Liquor 
Company  with  an  arm  load  of  liquor.  We  further  would  have  you  know  that 
Bruce  Shepherd's  son  recently  faced  a  charge  in  court  for  morals  violation  and 
was  committed  to  a  mental  institution. 

The  Ku  Klux  Klan  is  now  in  the  process  of  checking  on  Reverend  Shepherd's 
moral  standards.  If  he  is  cleared  you  will  be  so  informed.  If  he  is  not  cleared, 
you  will  be  informed  of  any  and  all  misdeeds  or  moral  violations  of  his  in  the 
past. 

Much  has  been  printed  about  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  being  a  violent  organization. 
This  is  not  true.  There  was  no  violence  when  public  accommodations  were 
tested  in  this  city  and  there  has  been  no  violence  since  then.  We,  however, 
have  formed  a  large  block  white  vote  which  will  more  than  offset  any  other 
block  vote  in  this  entire  parish.  We  also  are  boycotting  businesses  which  cater 
to  integration  such  as  Mobile  Gas  Stations,  Radio  Station  W.B.O.X.,  Rosenblum's, 
Zesto  and  the  Barbecue  Inn. 

Mr.  Manuel.  At  that  point  Mr.  Blumberg,  let  me  ask  you  if  you 
know  why  the  Klan  would  boycott  the  Mobile  gas  stations  in  Bogalusa  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  am  a  little  hazy  on  this  one.  I  feel  it  is  probably 
because,  if  I  am  not  mistaken,  I  think  this  was  operated  by  some  Negro 


2430  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

attendants  and  they  catered  greatly  to  Negro  trade,  and  I  was  told  that 
Mr.  Talley  owned  the  land  on  which  this  station  was  located. 

Mr.  Maxuel.  Do  you  know  whether  the  boycott  was  successful  as 
far  as  the  Mobile  gas  stations  were  concerned? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  They  have  almost  ruined  the  people  financially. 

Mr.  Manuel.  What  about  the  other  business  establishments  men- 
tioned— Rosenblum's,  Zesto,  and  the  Barbecue  Inn  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  don't  know  anything  about  their  boycotts,  nor 
the  reasons. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Please  proceed,  sir. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Where  did  I  leave  off  ? 

Mr.  Manuel.  Right  after  "Barbecue  Inn." 

Mr.  Blumberg.   [Reading:] 

The  Bogalusa  Daily  News  is  also  being  boycotted  by  the  Klan  because  while 
the  National  press  was  tearing  Bogalusa  into  shreds,  it  did  not  print  one  single 
word  in  the  defense  of  Bogalusa.  The  theory  behind  boycotting  the  Daily  News 
and  these  other  businesses  is  that  to  financially  aid  such  business  institutions  is 
comparable  to  buying  bullets  for  a  man  as  John  Dillenger  who  would  take  the 
bullets  and  then  kill  you  and  rob  your  city. 

Congressman  Charles  Weltner  of  Atlanta,  Georgia,  a  member  of  the  House 
Committee  of  Unamerican  Activities  has  proposed  that  committee  investigate 
the  Klan.  We  wonder  why  he  doesn't  also  propose  to  investigate  the  Black 
Muslems  who  advocate  black  supremacy,  who  commit  murder  and  who  commit 
arson  all  over  the  country  in  a  period  of  one  week  and  who  defied  and  refused 
to  allow  Chicago  Police  to  enter  their  meeting  place  while  they  were  beating 
almost  to  the  point  of  death  one  of  Malcolm  X's  friends.  We  urge  each  of  you 
to  write  this  Congressman  and  demand  that  he  investigate  the  Black  Muslems. 

The  original  Ku  Klux  Klan  invites  any  investigation  that  Congressman  Weltner 
should  like  to  make.  The  citizens  of  Bogalusa  know  that  this  city  has  always 
been  a  Klanish  City  from  the  days  of  the  Great  Southern  Lumber  Company  until 
now.  We  have  never  appreciated  outsiders  telling  us  how  to  run  our  city. 
Outsiders  have  often  caused  trouble  in  our  City.  A  good  example  of  this  was 
when  labor  unions  were  forming  in  Bogalusa.  A  gang  of  union  busters  or  hired 
gunmen  were  brought  into  this  city  to  kill  those  who  stood  up  for  the  common 
man.  As  a  result  of  such  incidents,  it  is  only  natural  that  Bogalusa  would  be 
Klanish. 

The  Chairman.  Have  you  finished  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes,  sir. 

(Document  marked  "Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  3."  See  p.  2455.) 

Tlie  Chairman.  I  would  like  to  point  this  out,  in  view  of  the  refer- 
ence to  the  committee : 

This  committee,  on  March  30,  1965,  voted  unanimously  to  conduct 
the  investigation  we  are  now  conducting.  It  voted  also  to  request  the 
House  to  furnish  funds  to  do  so,  and  the  House  by  an  overwhelming 
vote  did  it.  Now  the  last  "resolve"  of  that  resolution  wliich  authorizes 
this  particular  investigation  reads  as  follows : 

BE  IT  FURTHER  RESOLVED,  that  the  Chairman  is  directed— 

meaning  myself — 

to  continue  the  preliminary  inquiry  into  the  activities  of  the  Black  Muslims, 
the  Minutemen  and  the  American  Nazi  Party  previously  authorized  by  the  Com- 
mittee, for  the  purpose  of  determining  whether  an  investigation  of  the.se  groups 
is  called  for. 

With  reference  to  that  "resolve,"  I  have  said  many  times  that  we 
cannot  be  in  two  places  at  one  time  or  do  two  things  at  one  time.  And 
I  added,  always,  that  sufficient  unto  the  day  is  the  evil  thereof. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2431 

This  preliminary  inquiry  is  still  goincr  on  with  reference  to  these 
other  organizations,  and  that  is  the  way  it  stands  at  this  time. 

I  think  the  record  should  also  reflect  my  personal  views  anyway,  and 
that  is  all  I  have  to  say. 

Here  ^^e  are  hearing  evidence  of  threats,  intimidation,  and  boycotts. 
That  at  least  during  the  period  of  our  history  thus  far  has  not  been 
a  pretty  word— ''boycotts.''  We  want  the  evidence  that  you  are  pre- 
senting. It  is  important.  But  I  must,  in  all  honesty  to  myself,  say 
that  a  boycott,  wherever  it  comes  from,  is  no  good. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Blumberg,  during  the  period  of  this  boycott 
which  you  have  described  against  your  radio  station,  did  you  subse- 
quently regain  any  sponsors  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  We  did.  We  had  a  few,  and  then  would  lose  them 
again,  until  it  got  to  the  point  where,  frankly,  I  think  we  had  one  local 
sponsor  left  and  perhaps  two  or  three  national  sponsors.  People  were 
too  frightened.  I  can't  blame  the  merchants.  The  only  way  they 
could  have  broken  the  back  of  the  boycott  was  to  stand  up  together. 
Of  course,  this  has  been  the  problem  from  the  beginning  in  Bogalusa : 
For  some  reason  good  people 

The  Chairman.  I  meant  to  add  that  perhaps  another  mistake  your 
group  made  was  not  to  pursue  that  meeting,  and  perhaps  the  engaging 
in  boycotts  would  have  been  prevented.  I  wanted  to  complete  my 
statement.    You  may  comment. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Right. 

The  Chairman.  In  other  words,  I  agree  with  you  when  you  said 
you  should  have  kept  on. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Right. 

The  Chairman.  And  perhaps  better  results  would  have  been 
achieved  if  the  committee  had  not  yielded  in  the  first  place. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  This  is  quite  true,  but  for  some  reason 

The  Chairman.  I  am  not  reproachful. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  No.     I  was  just  continuing. 

For  some  reason  we  have  never  been  able  to  get  the  power  struc- 
ture in  the  community,  Bogalusa,  to  stand  up  together  and  do  away 
with  all  of  this  nonsense.  I  think  it  is  the  answer  to  peacefully  re- 
solving the  civil  rights  problem  not  only  in  Bogalusa,  but  in  any  com- 
munity, because  the  people  of  Bogalusa  are  no  different  than  the  peo- 
ple in  any  small  community  in  the  country.  North,  South,  East,  or 
West.  I  would  say  90  to  95  percent  of  the  people  are  good  people, 
but,  if  the  people  would  only  quit  underrating  themselves  and  stand 
up,  they  would  be  amazed  how  much  power  they  have  if  they  stand 
together.  I  think  it  is  the  key  to  this  kind  of  a  problem  and  some- 
how, somewhere  along  the  line,  the  answer  to  getting  people  to  be- 
come involved  is  going  to  be  found.  But  until  it  is,  there  is  going 
to  be  a  great  deal  of  difficulty  not  only  in  Bogalusa,  but  anywhere 
else,  because  Bogalusa  is  not  unique,  it  is  like  any  community  any- 
where in  this  country.     And  this  goes  for  the  State  of  Louisiana,  too. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chairman  ? 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Pool. 

Mr.  Pool.  How  do  you  account  for  the  fact  that  Bogalusa  didn't 
stand  up,  where  most  communities  in  the  South  have  handled  their 
racial  situation  in  a  whole  lot  better  manner  than  they  did  in  Boga- 
lusa ? 


2432  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  think  possibly  it  was  because,  for  some  reason, 
the  Klan  was  allowed  to  infiltrate  the  community  in  the  powerful 
places  too  quickly  and  before  it  was  discovered  it  was  too  late.  I 
think  this  is  the  basic  reason.  Why  this  happened,  of  course,  is  any- 
one's guess. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Who  was  running  the  affairs  of  that  town,  Mr. 
Blumberg,  in  the  first  part  of  the  year  1965?  Was  it  the  civic  and 
religious  leaders  or  the  Ku  Klux  Klan? 

Mr  Blumberg.  The  first  part  of  1965  ? 

Mr.  Weltner.  From  the  time  you  invited  Brooks  Hays  until  March 
or  June,  who  was  running  the  town  at  that  time?  Who  was  exer- 
cising the  decision  power?    Whose  decisions  were  being  carried  out? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  am  sure  it  was  supposed  to  be  Mayor  Cutrer  and 
the  commission  council.  I  really  don't  know  how  much  they  were 
influenced.     Let's  put  it  that  way. 

Mr.  Pool.  Were  the  decisions  being  made  at  Ku  Klux  Klan  head- 
quarters for  the  city  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  really — I  mean,  all  I  can  offer  you  is  a  personal 
opinion. 

Mr.  Pool.  That  is  what  I  asked. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  If  you  want  my  pei-sonal  opinion,  I  don't  think  any 
decision  was  made  unless  9i  great  deal  of  thought  was  put  into  how 
this  would  affect  the  Klan  leadership,  what  they  Avould  think  about  it. 

Mr.  Pool.  They  AVeren't  actually  calling  the  shots,  but  they  were 
more  or  less  in  a  veto  position ;  they  could  veto  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  They  were  an  influencing  factor  then,  and  I  think 
they  are  an  influencing  factor  right  now  when  I  am  sitting  here  talk- 
ing to  you.     I  have  never  changed  my  mind  about  that. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  it  would  be  appropriate  at  this  point — I 
want  in  the  record  at  some  point — for  me  to  refer  to  the  findings  arid 
holdings  of  the  Fifth  Circuit  Court  of  Appeals  in  the  case  I  read 
from  a  while  ago,  particularly  with  reference  to  one  of  the  defendants, 
the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association.  The  court,  with  refer- 
ence to  that  outfit  and  the  Klan,  said  this : 

We  find  that  to  attain  its  ends,  the  klan  exploits  the  forces  of  hate,  prejudice, 
and  ignorance.  We  find  that  the  klan  relies  on  systematic  economic  coercion, 
varieties  of  intimidation,  and  physical  violence  in  attempting  to  frustrate  the 
national  policy  expressed  in  civil  rights  legislation.  We  find  that  the  klansmen, 
whether  cloaked  and  hooded  as  members  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan,  or  skulking  in  anonymity  as  members  of  a  sham  organization,  "The 
Anti-Communist  Christian  Association",  or  brazenly  resorting  to  violence  on  the 
open  streets  of  Bogalusa,  are  [and  quoting]  a  "fearful  conspiracy  against 
society  *  *  ♦." 

*  *  *  *  ^  i^  * 

The  evidence  clearly  establishes  that  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Associa- 
tion is  not  a  bona  fide,  independent  organization  but  is  the  defendant  klan 
thinly  disguised  under  a  respectable  title.  At  an  earlier  time,  the  klan's  dummy 
organization  was  called  the  Bogalusa  Gun  and  Riflo  Club.  The  defendants' 
efforts  to  appear  respectable  by  association  may  also  be  reflected  in  the  location 
of  the  klan's  principal  oflSce  in  the  Disabled  American  Veterans  Hall. 

That  is  the  end  of  the  quotation. 

That  is  why  I  stated  yesterday  that  in  all  of  the  long  history  of  the 
phony  front  groups  that  the  Klan  has  used  to  appear  respectable,  they 
are  just  as  false  as  a  2-foot  yardstick,  and  I  am  glad  to  have  a  court, 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2433 

the  circuit  court  of  appeals,  a^ree  with  the  views  of  this  committee 
and  with  the  evidence  we  have  been  presenting  along  the  same  lines. 
Proceed. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Blumberg,  the  fact  is  that  you  decided  to  leave 
Bogalusa  and  sell  your  WBOX,  Bogalusa.  Will  you  please  tell  the 
committee  when  you  made  this  decision  and  why '( 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Well,  we  decided  to  sell  the  station  around  No- 
vember. We  made  the  decision  because,  number  one,  we  had  been 
receiving  outside  help  from  individuals  and  some  broadcasting  stations 
from  around  the  country,  and  we  were  running  out  of  money,  and 
we  realized  the  merchants  weren't  going  to  come  back  with  the  station 
for  a  long  time,  if  ever.  We  also  felt  we  were  making  the  decision 
to  sell ;  the  Klan  was  not  making  it  for  us.  We  could  possibly  have 
kept  going,  but  we  decided  that  we  had  proved  our  point  as  much 
as  we  possibly  could.  My  family  was  in  St.  Louis,  my  wife  and  two 
children  living  there,  and  myself  in  Bogalusa  for  4  or  5  months,  which 
is  no  way  to  live.  I  don't  think  we  could  have  ever  lived  in  Bogalusa 
in  peace  again.  So  we  had  no  choice,  really,  we  had  to  sell.  But 
we  didn't  close  our  doors ;  they  didn't  drive  us  out  of  business  like  they 
wanted  to  do.  So  its  kind  of  a  pathetic  thing  to  say,  really,  but  in 
a  way  we  had  our  share  of  victory.  But,  unfortunately,  the  Klan  has 
won  their  battle  in  Bogalusa.  They  control,  they  influence  greatly 
now  all  of  the  press,  the  news  media.  But  I  am  hoping  that  perhaps 
they  will  think  a  little  harder  before  they  ever  hit  a  communications 
media  again.  If  they  control  the  press,  half  of  their  battle  has  been 
won. 

Mr.  Manuel.  At  the  time  you  decided  to  sell,  did  you  know  that 
the  Klan  w^ould  never  let  up  its  boycott  and  pressure  on  your  former 
sponsors  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  we  had  a  sponsor,  the 
first  one  in  9  months,  that  came  back  with  us  a  few  months  ago. 
He  was  an  automobile  dealer  Avho  changed  his  location  to  a  new  place 
and  he  w-anted  to  try  the  station  once  again.  He  felt  everything  was 
all  right.  He  was  on  the  station  for  3  days.  The  morning  of  the 
fourth  day  he  called  me  and  said  that  he  had  received  a  flood  of 
phone  calls  all  day  long  at  his  business  and  even  at  nighttime  at  his 
home,  and  he  felt  he  just  had  to  go  back  off,  and  I  agreed.  So 
nothing  has  changed. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Can  you  fix  the  approximate  date  of  that  incident  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  think  that  was  probably  late  Octolier,  early  No- 
vember. 

Mr.  Manuel.  And  that  was  almost  a  year  after  the  invitation  to 
Brooks  Hays  which  you  have  described  to  the  committee? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  of 

this  witness. 

The  Chairman.  We  appreciate  your  appearance.  I  think  you  have 
made  a  contribution  to  the  hearings.  I  don't  know  whether  you  would 
be  prepared  to  answer  a  question  which  I  would  like  to  propound. 
Maybe  you  would  like  to  think  about  it  and  reappear.    It  is  this: 

This  committee  will  be  called  upon  to  make  a  report  to  the  House 
and  to  recommend  remedial  legislation  as  a  result  of  the  hearings  and 


2434  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

based  upon  the  hearing  record  after  it  is  completed.  I  can  conceive 
of  a  number  of  possibilities,  of  a  number  of  possible  approaches.  I 
do  not  know  what  they  will  be  specifically,  any  more  than  a  judge 
knows  what  he  will  decide  until  he  has  heard  the  wliole  evidence. 

Certainly,  a  possible  approach  to  remedial  legislation  would  be  an 
amendment  to  the  Internal  Security  Act  of  1950,  of  which  I  was  not 
the  author,  but  wrote  the  report  and  helped  manage  it  on  the  floor  of 
the  House.  That  law  requires  the  Connnunist  Party  and,  under  cer- 
tain circumstances,  its  officers  and  members  to  register — in  simple 
terms — under  sanctions  or  punishments  or  penalties  for  not  doing  so. 

After  many  years  of  litigation — I  think  11  years  to  be  specific — the 
Supreme  Court,  in  1961  I  think  it  was,  upheld  that  law  as  a  consti- 
tutional piece  of  legislation.  But  then,  subsequently,  when  it  came  to 
implement  it  according  to  its  terms,  that  is,  the  forced  registration,  we 
have  met  frustration.  I  am  not  in  the  least  reproaching  an3^one  in  that 
connection.  It's  not  my  business  to  point  the  finger  at  anyone  or  to 
criticize  another  branch  of  the  Government,  but  it  is  a  fact  we  have 
had  trouble  in  implementing  it. 

Now,  a  possible  approach  would  be  to  amend  that  act  and  to  include 
Klan  organizations  and  members,  possibly,  to  register. 

Another  approach  would  be  based  upon  our  experience  over  the 
years.  When  the  Klans  were  at  their  peak  specifically  within  my 
generation,  in  1915  and  the  early  twenties,  all  the  Southern  States,  in- 
cluding my  own,  with  the  legislatures  as  then  composed,  saw  fit  to 
enact  laws  curbing  certain  activities  of  the  Klans  that  then  operated, 
including,  for  instance,  in  some  States,  making  it  unlawful  for  Klans 
to  appear  in  hooded  robes — and  you  mentioned  that  a  while  ago — 
on  public  property  and  prohibiting  appearance  in  hooded  robes  on 
private  property  without  the  consent  of  the  owner.  And  so  on.  Per- 
haps that  could  be  a  beginning.  Perhaps  a  Federal  law  could  be 
fashioned  and  the  law^  modified  to  fit  the  Nation. 

Thirdly,  another  approach — and  these  are  possibilities  only — would 
be  a  Federal  statute  to  make  it  unlawful,  to  use  short  terms,  for 
groups  of  people  to  engage  in  types  of  activities  described  in  that  cir- 
cuit court  of  appeals  decision  and  thereby  deprive  other  people  of  the 
enjoyment  of  their  rights  under  the  Constitution. 

So  those  w^ould  be  three  possibilities  that  now  occur  to  me  and  that 
I  have  been  thinking  about. 

Based  upon  your  experience,  I  was  going  to  ask  you  now,  or  later 
if  you  prefer,  while  you  are  on  the  stand  whether  you  have  any  sug- 
gestions as  possible  remedial  legislation  that  we  might  recommend. 
It  is  a  tough  one,  it  is  not  an  easy  one.  We  will  wrestle  with  it  and 
we  will  come  out  with  something.  I  am  wondering  if  you  are  pre- 
pared to  make  any  suggestions. 

Mr.  BlumberCt.  Actually,  Congressman  Willis,  I  really  don't  have 
any  suggestions  for  legislation  as  such.  As  I  have  stated  before,  you 
know  when  you  go  through  something  like  this,  like  one  of  the  FBI 
agents  told  me  down  there,  all  of  a  sudden  you  become  a  great  soci- 
ology expert.  But  the  one  thing  that  keeps  coming  back  to  my  mind 
time  and  time  again  is  the  same  answer,  and  this  goes  beyond  the 
Klan  and  civil  rights  movement:  We  are  talking  about  human  be- 
ings, about  people.    For  some  reason  today  good  people,  people  who 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2435 

know  better,  educated  people,  don't  want  to  become  involved  in  any- 
thinfr  that  lias  to  do  with  trouble.  And  I  think  it  is  irettin^  to  the  point 
where  this  type  of  person  is  goin^  to  have  to  become  involved,  be- 
cause I  think  that  our  basic  principles  are  at  stake  now  in  a  lot  of 
ways.  This  Klan  thine;  and  the  civil  ri<^hts  movement  are  just  one 
part  of  it.  And  I  don't  care  how  much  legislation  we  enact,  you  still 
come  back  to  the  human  beings.  People  have  got  to  realize  that  they 
must  become  involved  in  these  things,  regardless  of  how  much  trouble 
is  involved,  if  it  affects  their  freedoms.  We  are  either  going  to  prove 
to  the  world  that  we  are  a  democratic  country  or  we  are  not,  that  we 
are  a  freedom-loving  people  or  we  are  not,  and  there  is  no  in  between. 
You  can't  compromise  with  this  thing,  you  can't  rationalize;  you 
either  stand  for  it  or  you  don't,  you  are  going  to  fight  for  it  or  you 
are  not. 

This  applies  not  only  to  the  battlefront  in  Vietnam,  for  example, 
this  applies  on  the  home  front,  too.  As  I  said  before,  this  is  only  one 
little  part  of  it  we  are  talking  about  today,  but  to  me  this  is  the  answer, 
and  legislation,  of  course,  is  the  way  to  open  the  door  to  make  it  easier, 
but  it  still  is  coming  right  back  to  the  same  old  answer  all  over  again — 
people  themselves,  nidividuals. 

The  CiiAiRMAX.  Of  course,  I  agree  with  you.  But  if  we  believe  in 
another  precept  of  our  governmental  structure,  to  the  effect  that  we  are 
a  government  of  law  and  not  of  men,  then  we  must  think  about  rules, 
with  sanctions  attached  to  them. 

Anyway,  I  am  glad  to  have  your  views,  and  I  completely  agree  with 
you  that  this  involves  personal  involvement  of  people.  People  have 
to  speak  out.    It  becomes  a  little  tough  now  and  then. 

I  made  a  lot  of  speeches  in  my  district  and  all  over  the  State  of 
Louisiana  in  the  last  few  weeks,  and  I  said  about  what  you  have  said. 
But  I  did  add  this,  and  I  think  it  was  well  received  and  I  think  it  is 
true:  A  person  has  to  be  proud  of  country  and  heritage,  where  he 
comes  from  and  what  he  stands  for.  I  said  that  I  am  an  American 
citizen  who  comes  from  the  South  and  I  am  proud  of  it.  But  I,  for  the 
life  of  me,  cannot  convince  myself  that  believing  in  or  joining  a  hate 
group,  whether  on  the  right  or  the  left,  would  make  me  either  a  bet- 
ter American  or  a  better  Southerner.  So  I  am  willing  to  involve  my- 
self and  I  do  hope  that,  as  a  result  of  the  hearings,  you  and  I  will 
have  more  company. 

I  have  a  note  from  my  general  counsel  that  the  Fifth  Circuit  Court 
of  Appeals  case  to  which  I  referred — let  me  say  in  my  own  words,  this 
is  a  landmark  decision  with  reference  to  these  specific  hearings,  and 
it  was  written  by  Judge  Wisdom  of  New  Orleans,  and  I  think  it  ought 
to  be  made  a  part  of  the  record.  At  the  conclusion  of  today's  hear- 
ing record,  I  would  like  for  it  to  be  made  a  part  of  this  record. 
(See  pp.  2475-2519.)  It  is  United  States  of  America  against  the  Orig- 
inal Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  and  it  came  out  of  the  Eastern  Dis- 
trict of  Louisiana,  a  three- judge  court  composed  of  Judge  John  Wis- 
dom of  the  Fifth  Circuit  Court  of  Appeals  and  District  Judges  Herbert 
Christenberry  of  Xew  Orleans  and  District  Judge  Robert  Ainsworth 
of  New  Orleans. 

The  decision  was  written  by  Judge  Wisdom  who  is  a  Fifth  Circuit 
Court  of  Appeals  Judge. 


2436  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   EXAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  have  no  questions.  I  thank  the  witness  for  appearing 
and  giving  us  the  benefit  of  his  appearance.  I  think  it  was  very  helpful 
to  the  committee,  esjpecially  in  view  of  the  fact  that  you  have  been  in 
the  radio  and  television  news  media  which  makes  you  a  more  qualified 
witness  than  some  others  and  I  appreciate  it. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  some  questions. 

Mr.  Blumberg,  I  think  you  sent  your  wife  and  children  to  St.  Louis 
shortly  after  the  series  of  harassing  telephone  calls  and  they  remained 
there  until  the  sale  of  the  station  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  They  had  come  back  after  about  30  days.  They 
stayed  in  Bogalusa  with  me  until  we  had  received  a  report  from  some 
friends  of  ours  in  Bogalusa  which  we  have  never  been  able  to  prove. 

To  make  a  long  story  short,  the  word  "kidnaping"  was  used  in  rela- 
tion to  getting  even  with  me,  and  I  discussed  this  with  the  FBI.  They 
said,  "Get  the  family  back  to  St.  Louis,"  and  we  did. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Did  you  do  that  because  you  feared  for  their  life 
and  safety  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  feared  for  their  safety  in  the  hands  of  the  Ku 
KluxKlan? 

Mr.  Bluimberg.  I  don't  know  who  it  would  be,  but  it  probably  would 
have  been  the  Klan. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  you  know  who  it  was ;  let's  put  it  that  way. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  have  been  very  much  impressed  with  your  con- 
viction, very  forcibly  and  eloquently  stated,  that  it  is  time  for  people 
to  become  involved  and,  in  effect,  stand  up  for  what  they  profess  to 
believe. 

I  wonder  what  public  officials  stood  up  during  this  time  of  crisis  in 
the  city  of  Bogalusa  ?  You  gave  editorials  on  the  radio  station.  Mr. 
Major  stood  up  through  his  newspaper.  Several  ministers  stood  up 
in  their  action.  Wliat  did  public  officials  do  in  that  city  in  an  effort 
to  protect  law  and  order? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Actually  the  mayor  came  out  with  a  statement  say- 
ing there  would  be  law  and  order. 

^  Mr.  Weltner,  it  is  difficult  to  say  exactly  what  they  did  under  the 
circumstances.  All  I  can  do  is  boil  it  down  to  one  statement :  I  think 
these  men  did  as  well  as  they  could  possibly  do.  Wliether  they  were 
right  or  whether  they  were  wrong,  I  think  is  immaterial. 

The  fact  that  these  were  men  who  grew  up  in  this  community,  had 
to  face  this  problem  unexpectedly — I  just  don't  have  the  right  to,  you 
know,  to  personally  criticize  these  men.  I  honestly  believe  that  they 
did  the  best  they  could  do.    It  is  that  simple. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  problem  they  had  to  face  unexpectedly  was  the 
wholesale  infiltration  of  the  Klan  into  the  fabric  of  the  community. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  In  the  civil  rights  problem ;  yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  What  effect,  Mr.  Blumberg,  would  you  say  that  the 
anonymity  or  the  secrecy  or  hidden  identity  of  members  of  the  Klan 
had  in  the  apparent  ability  of  the  Klan  to  work  its  will  upon  this  com- 
munity? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Like  spreading  a  blanket  of  fear  over  the  entire 
community,  and  this  is  the  great  effective  weapon  of  the  Klan. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2437 

Mr. Weltxer.  Secrecy^ 

Mr.  Blt"\ibekg.  Secrecy. 

Mr.  Weltxer.  "Well,  now,  that  is  interesting.  I  would  like  to  read 
to  you  from  a  document  that  has  previously  been  placed  into  the  rec- 
ord of  these  hearings,  ''The  Seven  Symbols  of  The  Klan"  (Allen  Bayne 
Exhibit  No,  3) ;  ^  all  of  this  is  under  the  aegis  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America.  The  statement,  I  think,  holds  true  that  says,  "The  secret 
of  our  power  lies  in  the  secrecy  of  our  membership." 

That  is  a  statement  emanating  from  a  Klan  publication.  Do  you 
agree  with  that  statement,  that  the  secrecy  of  the  Klan's  power  is  the 
secrecy  of  its  membership  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Right. 

Mr.  WEf/rxER.  In  view  of  your  experience,  I  would  also  like  to  read 
to  you  certain  portions  of  another  document  published  by  the  United 
Klans  of  America  called  The  Principle  of  the  United  Klans  of  Amer- 
ica, Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  (Allen  Bayne  Exhibit  No.  1),-  I 
am  taking  certain  excerpts  from  this.    I  will  ask  your  opinion  on  this. 

This  says : 

We  believe  in  just  laws  and  liberty. 

By  just  laws  is  meant  laws  that  apply  equally  to  all,  rich  and  poor,  educated, 
men  and  women.  *  *  * 

What  is  your  experience  with  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  as  to  whether  that 
proclamation  is  believed  and  transposed  to  action  and  continued. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  don't  believe  they  believe  this  at  all. 

Mr,  Weltxer,  [R«admg:]  "We  believe  in  the  upholding  of  the 
Constitution  of  these  United  States." 

Bearing  in  mind  that  the  first  amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States  includes  the  right  peaceably  to  assemble,  I  wonder 
whether  or  not  you  believe  this  statement. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  think  they  believe  in  this  statement  as  it  is  inter- 
preted by  them. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Wliat  about  this : 

We  believe  in  freedom  of  speech :  By  this  is  meant  the  right  of  any  citizen  to 
express  an  opinion  on  any  subject,  either  publicly  or  privately,  so  long  as  no 
other  person's  private  character  is  assailed.  *  *  * 

Now,  you  have  expressed  some  opinions  publicly  and  I  wonder 
whether  or  not  your  experience  bears  out  a  jfirm  belief  in  this  proclama- 
tion. 

Mr.  Bli'mberg.  Let  me  answer  that  by  saying  this:  There  is  no 
freedom  of  speech  or  freedom  of  assembly  or  a  businessman's  right 
to  run  his  business  in  Bogalusa  today. 

Mr,  Weltner.  Wliat  about  this : 

We  believe  in  a  free  press,  uncontrolled  by  political  or  religious  sects. 
The  press  should  be  free  to  spread  news  without  coloring  it  to  suit  any  person 
or  sects :  *  *  * 

What  has  been  your  experience  with  that  as  a  member  of  the  press 
and  as  an  associate  of  Mr.  Lou  Major,  publisher  of  the  newspaper 
there, 

Mr.  Blumberg,  At  this  time  the  newspaper,  which  was  formerly  a 
liberal  paper,  is  a  completely  conservative  newspaper.  It  is  not  the 
real  policy  of  the  editor  down  there.    It  isn't  what  he  really  believes, 

^  See  committee  report,  The  Present-Day  Ku  Klux  Klan  Movement,  pp.  347-352. 
-Ibid.  pp.  366-371. 


2438  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Pool.  Let  me  interrupt  right  there  now.  You  said,  "conser- 
vative newspaper."  Are  you  saying  that  conservatives  are  followers 
oftheKuKluxKlan? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Xo,  I  am  not  saying  that. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  wanted  to  distinguish  that.  I  kind  of  like  to  be  con- 
sidered a  conservative  in  my  district.  People  down  there  like  con- 
servatives, and  I  want  to  get  that  in  the  record  straight. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  May  I  say  amen  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  That  is  not  what  I  meant.  The  paper  publishes 
news  slanted  the  way  the  Klan  w^ants  it  slanted.  There  is  no  doubt 
about  it. 

Mr.  Weltner.  So  you  wouldn't  particularly  believe  the  practice  of 
the  Klan  as  taught  by  this  belief  in  a  free  press  ? 

Mr.  Blumberg.  Absolutely  not. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  previously  testified  that  a  friend  of  yours  came 
to  you  and  said  that — or  someone  well  known  to  you  came  and  said 
that  his  friends  wanted  you  to  retract  everything  you  have  said  and 
followed  it  by  saying,  "We  don't  want  to  harm  women  and  children," 
and  following  that  your  wife  and  child  were  sent  to  St.  Louis  and  once 
again  were  sent  to  St.  Louis. 

What  about  this :  "We  believe  in  the  protection  of  our  pure  woman- 
hood, the  home  *  *  *.'" 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  don't  know  who  wrote  that. 

Mr.  Weltner.  This  is  written  by  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  Lie,  in  Alabama. 

Mr.  Blumberg.  I  don't  believe  any  of  that ;  none  of  it  that  you  have 
read  so  far. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  no  further  questions. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  I  would  just  like  to  thank  the  witness  for  his  testi- 
mony, Mr.  Chairman.    I  have  no  further  questions. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  will  be  excused.  Thank  you  ever  so 
much.    We  certainly  appreciate  the  contribution  you  have  made. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  would  like  to  call  to  the  stand  Mr.  Charles  Christmas. 

The  Chairman.  The  committee  will  come  to  order.  The  next  wit- 
ness will  come  forward. 

Will  you  call  your  next  witness  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have,  Mr.  Chairman.    Mr.  Charles  Christmas. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand.  Do  you  solemnly 
swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the 
whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  tlie  truth,  so  help  you  God? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  CHARLES  HORTON  CHRISTMAS,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 

COUNSEL,  MICHAEL  S.  INGRAM 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record,  please? 

Mr.  Christmas.  Charles  Horton  Christmas. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  June  18,  1917,  Meridian,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  am. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2439 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Ingram.  Yes,  sir.  My  name  is  Michael  S.  Ingram,  engaged  in 
private  practice  of  law  from  Baton  Rouge,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Chairman,  if  I  might  clarify  the  record,  for  your  record,  the 
decision  that  you  referred  to  during  the  testimony  of  the  last  witness 
from  the  case  of  the  United  States  of  America  against  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  was  not  a  Fifth  Circuit  Court  of 
Appeals  decision. 

The  Chairman.  I  am  sorry,  it  was  a  three- judge  court  decision. 

Mr.  Ingram.  It  came  out  of  the  Eastern  District  of  Louisiana. 

The  Chairman.  I  am  sorry.  I  knew  that.  In  my  reference  to  that 
decision,  I  meant  to  say  that  that  decision  was  rendered  by  a  three- 
judge  court,  as  it  is  technically  called,  composed  of  Judge  John  M. 
Wisdom  of  the  Fifth  Circuit  Court  of  Appeals  and  District  Judges 
Herbert  Christenberry  of  New  Orleans  and  District  Judge  Robert 
Ainsworth  of  New  Orleans  in  the  Eastern  District  of  Louisiana.  The 
decision  was  written  by  Judge  Wisdom  as  a  Fifth  Circuit  Court  of 
Appeals  Judge. 

Mr.  Appell,  Mr.  Christmas,  when  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  June  18,  1917,  Meridian,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  do  you  presently  reside  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  Amite,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  have  a  street  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  414  North  Duncan  Avenue. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  are  you  appearing  before  the  commit- 
tee today  in  accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  Octo- 
ber 26,  1965,  at  the  Brumfield  Motor  Company  in  Amite,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  employed  by  the  Brumfield  Motor  Company  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  under  the  conditions  of  the  subpena 
you  were  directed  to  produce  certain  documents  called  for  in  an 
attachment  w^hich  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena.  Paragraph  1 
calls  for  you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  and  affiliated  organizations,  namely,  Louisiana 
Rescue  Servic-e  and  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  Grand 
Dragon  of  the  6th  Congressional  District  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans, 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United  Klans 
of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Ingram.  Just  a  moment. 

Mr.  Chairman,  it  is  my  understanding  that  yesterday  after  meeting 
with  Mr.  Appell  on  this  matter,  and  by  telephone  conversations  with 
Mr.  McNamara,  the  staff  director  of  this  committee,  back  in  November, 
when  these  men  were  originally  scheduled  to  appear,  and  quite 
recently,  that  I  advised  Mr.  McNa,mara  and  yesterday  Mr.  Appell,  that 
all  the  records  asked  for  in  paragraph  1  of  the  subpena  duces  tecum 
issued  to  Mr.  Christmas  and  the  other  defendants  who  were  also  named 
as  individual  defendants  in  the  injunction  sought  under  the  Civil 
Rights  Act  in  New  Orleans,  which  was  tried  early  in  September,  that 

59-222  O— 67— pt.  3 8 


2440  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

all  of  this  literature  was  in  the  court  record  as  evidence  and  in  the 
possession  of  the  clerk  of  courts  in  New  Orleans  and  also  in  the 
hands  of  the  Justice  Department,  to  whom  it  was  turned  over  person- 
ally by  me  at  the  commencement  of  that  trial  in  Xew  Orleans. 

I  called  the  staff  director  back  in  November  specifically  for  this 
purpose,  because  at  that  time  I  was  advised  all  of  it  had  been  turned 
over  and  I  wanted  to  know  from  the  staff  director  if  he  wanted  me  to 
obtain  a  court  order  authorizing  the  release  of  this  information  so 
that  it  could  be  brought  here  to  the  committee  today,  and  he  said  that 
he  would  obtain  a  ruling  from  the  chairman. 

I  was  later  advised  it  would  suffice,  not  to  obtain  this  court  order  if 
this  information  had  been  in  the  record. 

I  might  also  point  out  that  these  gentlemen  were  served  with  a 
subpena  duces  tecum  in  that  case  which,  although  I  do  not  have  a  copy 
of  it  here  today,  I  am  well  familiar  with  it  since  myself  and  my  two 
law  partners  represented  most  of  these  men  in  that  case  in  New 
Orleans;  that  that  subpena  issued  by  the  Justice  Department  was 
more  encompassing  and  broader  than  the  subpena  is  here  today,  and  I 
would  like  a  clarification  before  we  proceed. 

The  Chairman.  Here  is  Mr.  McNamara  of  the  committee.  Would 
you  relate  your  understanding?  I  don't  think  it  is  necessary  to  be 
sworn  unless  contradictions  develop. 

Mr.  McNamara.  I  would  like  to  qualify  one  statement  made  by  Mr. 
Ingram.  I  think  it  is  no  more  than  a  misunderstanding.  You  did,  as 
you  say,  call  me  on  several  occasions  in  regard  to  the  subpenas  and 
documents  called  for  by  the  committee.  You  did  not  state  to  me,  ho^^  - 
ever,  that  all  of  the  documents  called  for  by  the  subpena  had  been 
placed  in  the  court — had  been  turned  over  to  the  court. 

You  did  tell  me  that  same  of  them  had  been.  I  informed  you  that 
any  documents  which  had  been  given  to  the  court  the  committee 
could  obtain  from  the  court  and  that  your  witness  and  client  would 
not  be  required  to  produce  those,  but  if  he  had  any  materials  that  had 
not  been  turned  over  to  the  court,  we  would  expect  that  they  be 
produced. 

'The  Chairman.  Mr.  Ingram,  I  understood  you  to  say  that  the 
court's  subpena  was  broader  than  the  committee  subpena. 

Mr.  Ingram.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  That  would  be  your  answer  unless  there  are  further 
points  of  disagreement  ? 

Mr.  McNamara.  Mr.  Ingram  perhaps  forgot  to  mention  to  me  that 
everything  was  turned  over.  You  did  not  say  that.  You  just  told 
me  some  of  these  documents  had  been  turned  over,  but  you  did  not 
say  all. 

The  Chairman.  And  you  say,  Mr.  McNamara,  that  whatever  docu- 
ments were  turned  over  in  response  to  the  court's  subpena  would  not 
have  to  be  produced  here. 

Mr.  McNamara.  That  is  correct. 

The  Chairman.  Now,  what  is  your  position  on  that?  Is  it  your 
position  that  of  necessity  everything  called  for  was  produced  because 
the  Federal  subpena  was  broader  than  our  subpena? 

Mr.  Ingram.  Yes,  Mr.  Chairman,  and  in  addition  to  that,  after  the 
trial  was  commenced,  if  a  transcript  of  that  trial  is  present  here,  I  am 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2441 

sure  that  will  bear  this  out :  The  defendants  were  required  to  produce 
additional  material  during  the  course  of  the  trial.  From  specific 
memory,  I  do  know  that  certain  membership  lists  were  turned  over,  the 
Various  charters  and  articles  of  incorporation  of  the  Anti-Communist 
Christian  Association,  a  copy  of  the  constitution  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan 
was  admited;  various  pamphlets  and  brochures  allegedly,  purportedly 
put  out  by  the  Klan  were  introduced.  Many  of  them  were  like  what 
Mr.  Blumberg  testified  to  today,  handbills — not  only  were  these  asked 
for  in  the  Federal  subpena  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan  and  any  other  Klan  organization,  but  the  Anti-Communist 
Christian  Association,  the  Bogalusa  Rifle  Club,  the  United  Conserva- 
tives, the  Minutemen,  and  I  think  there  were  two  or  three  other 
organizations  which  I  can't  remember  now,  l>ecause  I  don't  have  a 
copy  of  that  subpena. 

The  Chairman.  Now,  Mr.  Appell,  will  you  relate — as  I  see  it,  there 
is  practically  no  serious  disagreement.  AVliat  do  you  have  to  say, 
Mr.  Appell? 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Ingram  advised  me  all  the  documents  in  the  hands 
of  his  clients  had  been  turned  over  not  to  the  court,  but  to  the  U.S. 
attorney  handling  the  case.  He  assumed  that  all  of  those  documents 
were  put  in  evidence,  and  we  reviewed  the  exhibits  filed  in  the  case, 
and  I  advised  him  we  had  obtained  from  the  court  records  those  ex- 
hibits which  were  of  interest  to  us  in  our  inquiry;  that  we  did  not 
know  that  the  Government  attorney  had  in  his  possession  documents 
turned  over  by  his  clients  which  were  not  made  a  part  of  the  record; 
and,  however,  if  his  clients  had  no  records  they  would  not  be  required 
to  produce  something  that  they  did  not  have,  but  that  his  clients  would 
be  asked  this  morning  to  produce  documents  called  for  in  the  record 
so  that  this  record  would  show,  as  the  court  records  showed,  that  these 
documents  were  destroyed  and  that  they  were  not  in  the  possession  of 
any  of  his  clients.  This  is  the  reason  the  questions  are  being  pro- 
pounded. 

Mr.  Pool.  Are  you  now  asking  him  that  question  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  I  am  asking  for  the  production  of  documents. 

The  Chairman.  Be  specific  about  what  you  want  produced  at  this 
time  so  that  we  can  proceed  and  see  where  we  are. 

I  don't  have  a  general  picture  of  any  points  of  disagreement,  if 
any  exist. 

(Discussion  off  the  record.) 

The  Chairman.  I  think  the  best  thing  to  do  is  for  Mr.  Appell  to 
pose  such  questions  as  he  has  in  mind,  and  then  Mr.  Christmas  has  his 
attorney  here  and  he  was,  as  I  understand  it,  the  attorney  in  that  suit 
and  as  we  proceed  we  can  see  wliat  position  we  go  on. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  would  like  to  say,  Mr.  Christmas,  to  you,  first,  that 
through  your  counsel  it  was  expressed  that  the  subpena  of  the  court 
was  broader  than  the  committee's  subpena.  I  would  like  to  ask  you, 
through  your  counsel :  Does  the  duces  tecum  part  of  paragraph  1  en- 
compass all  documents,  records,  correspondence,  and  memorandum 
covered  by  the  subpena  of  the  court  ? 

Mr.  Ingram.  Mr.  Appell,  you  are  talking  about  paragraph  1  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Paragraph  1. 

Mr.  Ingram.  All  the  records  asked  for  were  turned  over  to  the  Fed- 
eral court. 


2442  ACTIVITIES    OF    KIT   KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  the  Federal  court  records  call  for  the  production 
of  correspondence,  memorandums,  and  other  documents  relating  to  the 
I"''nited  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  To  the  best  of  my  knowledge,  yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  produce  the  docu- 
ments called  for  in  paragraph  1. 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  the  records  asked 
for  in  paragraph  1  on  the  grounds  it  rtiight  incriminate  me  and  on  the 
further  grounds  it  would  violate  my  rights  as  guaranteed  under  the 
1st,  4th,  5th,  and  14th  amendments  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Ingram,  you  made  a  statement  a  while  ago  to 
the  effect — as  I  understood  it — your  client  didn't  have  these  docu- 
ments because  they,  and  more  of  them  in  view  of  the  breadth  of  the 
Federal  subpena  referred  to,  had  been  submitted  to,  and  filed  with, 
either  the  court  or  clerk  or  someone  in  that  litigation. 

Now,  there  appears  to  be  quite  a  problem  here,  and  I  must  tell  you 
that  we  have  asked  these  questions  of  your  client  and  you  advised 
him  what  to  do. 

What  is  the  pending  question  ? 

In  other  words,  we  want  this  record  complete  within  itself  and  we 
want  answers  to  these  questions  under  oath.  It  is  not  a  question  of 
not  taking  anybody's  word,  but  we  have  to  proceed  in  the  usual  way 
and  have  you  under  the  rules  of  the  committee — which  are  in  print — 
take  the  part  of  an  attorney  for  your  client  in  these  hearings. 

Specifically,  our  printed  rules  provide : 

At  every  hearing,  public  or  executive,  every  witness  shall  be  accorded  the 
privilege  of  having  counsel  of  his  own  choosing. 

The  participation  of  counsel  during  the  course  of  any  hearing  and  while  the 
witness  is  testifying  shall  be  limited  to  advising  said  witness  as  to  his  legal 
rights.  Counsel  shall  not  be  permitted  to  engage  in  oral  argument  with  the 
Committee,  but  shall  confine  his  activity  to  the  area  of  legal  advice  to  his  client. 

Let  me  say,  Mr.  Ingram,  this  is  absolutely  no  questioning  of  your 
integrity  or  your  word  or  your  motives,  but  in  view  of  conversations 
I  have  had  with  the  staff,  I  think  the  only  thing  we  can  do,  and  must 
do,  is  to  proceed  in  our  way  to  have  your  client  under  oath  answer 
these  questions,  because  we  have  reasons  to  believe  that  that  would 
be  the  best  way. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Ingram's  explanation  previously  was  not  sworn  to. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  true.  I  am  trying  to  act  as  one  laAvyer  to 
another  here,  and  not  question  his  motives,  but  I  think  the  thing  to 
do  is  to  follow  the  rules  of  the  committee,  because  matters  discussed 
with  me  not  within  the  hearing  of  the  witness  or  his  attorney  force 
me  to  take  the  position  I  am  now  taking. 

Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  are  the  representations  of  your  counsel 
with  respect  to  the  production  of  all  documents  in  the  court  factual? 

Mr.  Christmas.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  answer  to  that  then,  I  must  ask  you :  Is  it  true  then 
that  you  have  no  records  in  your  possession  relating  to  the  organiza- 
tions called  for  in  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  your  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2443 

The  Chairman.  I  missed  them.  What  constitutional  amendments 
did  you  rely  on  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  1st,  4th,  5th,  and  14th. 

The  Chairman.  All  ri^ht. 

Mr.  Christmas,  this  subpena  duces  tecum  calling  for  the  production 
of  those  documents  was  served  upon  you  in  the  representative  capacity 
stated  in  that  subpena.  In  other  words,  if  you  were  in  the  hearing 
room  yesterday,  you  heard  me  say  it  before;  there  is  a  distinction 
between  calling  on  an  individual  as  an  individual  to  produce  his 
records  in  an  income  tax  return,  and  a  subpena  on  someone  in  a  repre- 
sentative capacity,  whether  it  is  a  corporation  or  organization  of  any 
kind. 

We  do  not  accept  your  invocation  of  the  constitutional  privileges  you 
rely  on,  and  we  take  that  position  from  the  point  of  view  of  our  con- 
struction of  court  decisions.  Therefore,  I  order  and  direct  you  to 
produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  produce  these 
documents  under  the  constitutional  privileges  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  your  testimony  given  before  the  three-judge 
court  in  New  Orleans  that  records  of  the  organizations  mentioned 
had  been  destroyed  after  the  initiation  of  the  actual  injunction  pro- 
ceeding truthful  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

The  Chairjnian.  In  view  of  counsel's  statement  that  all  documents 
in  his  possession  had  been  submitted,  and  more,  under  the  Federal 
subpena,  and  this  development — which  I  didn't  know — from  the  ques- 
tions of  Mr.  Appell  that  you  said  and  swore  and  admitt-ed  before  that 
court  that  certain  documents  called  for  had  been  destroyed,  I  order 
and  direct  you  to  produce  those  documents — I  mean  to  answer  the 
question. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chairman,  may  I  interject-^something  as  a  pos- 
sible clarification  ?  As  I  recall  counsel's  statement,  he  stated  that  his 
client  was  under  compulsion  of  a  subpena  duces  tecum  to  produce  docu- 
ments which  was  broader  than  our  subpena,  and  he  stated  he  w^ould 
undertake  to  obtain  those  documents  w^hich  had  been  submitted  to  the 
Federal  court  in  Louisiana,  either  to  the  clerk  or  the  U.S.  attorney's 
office. 

I  don't  recall  whether  counsel  stated,  as  a  representation  on  behalf 
of  his  client,  that  all  documents  in  this  witness'  possession  had  been 
submitted  according  to  that  subpena,  and  I  think  there  may  be  a 
hiatus  in  here. 

The  Chairman.  I  am  glad  that  you  made  that  statement. 

Counsel  said  at  one  point  in  the  discussion  that  he  had  offered  to 
get  a  court  order  to  produce  for  us  whatever  had  been  admitted  in 
the  court  record. 

Now,  as  I  see  it,  at  this  time,  it  would  seem  what  counsel  had  in 
mind  was  to  make  available  to  us  the  documents  that  had  been  offered 
and  to  forget  about — deprive  us  of  the  right  to  develop  that,  in  the 
course  of  this  trial,  there  was  evidence  to  the  effect  that  some  of  them 
had  been  destroyed,  and  we  are  interested  in  that  destruction.  So  I 
direct  you  to  answer  that  question. 


2444  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  paragraph  2  of  the  subpena  called  for 
you  to  produce: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity  as 
present  or  past  member  and/or  oflBcer  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  re- 
quire to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  oflBcer  of  said  organization,  the  same 
being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  produce  the  documents 
under  the  constitutional  amendments  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  he  be  directed  to  produce  the 
documents. 

The  Chairman.  Yes,  for  the  reasons  I  previously  explained,  I  order 
and  direct  you  to  produce  the  documents. 

I  might  say  that  if — and  I  stress  that  word — you  have  turned 
over  to  the  court  in  New  Orleans  all  records  and  documents  called 
for  in  the  first  paragraph  and  the  second  paragraph  of  our  subpena, 
all  you  have  to  do  is  to  state  that  and  you  will  not  be  expected  to  turn 
them  over  to  us  here  now,  so  that  you  do  not  really  have  a  right  to 
invoke  the  fifth  amendment  or  any  other  amendments. 

Again  for  the  reasons  previously  stated — and  those  I  just  stated — 
I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  the  documents. 

Mr.  Christmas.  May  we  have  a  short  recess  ? 

The  Chairman.  Surely. 

We  will  stand  in  recess  for  5  minutes. 

(Brief  recess.) 

The  Chairman.  We  will  reconvene  at  2  p.m. 

(Subcommittee  members  present  at  time  of  recess:  Representatives 
Willis,  Pool,  Weltner,  and  Buchanan.) 

("WTiereupon,  at  12 :30  p.m.,  Wednesday,  January  5,  1966,  the  sub- 
committee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  2  p.m.  the  same  day.) 

AFTERNOON  SESSION— WEDNESDAY,  JANUARY  5,  1966 

(The  subcommittee  reconvened  at  2  p.m.,  Hon.  Edwin  E.  Willis, 
chairman,  presiding.) 

(Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Willis,  Pool, 
Weltner,  and  Buchanan.) 

The  Chairman.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order  and  we  will 
resume  the  testimony  of  Mr.  Christmas. 

You  have  already  been  sworn,  sir,  so  have  a  seat  and  Mr.  Appell 
will  proceed. 

TESTIMONY  OF  CHARLES  HORTON  CHRISTMAS— Resumed 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  the  reporter  does  not  have  the  exact 
point  we  left  off  prior  to  the  luncheon  recess  so  I  will  ask  you,  when 
were  documents,  records,  and  memoranda  in  your  possession  de- 
stroyed as  you  testified  in  the  Federal  court,  the  three- judge  court  in 
New  Orleans? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2445 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  testify  in  the  Federal  court? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitu- 
tional grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  or  anyone  testify  before  the  Federal  court, 
or  was  any  reference  made  before  those  Federal  judges,  that  at  any 
time  documents  had  been  destroyed  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  is  it  factual  that  the  documents  were 
destroyed  following  the  release  of  the  leaflet  published  by  the  Original 
Ku  Klux  Klan  which  welcomed  the  investigation  of  the  Klan? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitu- 
tional grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Christmas,  it  is  my  general  information — and 
you  can  correct  it  if  it  is  not  so — that  the  documents  we  are  talking 
about  that  were  destroyed  were,  in  fact,  destroyed  after  the  injunc- 
tion suit  had  beeii  filed  and  after  this  committee  announced  on  March 
30,  1965,  that  it  would  hold  hearings  on  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  organiza- 
tions in  the  United  States.    Is  that  not  true  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitu- 
tional grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  A  witness  testified  yesterday,  in  connection  with 
the  destruction  by  fire  of  documents,  that  the  reason  for  their  destruc- 
tion was  fear  of  the  enemy,  which  he  nebulously  referred  to  as  the 
Communists.  Was  that  the  reason  why  these  documents  were  de- 
stroyed ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitu- 
tional grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Is  it  not  a  fact  that  the  documents  which  were 
destroyed — which,  as  I  have  said,  took  place  after  the  filing  of 
the  injmiction  suit  and  after  the  announcement  of  our  hearings  and 
after  the  amiouncement  in  the  press  that  we  were  subpenaing  numer- 
ous witnesses —  based  on  that  I  ask  you  this  question : 

Is  it  not  a  fact  that  one  of  the  reasons  for  their  destruction  was 
fear  that  they  would  be  subpenaed  and  would  have  to  be  produced 
both,  or  either,  in  the  Federal  court  or  before  this  committee  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitu- 
tional grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr,  Christmas,  does  the  refusal  on  your  part  to  produce 
documents  called  for  in  paragraph  1  and  paragraph  2 — is  the  reason 
for  the  refusal  based  upon  the  fact  that  since  your  appearance  on 
September  8,  1965,  before  the  three-judge  court  in  Louisiana  and  the 
date  that  you  were  served  with  a  subpena  by  the  Committee  on  Un- 
American  Activities,  that  books,  documents,  records,  correspondence, 
and  other  memoranda  did  come  into  your  possession  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitu- 
tional grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  I  hand  you  a  copy  of  a  document,  the 
front  cover  of  which  shows  a  cross  and  the  title,  the  "Knights  of  the 


2446  ACTWITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Ku  Kliix  Klan  Since  1866,"  and  page  2  showinof  the  "Konstitntion  of 
the  Original  Ku  Khix  Khm  Reahn  of  Louisiana,"'  and  I  ask  if  this 
is  a  copy  of  the  document  you  presented  to  the  court  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitu- 
tional grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  2.") 

The  Chairman.  Let  the  reporter  note  that  documents  that  Avere 
commented  on  and  questioned  on  by  either  this  witness  or  other  wit- 
nesses previously  appearing  should  be  inserted  in  the  transcript  of 
the  proceedings  at  the  respective  points  where  the  several  witnesses 
were  questioned. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  I  would  like  to  quote  to  you  from  the 
opinion  of  the  three-judge  court  (Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2)  : 

The  Grand  Dragon  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  anrl  Presi- 
dent of  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association  is  Charles  Christmas  of  Amite 
in  Tangipahoa  Parish.  *  *  * 

Is  that  factual,  sir  ? 

Mr.  CiiRiSTiviAS.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  we  have  a  right  to  take  judicial  notice  of 
the  accuracy  of  the  statement  in  the  Federal  court,  unless  you  testify 
to  the  contrary. 

Mr,  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  when  did  you  become  a  member  of  the 
Original  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated  . 

Mr.  Appell.  Li  November  1964  were  you  a  coordinator  or  organizer 
in  the  Sixth  Congressional  District  or  Sixth  Province  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  early  1965  did  the  bulk  of  the  Klan  members  of 
the  Sixth  Congressional  District  sever  their  relationship  with  the  par- 
ent organization  and  become  an  independent  group  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  it  was  testified  to  in  the  three- judge 
court  injunction  proceeding  that,  in  order  for  a  person  to  become  a 
member  of  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association,  that  the  mem- 
ber would  give  to  the  Klavern  secretary  the  number  by  which  he  was 
known  as  a  member  of  the  Klavern  and  the  secretary  would  then  issue 
him  a  card  in  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association.  Is  that 
testimony  that  was  given  in  that  case  actual  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  say  again  that,  just  as  in  the  previous  in- 
stance and  in  other  instances  that  might  come  up,  unless  and  until 
there  is  evidence  to  the  contrary  this  committee  is  going  to  assume  the 
accuracy  of  statements  given  in  court  and  sworn  testimony  given  in 
court. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  after  the  organization  of  the  Sixth  Con- 
gressional District  of  the  Klan  became  independent,  were  you  elected 
to  the  position  of  Grand  Dragon  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2447 

Mr.  CHRTST:\rAS.  I  respoctfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Under  the  constitution  the  number  two  man  to  the 
Grand  Dragon  is  the  Grand  Titan.  Did  Saxon  Farmer  hold  the  posi- 
tion of  Grand  Titan  of  the  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Who  held  the  position  of  grand  klokard  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  February  1965  did  you  attend  a  meeting  near  Amite, 
Louisiana,  in  which  there  was  discussed  the  possibility  of  uniting  the 
four  factions  again  under  one  head  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  consti- 
tutional grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  are  you  familiar  with  the  organiza- 
tional procedure  in  the  Original  Knights  whereby  the  exalted  cyclops 
of  Klaverns  was  to  see  to  it  that  each  Klavern  would  have  a  body 
of  men  known  as  the  wrecking  crew  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  your  Klan  group  in  the  Bogalusa  area  create  as 
an  instrumentality  within  the  Klan  a  boycott  committee? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  I  will  read  to  you  from  the  opinion  of 
the  court  a  description  of  the  boycott  committee  and  its  responsibili- 
ties : 

"The  Boycott  Committee  (one  member  from  each  local  unit  appointed  by 
the  Exalted  Cyclops)  shall  have  exclusive  investigative  authority  and  it  shall 
not  act  at  any  time  with  less  than  three  members  present.  .  .  . 

(1)  No  person  or  subject  upon  whom  a  boycott  shall  have  been  placed  shall 
be  patronized  by  any  member.  .  .  .  Boycotts  shall  be  imposed  upon  subjects 
who  are  found  to  be  violating  the  Southern  traditions.  .  .  . 

Boycotts  shall  be  placed  upon  all  members  of  the  Committee  who  publicly 
served  with  Bascom  Talley  in  his  efforts  to  promote  the  Brooks  Hays  meeting. 

Boycotts  shall  be  placed  upon  any  merchant  using  Negro  employees  to  serv^e 
or  wait  ui)on  persons  of  the  white  race.  (Service  Stations  using  Negroes  to 
pump  gas  are  excluded. ) 

Boycotts  shall  be  placed  against  a  subject  who  serves  Negroes  and  whites 
on  an  integrated  basis. 

Boycotts  shall  be  placed  upon  a  subject  who  allows  Negroes  to  use  White 
rest  rooms.  .  .  . 

No  member  shall  be  punished  for  violation  of  the  rules  by  a  member  of  his 
family  under  twelve  (12)  years  of  age. 

Any  member  who  shall  after  a  hearing  have  been  found  guilty  of  personally 
patronizing  a  subject  listed  on  the  boycott  list  shall  be  wrecked  lyy  the  ivreek- 
ing  crew  who  shall  be  appointed  by  the  Committee.   (Emphasis  added.)    .  .  . 

Second  offense — If  a  member  is  found  guilty  of  personally  violating  the  boycott 
list  he  shall  be  wrecked  and  banished  from  the  Klan." 

Mr.  Christmas,  would  you  explain  to  the  committee  the  reasons  and 
necessity  for  the  appointment  of  a  boycott  committee? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  Marvin  Foster'the  chairman  of  the  boycott  com- 
mittee? 


2448  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  g:rounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  as  Grand  Dragon  of  the  Klan  and 
as  president  of  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association,  can  you 
tell  us  under  what  arrangements  and  how  it  came  about  that  Marvin 
Foster  was  appointed  a  personal  liaison  man  between  the  Klan  and 
the  city  administration  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previousl}^  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mayor  Cutrer  testified  at  the  trial  in  Louisiana  that 
it  was  Marvin  Foster  who  suggested  that  he  attend  the  meeting  of  the 
Klan  held  at  the  Disabled  American  Veterans'  Hall.  Was  his  testi- 
mony truthful? 

Mr.  Christmas  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  xVppell.  Mr.  Christmas,  I  show  you  five  leaflets,  four  of  which 
proclaim  that  they  were  published  by  the  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan  of 
Louisiana  and  one  signed  merely  "The  K.K.K."  and  I  ask  you  who 
was  the  author  of  these  leaflets  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Two  of  said  documents  previously  marked  "Ralph  Blumberg  Ex- 
hibits Nos.  1  and  3,"  respectively.  See  pp.  2454,  2455.  Three  marked 
"Charles  Christmas  Exhibits  Nos.  1-A  through  1-C."  See  pp.  2456- 
2458.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  Dewey  Smith  the  author  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  intend  to  give  this  committee  anv  information 
at  all? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the  constitu- 
tional grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  as  the  leader  of  the  Klan  in  Bogalusa 
did  you  know  Albert  Applewhite  to  be  the  exalted  cyclops  of  Unit  4 
in  Bogalusa? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  He  was  an  auxiliary  policeman.  Was  he  and  some  17 
other  Klansmen  sworn  out  of  the  Klan  so  they  could  deny  Klan 
membership  in  order  to  remain  in  the  auxiliary  police  force? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  as  a  leader  of  the  Klan,  did  you  know 
William  Houston  (popularly  known  as  Jack)  Burke  to  be  the  EC  of 
a  Klan  unit  ? 

The  Chairman.  By  "EC"  you  mean  exalted  cyclops? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  in  January  1965  did  he  head  a  com- 
mittee comprised  of  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Klaverns  in  the  Sixth 
Congressional  District  area? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2449 

Mr.  Appell.  Prior  to  your  takinjcj  over  leadership  of  the  Klan,  was 
Saxon  Farmer  the  head  of  the  Khm  in  the  Sixth  Congressional 
District? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  At  a  meeting  of  the  Klan,  was  it  agreed  that  if  Saxon 
Farmer  should  be  arrested  you  would  take  over  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  a  leader  of  the  Klan  did  you  know  James  M.  Ellis, 
Jr.,  to  be  the  exalted  cyclops  of  Unit  No.  2? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  groui,ids  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  know  Howard  M.  Lee,  the  gun  dealer,  to  be 
the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Mitch  Community  Klavem  unit? 

Mr.  Christivias.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Is  that  the  man  who  was  charged  and  convicted  of 
having  violated  the  Federal  law  dealing  with  the  sale  of  guns  and 
firearms  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Did  you  know  D.  D.  McElveen  to  be  a  member  of  the  Klan  in  the 
Bogalusa  area? 

Mr.  ChristjVias.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  know  him  to  be  a  member  of  the  wrecking 
crew  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  a  leader  of  the  Klan  did  you  know  Eussell  E. 
Magee  to  be  in  August  1964  kleagle  for  the  Franklinton  unit  of  the 
Klan? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  September  1964  did  you  know  him  to  be  a  leader  of 
the  Klan  in  the  Sixth  Congressional  District? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  know  Kinch  Miley  to  be  a  member  of  the 
Klan? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  a  leader  of  the  Klan  did  you  know  Eric  Peterson 
of  Sun,  Louisiana,  to  be  at  one  time  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Klan 
unit  in  Bush,  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  a  leader  of  the  Klan  did  you  know  Dewey  Bernard 
Smith  to  have  been  at  one  time  the  exalted  cyclops  of  Unit  1  and  at 
another  time  the  exalted  cyclops  of  LTnit  No.  2  ? 

Mr.  CHnisT:MAs.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 


2450  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appeil.  Mr.  Christmas,  I  shall  now  read  to  you  specific  find- 
ings of  Klan  intimidation  and  violence  as  found  by  the  three-judge 
court  in  New  Orleans,  in  which  the  court,  found  and  in  substance  which 
you  and  the  other  defendants  agreed  to  as  having  taken  place: 

(2)  Since  at  least  January  28,  1965,  the  defendants,  including  Saxon  Farmer, 
Russell  Magee,  Dewey  Smith,  Randle  C.  Pounds,  BiUy  Alford,  Charles  McClen- 
don,  James  Burke,  and  other  members  of  the  defendant  Klan,  have  made  a 
practice  of  going  to  places  where  they  anticipated  that  Negroes  would  attempt 
to  exercise  civil  rights,  in  order  to  harass,  threaten,  and  intimidate  the  Negroes 
iind  other  persons.  For  this  purpose,  members  of  the  defendant  Klan  have  gone 
to  Franklinton,  Louisiana,  when  Negro  citizens  of  Washington  Parish  were  ex- 
pected to  apply  to  register  as  voters,  have  gone  to  restaurants  in  Bogalusa  when 
Negroes  were  seeking  or  were  expected  to  seek  service,  and  have  gone  to  loca- 
tions in  downtown  Bogalusa  and  near  the  Bogalusa  Labor  Temple  when  Negroes 
were  attempting  or  were  expected  to  demonstrate  publicly  in  support  of  equal 
rights  for  Negroes. 

(3)  William  Yates  and  Stephen  Miller,  two  CORE  workers,  came  to  Bogalusa 
in  January  1965.  The  Grand  Dragon  and  Grand  Titan  of  the  Klan.  defendants 
Charles  ciiristmas  and  Saxon  Farmer,  appeared  at  the  Mayor's  office  to  ask  the 
Mayor  to  send  William  Yates  and  Stephen  Miller  out  of  Boglusa.  Mayor  Cutrer 
indicated  that  he  could  do  nothing.  The  next  day,  February  3,  1965,  three  Klans- 
men,  James  Hollingsworth,  Jr.,  James  Hollingsworth,  Sr.,  and  Delos  Williams, 
with  two  other  persons,  Doyle  Tynes  and  Ira  Dunaway,  attempted  to  insure 
Yates'  and  Miller's  departure.  This  group  followed  Yates  and  Miller  and  as- 
saulted Yates. 

(4)  February  15,  1965,  defendant  Virgil  Corkern,  Klansman,  and  approxi- 
mately 30  other  white  persons  attacked  five  Negro  citizens  and  damaged  the 
car  in  which  they  w^ere  riding.  This  occurred  because  the  Negroes  had  sought 
sen'ice  at  a  gasoline  station  in  Bogalusa.  On  that  same  day.  Corkern  and  other 
persons  gathered  at  Landry's  Fine  Foods,  a  restaurant  in  Bogalusa,  to  observe 
Negroes  seeking  service  at  the  restaurant.  Corkern  and  one  other  entered  the 
restaurant  brandishing  clubs,  ordered  the  Negroes  to  leave  and  threatened  to 
kill  Sam  Barnes,  a  member  of  the  Bogalusa  Voters  League,  who  had  come  to  the 
restaurant  with  six  Negro  women. 

(5)  March  29.  1965,  defendants  Hardie  Adrian  Goings,  Jr.,  Klansman,  and 
PYanklin  Harris,  Klansman,  shortly  after  meetings  had  been  held  at  the  Bogalusa 
Labor  Temple,  threw  an  ignited  tear  gas  canister  at  a  group  of  Negroes  stand- 
ing near  the  Labor  Temple.  Goings,  Jr.  then  tried  to  disguise  his  car  by  repaint- 
ing it  and  removing  the  air  scoop  from  the  top  to  prevent  detection  of  this  crime. 
Goings  or  other  Klansmen  used  this  same  car  in  May  of  1964  to  burn  a  cross 
at  the  home  of  Lou  Major,  editor  of  the  Bogalusa  newspaper. 

(6)  April  7,  1965,  defendants  Lattimore  McNeese  and  E.  J.  (Jack)  Dixon, 
Klansman,  threatened  Negro  citizens  during  the  ■course  of  a  meeting  at  the 
Labor  Temple  bj  brandishing  and  exhibiting  a  gun  at  Negroes  standing  outside 
the  Labor  Temple. 

(7)  April  9,  1965,  defendants  Billy  Alford,  Klansman.  Randle  C.  Pounds. 
Klansman,  Lattimore  McNeese,  Charles  McClendon,  and  James  Burke,  Klans- 
man, with  other  i>ersons,  went  to  the  downtown  area  of  Bogalusa  where  Negro 
citizens  were  participating  in  a  march  to  the  Bogalusa  City  Hall  to  protest 
denial  of  equal  rights.  Pounds,  McClendon,  and  Burke,  in  a  group,  moved  out  to 
attack  the  marchers.  Pounds  assaulted  the  leader  of  the  march,  James  Farmer, 
with  a  blackjack;  McClendon  and  Burke  were  temporarily  deterred  from  the 
threat^'ued  assault,  but  immediately  thereafter  assaulted  a  newsman  and  an  FBI 
agent.    Alford  assaulted  one  of  the  Negroes  participating  in  the  march. 

(8)  May  19,  1965,  Virgil  Corkern,  Klansman,  two  sons  of  Virgil  Corkern,  and 
other  white  persons  went  to  Cassidy  Park,  a  public  recreation  area  maintained 
by  the  City  of  Bogalusa,  for  the  purpose  of  interfering  with  the  enjoyment  of 
the  park  by  Negroes  and  white  CORE  workers  who  were  present  at  the  park 
and  using  the  facilities  for  the  first  time  on  a  non-segregated  basis.  The  Corkern 
group  entered  the  park  and  dispersed  the  Negro  citizens  with  clubs,  belts,  and 
other  weapons. 

.(9)  Negro  members  of  the  Bogalusa  Voters  League,  unable  to  exercise  their 
civil  rights  and  also  unable  to  obtain  from  police  oflicials  adequate  protection 
from  the  Klan.  filed  suit  June  25,  1965,  in  the  case  of  Hk-ks  v.  Knight,  Civ.  Ac. 
No.  15,  727  in  this  Ck)urt.     The  complaint  asks  for  an  injunction  requiring  of- 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2451 

ficers  of  the  City  of  Bogalusa  to  open  the  public  parlis  and  to  operate  such  parks 
without  racial  discrimination,  and  also  i-equiring  law  enforcement  officers  of 
the  City,  Parish,  and  State  to  protect  the  Negro  plaintiffs  and  oth(>r  Negroes  from 
physical  assaults,  beatings,  harassment,  and  intimidation  at  the  hands  of  white 
citizens.  July  10.  19(35,  this  Court  issued  an  injunction  in  Hickfi  v.  Knight  en- 
joining certain  city  and  parish  law  enforcement  officers  from  failing  to  use  all 
reasonable  means  to  protect  the  Negro  plaintiffs  and  others  similarly  situated 
from  physical  assaults  and  beatings  and  from  harassment  and  intimidation  pre- 
venting or  discouraging  the  exercise  of  their  i-ights  to  picket,  assemble  i^eace- 
ably.  and  advocate  equal  civil  rights  for  Negroes.  The  preliminary  injunction 
is  still  in  full  force  and  effect.  Plven  after  this  Court  issued  its  order  July  10, 
1965,  the  defendant  Klansmen  continued  to  interfere  with  Negro  citizens  exercis- 
ing civil  rights  and  interfered  with  i)erformance  of  the  duties  of  law  enforcement 
otficials  under  the  injunction  in  Hicks  v.  Knight. 

(10)  July  11,  1965,  during  a  Negro  march  in  downtown  Bogalusa,  defendants 
Randle  Pounds,  Klansmau.  H.  A.  Goings,  Jr.,  Klansman,  Franklin  Harris,  Klans- 
man,  and  Milton  E.  Parker  were  present.  Harris  and  Goings  passed  out  25-30 
2x2  clubs  to  youths  and  Pounds  stationed  the  youths  along  the  march  route. 
Parker  was  arrested  by  a  City  policeman  along  the  route  of  march  for  disburbing 
[sic]  the  peace. 

(11)  Included  in  the  exhibits  are  a  number  of  handbills  bearing  the  caption, 
"Published  by  the  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana".  These  are  crude, 
scurrilous  attacks  on  certain  Bogalusa  citizens  who  advocated  a  moderate  ap- 
proach to  desegregation.  For  example,  in  one  handbill  an  Episcopal  minister  is 
accused  of  lying  for  having  said  that  he  had  received  calls  threatening  to  bomb 
his  church ;  the  minister's  son  is  said  to  be  an  alcoholic,  to  have  faced  a  morals 
charge  in  court,  and  to  have  been  committed  to  a  mental  institution.  The  hand- 
bill adds : 

"The  Ku  Klux  Klan  is  now  in  the  process  of  checking  on   Reverend 

's  [naming  him]   moral  standards.     If  he  is  cleared  you 

will  be  so  informed.     If  he  is  not  cleared,  you  will  be  informed  of  any 
and  all  misdeeds  or  moral  violation  of  his  in  the  past." 

In  the  same  handbill  the  Klan  announced  that  it  was  "boycotting  businesses 
which  cater  to  integration  such  as  Mobile  Gas  Stations,  etc."  Mobile  Gas  Sta- 
tion is  a  business  competitor  of  the  defendant.  Grand  Titan  Saxon  Farmer. 

All  of  the  handbills  attempt  to  intimidate  public  officials,  the  Governor  of 
Louisiana,  the  Congressman  from  the  Sixth  District,  the  Mayor  of  Bogalusa, 
and  federal  judges  (by  name).  Sometimes  the  attempted  intimidation  is  by 
threat  of  violence,  sometimes  by  character  assassination.  We  quote,  for  ex- 
ample : 

The  Court  then  quotes  from  one  of  the  liandbills  which  I  shall  not 
read  in  full  but  after  talking  about  the  conduct  of  public  officials  there 
is  contained  this  language : 

"All  these  should  be  tarred  and  feathered : 

MAYOR  JESSIE  CUTRER,  REPRESENTATIVE  SHERIDAN,  SENATOR 
SIXTY  RAYBORN,  SHERIFF  DORMAN  CROWE,  CONGRESSMAN  JIMMY 
MORRISON,  GOVERNOR  JOHN  McKEITHEN,  SENATOR  RUSSELL  LONG" 

Mr.  Christmas  are  there  any  expressions  of  this  finding  of  the  court 
which  I  have  read  to  you  to  which  you  would  like  to  take  exception  or 
comment  upon  ? 

Mr,  Christmas.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Then  let  me  have  this  word  to  say,  I  think,  to  com- 
plete the  record,  and  the  whole  o])inion  will  be  printed  as  part  of  the 
record.  (Previously  marked  "Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2."  See 
pp.  '2475-2519.) 

Mr.  Christmas,  you  were  one  of  the  defendants  in  that  case.  I  state 
that  as  a  matter  of  fact.  The  court  in  that  statement^ — and  this  is 
general  language — said:  "An  unusual  feature  of  this  litigation  is  the 
defendants'  damning  admissions.  *  *  *'' 

The  court  proceeded : 


2452  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

In  deciding  to  grant  the  injunction  prayed  for,  we  rest  our  conclusions  on  the 
finding  of  fact  that,  within  the  meaning  of  the  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1957  and  1964, 
the  defendants  have  adopted  a  pattern  and  practice  of  intimidating,  threatening, 
and  coercing  Negro  citizens  in  Washington  Parish  *  *  *. 

Proceeding  further : 

We  find  that  to  attain  its  ends  the  klan  exploits  the  forces  of  hate,  prejudice, 
and  ignorance.  We  find  that  the  klan  relies  on  systematic  economic  coercion, 
varieties  of  intimidation,  and  physical  violence  in  attempting  to  frustrate  the 
national  policy  expressed  in  civil  rights  legislation.  *  *  * 

Further  on,  the  court  says,  based  on  admissions  in  the  pleadings  and 
sworn  testimony — and  you  were  one  of  the  people  they  were  talking 
about : 

Wrapped  in  myths  and  misbeliefs  which  they  think  relieve  them  of  the  obliga- 
tions of  ordinary  citizens,  Klansmen  pledge  their  first  allegiance  to  their  Kon- 
stitution  and  give  their  first  loyalty  to  a  cross  in  flames. 

Further  findings  of  fact  include — and  I  will  give  you  an  opportu- 
nity to  explain : 

None  of  the  defendant  Klansmen  is  a  leader  in  his  community.  As  a  group, 
they  do  not  appear  to  be  representative  of  a  cross-section  of  the  community. 
Instead  they  appear  to  be  ignorant  bullies,  callous  of  the  harm  they  know  they 
are  doing  and  lacking  in  sufficient  understanding  to  comprehend  the  chasm  be- 
tween their  own  twisted  Konstitution  and  the  noble  charter  of  liberties  under 
law  that  is  the  American  Constitution. 

And  finally,  the  court  in  its  holding  says : 

Legal  tolerance  of  secret  societies  must  cease  at  the  point  where  their  mem- 
bers assume  supra-governmental  powers  and  take  the  law  in  their  own  hands. 
We  shall  not  allow  the  misguided  defendants  to  interfere  with  the  rights  of 
Negro  citizens  deprived  from  or  protected  by  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  and  now  expressly  recognized  by  Congress  in  various  Civil  Rights 
statutes. 

And  then,  finally : 

We  enjoin  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  its  dummy  front,  the 
Anti-Communist  Christian  Association,  and  the  individual  defendants  from  inter- 
fering with  orders  of  this  Court  *  *  *. 

and  so  on. 

Now,  I  ask  you,  and  I  mean  it  sincerely,  do  you  wish  an  opportunity 
to  affirm,  deny,  explain,  or  exculpate  yourself  as  a  defendant  in  these 
proceedings  before  the  three-judge  court  of  any  of  the  findings  of  fact 
based  upon  damning  admissions  in  the  pleadings  before  the  court  and 
sworn  testimony.  Would  you  care  to  take  advantage  of  that  offer  1 
now  make  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  I  must  say  to  you  that,  unless  and  until  you  or 
someone  else  party  to  these  proceedings  appear  and  give  credible 
evidence  and  testimony  to  the  contrary,  tins  committee,  as  it  must, 
will  assume  to  be  true  the  statement  by  the  court  under  the  circum- 
stances I  have  indicated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Christmas,  I  have  one  last  question  to  ask  of  you, 
sir,  and  this  goes  directly  to  the  sincerity  of  the  Klan. 

The  leaflet  which  was  quoted  this  morning,  a  leaflet,  according  to 
the  masthead,  published  by  the  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  I^uisiana, 
the  one  in  which  the  reference  is  made  to  the  Reverend  Shepherd's 
moral  standards,  in  which  there  are  these  two  sentences : 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  2453 

"Much  has  been  printed  about  the  Kn  Klnx  Khm  beinc;  a  violent 
organization.     This  is  not  true."     (Ralph  Bluniberg  Exhibit  No.  3) 

Now  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  Mr.  Christmas,  and  ask  you  to  affirm 
or  deny  the  fact,  that  during  your  testimony  or  the  testimony  of  Mr. 
Farmer  it  was  testified  that  the  reason  you  adopted  the  organization, 
the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association,  was  that  the  members  of 
the  Klan  felt  that  the  Klan  was  too  violent,  that  they  felt  there  Avas 
no  need  for  the  KBI,  and  that  they  felt  that  there  w^as  no  need  for 
wrecking  crews.  I  ask  you,  is  it  not  a  fact  that  your  testimony  in 
the  trial  or  testimony  of  Mr.  Farmer  is  a  direct  contradiction  of  the 
two  sentences  I  read  to  you  from  this  leaflet  which  you  distributed 
in  Bogalusa  in  hopes  that  the  people  there  would  believe  it  ? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  One  other  thing,  Mr.  Christmas :  With  respect  to  Mr. 
Shepherd,  the  Reverend  Shepherd,  you  say — this  leaflet  says : 

The  Ku  Klux  Klan  is  now  in  the  process  of  checking  on  Reverend  Shepherd's 
moral  standards.  If  he  is  cleared  you  will  be  so  informed.  If  he  is  not  cleared, 
you  will  be  informed  of  any  and  all  misdeeds  or  moral  violations  of  his  in  the 
past. 

The  inference  is  that  the  Reverend  Bruce  Shepherd  has  been  en- 
gaged in  moral  indiscretions.  You  leave  this  impression  with  the  peo- 
ple. Have  you  ever  determined  whether  he  has  been  involved  so  that 
you  can  erase  the  harm  that  you  did  to  the  man,  or  have  you  docu- 
mented that  there  was  anything  to  support  the  malicious  inferences 
contained  in  this  leaflet? 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  No  further  questions. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Weltner. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  have  just  one  reflection  on  the  same  leaflet  that  Mr. 
Appell  referred  to,  showing  at  the  top  "Published  by  the  Original 
Ku  Klux  Klan  of  T^uisiana."    It  contains  two  sentences  as  follows : 

Congressman  Charles  Weltner  of  Atlanta,  Georgia,  a  member  of  the  House 
Committee  of  Unamerican  Activities  has  proposed  that  committee  investigate 
the  Klan. 

Later  on  its  says : 

The  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan  invites  any  investigation  that  Congressman 
Weltner  should  like  to  make. 

I  would  inform  the  Al|tness  that  the  investigation  now^  pending  is  an 
investigation  that  had  been  proposed  by  myself  and  other  members 
of  this  committee  and  adopted  by  this  committee  unanimously.  I 
would  like  to  ask  what  has  transpired  since  the  publication  of  this 
document  welcoming  this  investigation  and  the  present  day  that  has 
caused  you  and  your  colleagues  to  refuse  to  respond  to  any  inquiries 
of  the  committee. 

Mr.  Christmas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  gi'ounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  No  further  questions. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

(Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibits  Nos.  1  and  3,  introduced  on  pp.  2421  and 
2430,  respectively,  and  Charles  Christmas  Exhibits  Nos.  1-A  through 
1-C,  introduced  on  p.  2448,  follow  :) 


2454  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  1 


P-/^(^ 


PUBLISHED    BY    THE    ORIGINAL   KU    KLUX    KLAN 
OF    LOUISIANA 


On  Sunday,  December  27,   1964,  the  Bogalusa  Daily  News  announced  that  a  "renowned 
layman"  Brooks  Hayes,   is  to  speak  in  Bogalusa,   on  January  7,   1965.   His  subject  will  be  better 
community  relations.  The  Bogalusa  Daily  News  stated, 

"  a  group  of  civic,   religious  and  business  leaders  of  Bogalusa  have  invited  Hayes  to 
speak  her^at  the  St.  Matthew's  Episcopal  Church  Parish  House.  Due  to  limited  seat- 
ing facilities,   the  meeting  will  be  by  invitation." 

The  Daily  News  did  not  tell  you  the  whole  true  story  concering  this  meeting  and  it  is 
the  purpose  of  this  leaflet  to  give  you  the  full  story  concerning  this  meeting. 

In  the  first  place,  this  meeting  of  January  7,   1965,   is  to  be  an  intergraled  meeting.   The 
meeting  was  arranged  by  Bascom  D.  Talley,  Jr. ,  the  local  public  or  community  relations  comm- 
issioner who  is  holding  this  job  by  appointment  of  Lyndon  B.  Johnson  under  the  infamous  civil  rights 
act.   Bascom  D.   Talley  formed  a  committee  to  help  shoulder  the  responsibility  of  this  meeting.  This 
committee  of  intergration  minded  people  are  the  group  of  "civic,   religious  and  business  leaders" 
referred  to  by  the  Daily  News.  Mr.  Talley's  committee  is  composed  of  Bruce  H.   Shepherd,   Minister 
of  the  St.  Matthew's  Episcopal  Church,   Vertrees  Young,   a  member  of  the  Episcopal  Church,   Reverend 
Jerry  Chance,   Minister  of  the  Main  Street  Baptist  Church,   Reverend  Paul  G.  Gillespie,   Minister  of 
the  Memorial  Baptist  Church,   Reverend  James  T.   Harris,  Minister  of  the  Methodist  Church,   Reverend 
Bob  Lambright  whose  similar  escapades  have  made  him  a  Minister  without  a  church,   Ralph  Blumberg, 
owner  and  operator  of  the  radio  station  WBOX,  and,  of  course,   Lou  Major,  Mr.  Talley's  favorite  puppet. 

In  the  second  place,  this  intergrated  meeting  is  for  the  sole  purpose  of  planning  the  inter- 
gration of  your  Church,  Schools,   Businesses,   Restaurants,   Hotels,  Motels,  etc,  and  those  who  will  re- 
ceive invitations  to  the  January  7th.  meeting  will  be  people  whoBascom  D.  Talley  hopes  that  Brooks 
Hayes  can  convince  that  they  should  change  their  social  and  religious  lives,  and  that  in  turn  will  try  to 
convince  you  that  vou  should  help  intergration  by  sitting  in  Church  with  the  black  man,  hiring  more  of 
them  in  your  businesses,   serving  and  eating  with  them  in  your  cafes,  and  allowing  your  children  to 
sit  by  filty,   runny-nosed,   ragged,  ugly  little  niggers  in  your  public  schools. 

In  the  third  place,  the  Bogalusa  Daily  News  did  not  tell  you  the  whole  story  about  Brooks 
Hayes.   He  is  a  traitor  to  the  South.   He  assisted  Sherman  Adams  draw  the  order  to  send  Federal  Troops 
into  his  own  State  of  .Arkansas  to  put  nine  little  niggers  into  white  schools,   the  result  of  which  was  spen- 
ding $5,  000,  000  of  the  taxpayers  money  as  well  as  the  beating  and  jailing  of  hundreds  of  white  citizens. 
As  a  result  of  Hayes'  intergration  efforts,   he  was  defeated  in  his  efforts  for  re-election  to  Congress 
by  a  political  unknown,   Dr.   Dale  Alford.   Brooks  Hayes  is  now  a  member  of  the  Civil  Rights  Community 
Relations  Committee  and  he  is  paid  a  lucrative  salary  by  the  Federal  Government  to  make  talks  such 
as  he  is  scheduled  to  make  in  Bogalusa,  on  January  7th.,   1965. 

^  The  Ku  Kjux  Klan  is  strongly  organized  in  Bogalusa  and  throughout  Washington  and  Si.   Tam- 
many Parishes.  Being  a  secret  organization,  we  have  KLAN  members  in  every  conceivable  business 
in  this  area.  We  will  k;iow  the  names  of  all  who  are  invited  to  the  Brooks  Hayes  meeting  and  we  will 
know  who  did  and  did  not  attend  this  meeting.  Accordingly,  we  take  this  means  to  urge  all  of  you  to  re-   . 
frain  from  attending  this  meeting.  Those  who  do  attend  this  meeting  will  be  tagged  as  intergrationists 
and  will  be  delt  with  accordingly  by  the  Knights  of  the  KU  KLUX  KLAN.   L 

There  is  in  Bogalusa  a  man  named  Talley, 

who  with  a  hand  picked  commiltoe  has  planned  an  intergrated  rally; 

This  man  would  love  the  nigger, 

in  order  to  grow  financially  bigger; 

Me  and  his  committee  ha,ve  come  up  with  an  intergration  plan, 

wiiich  ..s  bitterly  opposed  by  the  KU  KLUX  KLAN; 

Talk;.-  h.is  attended  Nigger  Churches  to  hing, 

this  was  done  to  please  Martin  Luther  King; 

WT.ile  Talley  sings  with  his  nigger  group, 

the  KU  KLUX  KLAN  will  more  Knights  recruit; 

Soon  Talley  and  his  committee  will  loiow  who  is  boss, 

as  the  KU  KLUX  KLAN  lights  the  fiery  cross. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2455 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  3 

*»***«**•*•*****•    PUBLISHED  BY  THE  ORIGINAL  KU  KLUX  KLAN  OF  LOUISUNA    •*♦»♦»•»♦»••*♦•»* 


Ab  a  result  of  the  statement  issued  In  the  Bogalusa  Daily  News,   signed  by  Bascom  D.  Talley, 
Jr. ,   Bruce  Shepherd,   Paul  Gillespie,  Jerry  Chance,   Ralph  Blumberg  and  Lou  Major  announcing 
the  cancellation  of  the  invitational,   integrated,   speaking  engagement  in  this  city  by  Brooks  Hays, 
our  City,  as  well  as  the  Klan,   received  unfair,   biased,  national  publicity  from  television  and  news- 
pai»ers  throughout  the  country.     The  national  news  media  quoted  Bascom  Talley  as  saying  thai 
Bogalusa  has  a  "leadership  vacuum".    They  quoted  Bruce  Shepherd  as  saying  "Bogalusa  has  a  high 
rate  of  alcoholism  and  mental  illness".     The  national  press  even  misquoted  Brooks  Hays  who  was 
supposed  to  have  said  "Bogalusa  is  a  city  in  the  grips  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan.  "    Even  one  magazine 
contained  an  article  entitled  "Klan  Town  U.S.A.  "  which  accused  Bogalusa  of  l)t>ing  dominated  by 

ih.    Ku  Klux  Klan.     This  article  was  written  by  a  free  lance,   alcoholic  reporter Paul  Good,   who 

S|).Mit  over  $110.00  on  alcoholic  beverages,  who  wrecked  his  car,   and  who  was  charged  with  reck- 
less driving  during  his  short  visit  to  Bogalusa. 

Bruce  Shepherd  was  quoted  as  saying  that  he  had  receivedcalls  threatening  to  Ijomb  his  church 
if  Brooks  Hays  were  allowed  to  speak  there.     We  accuse  Bruce  Shepherd  of  lying.     There  was  no 
such  threat  or  threats  made  and  we  challenge  Bruce  Shepherd  to  prove  tiiat  he  made  such  a  report 
to  tlie  police. 

Bruc''  Shepherd  must  have  had  his  family  in  mind  rather  than  our  cil>  when  he  stated  we  had 
a  high  rate  of  alcoholism  and  mental  illness  because  Bruce  Shepherd  himself  caji  be  observed  fre- 
quently emerging  from  the  Cuban  Liquor  Company  with  an  arm  load  of  liquor.     We  further  would 
have  you  know  that  Bruce  Shepherd's  son  recently  faced  a  charge  in  court  fur  morals  violation  and 
was  committed  lo  a  mental  institution. 

The  Kb  Kij..  Khin  is  now  in  the  process  of  checking  on  Reverend  ShephiTd's  moral  standards. 
If  he  is  cleared  you  will  be  so  informed.     If  he  is  noi  cleared,    you  will  be  mformtd  of  any  and  all 
misdeeds  oi  moral  violations  of  his  in  the  past. 

Much  has  been  printed  about  the  Ku  KJu.\  Klan  being  a  violent  organization.     This  is  not  true. 
There  was  no  violence  when  public  accommodations  were  tested  in  this  city  and  there  has  been  no 
violertce  since  then.     We,   however,   have  formed  a  large  block  white  vote  which  will  more  than 
offset  any  other  block  vote  in  this  entire  parish.     We  also  are  boycotting  businesses  which  cater 
to  integration  such  as  Mobile  Gas  Stations,   Radio  Station  W.  B.  O.  X. ,   Roscnblum's,   Zesto  and  the 
Barlxjcue  Inn.     The  Bogalusa  Daily  News  is  also  being  t)oycotted  by  the  Klan  because  while  the 
National  press  was  tearing  Bogalusa  into  shreds,   it  did  not  print  one  single  word  in  the  defense  of 
Bogalusa.     The  theory  behind  boycotting  the  Daily  News  and  these  other  businesses  is  that  to  finan- 
cially aid  such  business  institutions  is  comparable  to  buying  bullets  for  a  man  as  .John  DiUeiiger 
who  would  take  the  bullets  and  then  kill  you  and  rob  your  city. 

Congressman  Charles  Weltner  of  Atlanta,   Georgia,   a  member  of  the  House  Comniittec  of 
Unamericai]  .\i.ii\ities  has  proposed  that  committee  investigate  the  Klan.     We  wonder  vhy  he 
doesii't  al.-o  propose  to  investigate  the  Black  Muslems  who  advocate  black  supremacy,    who  commit 
murder  and  who  commit  arson  all  ovei  the  country  in  a  period  of  one  week  and  who  defied  and 
refused  to  allow  Chicago  Police  to  enter  their  meeting  place  while  they  were  beating  almost  to  the 
point  of  death  one  of  Malcolm  X's  friends.     We  urge  each  of  you  to  write  this  Congressman  and 
demand  that  he  investigate  the  Black  Muslems. 

Tile  original  Ku  Klux  Klan  invites  any  investigation  that  Congressman  Weltner  should  like  to 
make.     The  citizens  of  Bogalusa  know  that  this  city  has  always  been  a  Klanish  City  from  the  days  of 
the  Great  Southern  Lumber  Company  until  now.     We  have  never  appreciated  outsiders  telling  us 
how  to  run  our  city.    Outsiders  have  often  caused  trouble  In  our  City.     A  good  axample  of  tlus  was 
vhcn  labor  unions  were  forming  in  Bogalusa.    A  gang  of  union  busters  or  hired  gunmen  were  brought 
into  this  citv  to  kill  those  who  stood  up  for  the  common  man.    As  a  result  of  such  incidents,   It  is 
i^ilv  natur.il  tin:  Bogalusa  would  be  Klanish. 

59-222  O— 67— pt.  3 9 


2456  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Charles  Christmas  Exhibit  No.  1-A 
published  by  the  original  louisiana  ku  klux  klan 


THE    QUESTION 
WHO    BOUGHT    JESSE     CUTRER? 

Was  It  CORE  7    Was  it  LBJ  ? 

In  the  beginning  of  the  Racial  troubles  In  Bogalusa,  the  Mayor  asRured  the  people  that  he  COULD  L 
WOULD  handle  this  Invasion  of  trouble  makers.    When  the  problem  began  the  Mayor  said  that  he  would 
not  give  a  Parade  Permit.    Cutrer  did  give  the  Parade  Permit.    The  people  of  Bogalusa  respected  the 
Mayor's  Judgement.    The  tax-paying  people    gave  up  their  streets  and  humbled  themselves.    The  people 
were  ORDERED  off  THEIR  own  streets,  by  a  Police  Force,  whom  the  people  pay.     This  was  done  by 
direct  order  of  the  Bogalusa  Mayor,  the  man  that  was  trusted.    NO  VIOLENCE  "ERUPTED.    The  people 
did  EVERYTHING  in  their  power  to  see  that  the  Mayor  and  his  Council  were  not  Interfered  with  In  their 
efforts  to  save  the  city  from  this  DEGRADATION.    As  the  people  tried  to  preserve  our  Southern  way  of 
Life,  the  Mayor  and  Council  were  slowly  selling  the  people  out  at  every  turn.    The  Mayor  has  repeatly 
GIVEN  In.    James  Farmer  did  not  have  the  support  of  the  local  Negroes.    Mayor  Cutrer  is  not  giving  the 
city  of  Bogalusa  to  the  negro   citizens  of  Bogalusa.     No.     He  is  giving  the  city  to  James  Farmer  and  a 
handful  of  Negro  Teenagers.    NO  PRESSURE  was  put  on  James  Farmer  and  Dick  Gregory  to  keep  them 
out  of  Bogalusa.    Not  by  the  Mayor,  the  State  Representative,  the  State  Senator,  or  Congressman 
Morrison.    This  was  not  so  when  the  WHITE  CONSERVATIVES  wanted  to  stage  a  Rally.    Pressure  waa 
exerted  from  all  levels,  even  the  invited  guest  speaJ^ers  were  "leaned  on". 

TheGovemor,  the  Congressman,  Jimmy  Morrison,  or  his  com-rats,   Suksty  Rayborn,  and  Buster 
Sheridan.    John  McKeithen  asked  for  our  vote  and  promised  to  serve  the  PEOPLE.    We  now  ask.   Big 
John,  isn't  this  TRUE  ?    What  is  happening  under  your  administration? 

Here  is  the  list  of  elected  officals  who  COULD  &  AND  SHOULD  have  helped  the  People  of  Bogalusa. 
All  these  should  be  tarred  and  feathered. 

NLAYOR  JESSIE  CUTRER 
REPiiESENTAlIVE  SHERIDAN 
S.KNATOR  SIXTY  RAYBORN 
SHERIFF  DORMAN  CROWE 
CONGRESSMAN  JIMMY  MORRISON 
GOVERNOR  JOHN  MCKEITHEN 
SENATOR  RUSSELL  LONG 

Now  the  QUESTION.    Why  have  these  men,  elected  by  the  WHITE  people  turned  their  back   on  ub  In 
OBT  time  of  need  ?  ' 

Is  Communism  so  close?    Who  bought  them?    Who  bought  their  HONOR  and  FOR  HOW  MUCH? 

MAYBE  SOME  OF  THESE  PEOPLE: 

1.  Rowan  Burris-Homoeexual;    he  Is  free  on  bond  at  the  present  time,  charged  with 
contributing  to  the  delinquency  of  a  minor. 

2.  Robert  Hlcks-Offlclal  of  the  Neg^ro  Voters  League. 

3.  A.  Z.  Young-Official  of  the  Negro  Voters  League. 

4.  Michael  Jones-Local  Program  Director  for  CORE. 

5.  Robert  Taylor-Official  of  the  Negro  Voters  League, 

6.  Victor  Bussie-State  President  of  ALF-CIO,   Chalrmanforthe  committee  of  OUTSIDERS 
imported  into  Bogalusa  by  Mayor  Jesse    H.  Cutrer,  Jr.,  to  solve  our  LOCAL   problami. 

7.  Camel  Gravel-Member  of  this  IMPORTED  MEDIATION  BOARD. 

S.Bascom  D.  Talley,  Jr., -Local  representative  for  LBJ's  federalcompllance  agency, 

"The  Community  Relations  Service." 
9.  Ronnie  Moore-State  Field  Representative  for  CORE. 

10.  Dick  Gregory-Negro  Comedian. 

11.  James  Farraer-NatlonAl  Director  for  CORE. 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2457 

Charles  Christmas  Exhibit  No.  1-B 

PUBLISHED   BY   THE    ORIGINAL   KU  KLOX   KLAN   OF   LOUISIANA 

It  i«  the  intention  of  this  liteniture  to  Inform  the  public  of  (be  p««ltloiu  taken  by  the  original 
Ku  Klux  Kl&n  In  the  past  six  months  of  racial  strlfte  In  our  otty. 

On  numerous  occasions  we  have  been  asked  by  local  officials  to  refrain  from  any  acts  of 
violence  upon  this  outside  scum  that  has  Invaded  our  city.    Being  a  christian  organization,  we  have 
honored  these  requests  each  time.    How  much  longer  can  we  continue???    Contrary  to  what  the 
liberal  element  would  have  you  think,  this  memorandum  is  not  the  work  of  racist  and  hate  mongers 
or  trouble  makers,  as  Governor  "Big  John"  McKelthen  calls  us.    We  are  God  fearing  white, 
southerners  who  believe  in  constitutional  government  and  the  preservation  of  our  American  heritage. 

If  your  governor  would  have  done  the  right  thing  to  start  with,   he  would  have  refused  to  protect 
these  local  and  outside  agitators  and  did  just  what  one  great  southern  governor  did.    He  refused  to 
protect  this  outside  element,   (CORE,  NA.\CP,  SNICK,   ETC.),  at  the  expense  of  his  stote.    He 
chose,   instead,  to  let  LBJ  and  Katzenbach  protect  them.     Only  after  the  city  of  Bogalusa  had  spent 
$96,  000,  did  he,   (Big  John  McKeithen),   make  any  effort  to  ease  the  situation  in  this  city. 

"Big  John"  is  now  organizing  a  40  man  biracial  committee  to  prevent  other  "Bogalusas".    He 
does  not  need  this  committee,   because  he  and  our  mayor  have  and  still  are  giving  these  niggers, 
(Deacons  for  Defense  of  Justice),  their  every  whim. 

It  has  come  to  the  point  that  these  agitators  can  sit  and  block  the  entrance  to  our  restaurants. 
In  New  York,  Washington  D.  C.  and  on  Pennsylvania  Avenue,  this  low  class  scum  was  arrested  and 
taken  to  jail,  but  not  in  our  city. 

On  Thursday  July  22,   one  of  our  local  police  captains  gave  the  order  to  arrest  the  "sit  ins"  in 
front  of  one  of  our  local  restaurants,   but  his  superior  Intervened,  and  ordered  his  men    to  'let 
these  little  darlings  alone". 

"Skinnum"  Jim  Morrlsion  was  called  on  for  his  assistance  also.    Mr.  Morrision  informed 
some  of  our  local  citizens  that  they  supported  the  Republican  candidate  in  the  last  election  and 
they  should  call  upon  him  for  his  assistance.     If  Mr.   Morrlsion  had  the  welfare  of  his  district, 
(and  not  his  pocketbook),  and  heart,  he  would  use  the  powers  of  his  office  to  restore  our  city  to 
normalcy  and  remove  such  characters  as  James  Farmer,   Ronnie  Moore,   Louis  Lomax,  Dick 
Gregory,  and  LBJ'S  troublemaker,  John  Doar 

FACT  ABOUT  OUR  FEDERAL  JUDGES: 

Can  a  white  man  win  Justice  in  a  federal  court??''     These  federal  judges  are  not  elected  by 
the  people,   but  arc  appointed  to  office  by  the  same  people  that  are  now  after  the  nigger  block  vote. 

DID  YOU  KNOW 

1.  Judge  "Crystal  Ball"  Christenberry  Is  a  brother-in-law  of  James  H.  Morrlsion,  and  has 
been  in  a  mental  hospital  for  alcoholism? 

2.  Judge  Gordon  West  was  a  law-partner  of  Russell  B.  Long  -  he  taught  one  class  at  LSU, 
but  was  paid  full  pay. 

3.  Judge  Frank  Ellis  was  the  attorney  in  1947  for  the  Dairy  Fanners  of  the  Florida  Parishes. 
He  took  their  money  and  sent   52  out  of  54  men  to  federal  Jail  for  a  year  or  more.    (Many 
of  these  men  were  just  home  from  World  War  11). 

Hai  any  of  these  judges  ever  served  in  the  armed  forces  and  fought  or  been  wounded  for  their 
country  7  ?  ? 

Recently  there  was  a  hearing  before  judge  "Crystal  Ball",   in  which  he  Inferred  that  the 
testimony  of  most  of  the  white  witnesses  was  false,   but  on  the  other  hand,  when  a  nigger  was 
confused  by  cross  e.xamtnation,   he  put  words  in  his  mouth.     There  was  no  need  for  this  hearing, 
becfiuse,  just  llkt=  Doar,   his  liberal,   brain  washed  mind  was  already  In  favor  of  the  niggers. 

The  only  wi>  lo  defeat  this  enemy  is  by  organized  opposition  and  resistance.     There  are 
more  than  enough  people  who  oppose  this  unconstitutional  behavior  to  defeat  it.     Simply  join  hands 
with  us.     Vote  for  a  Jeffersonian  type  of  government,   not  for  personal  gain.     Vote  for  honorable. 
Christian  candidates.     If  all  our  elected  officials  were  statesmen  instead  of  politicians,  we  would 
not  be  faced  with  the  problems  before  us  at  this  time.     We  can  defeat  this  Issue  with  the  ballot, 
boycott  and  economic  pressure. 

Won't  you  please  join  with  us  in  this  fight  for  freedom  and  leave  a  christian  America  to  your 
children  as  your  parents  left  to  you. 

We  can't  raise  our  standards  by  mixing  with  the  black  man,  but  we  will  lower  the  standards 
of  this  great  nation  that  the  white  man  has  built.    Are  we  to  save  the  Political  careers  of 
James  Morrlsion,  John  McKeithen,  Sixty  Raybom,  et  al.    Or  are  we  to  save  our  religions,  houses, 
and  country? 

Let  us  leave  thin  one  thought  with  you: 

"Purchase  where  the  nigger  pickets" 


2458  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Charles  Christmas  Exhibit  No.  1-C 

JULY  13  1965 

f;,cts      Facts       facts 
to:  the  colored  people  of  this  community,  and  othek'imis-led  persons. 

UNTIL  THE  NAaCP  AND  CORE  BECAME  ACTIVE  IN  LOUISIANA  ANY  COLORED 
PERSON  COULD  GET  HELP  FROM  ANY  WHITE  PERSON  (MALE  OR  FEMALE),  UNTIL 
THE  NAACP  AND  CORE  BEGAN  TO  THREATEN  THE  GOOD  COLORED  PEOPLE  AND 
FORCE  THEM  TO  JOIN  THEIR  SO  CALLED  CIVIL  RIGHTS  MOVEMENT. 

THE  JEWISH  LED  CORE  AND  N.ulCP  GAVr.  YOU.,. 

MONTHLY  DUES  TO  PAY (DID  YOU  EVER  KNOW  A  JEW  TO  DO  ANYTHING  HE  WASN'T 
WELL  PAID  FOR?)  THIS  IS  TAKING  THE  COLORED  PEOPLES  MONEY  TO  MAKE  THE 
NORTHEN  JEW  RICHER. 

HAVE  THEY  EVER  HELPED  YOU  GET  A  JOB? 
HAVE  THEY  EVER  HELPED  YOU  FINANCE  A  CROP? 
HAVE  THEY  EVER  LOANED  YOU  MONEY  AT  LOW  INTEREST? 
HAVE  THEY  EVER- FED  OR  CLOTHED  YOUR  CHILDERN? 

HAVE  THEY  LOWERED  YOUR  SOCIAL  POSITION  BY  FORCING  YOU  TO  ASSOCIATE 
WITH  THE  LOWEST  WHITE  TRASH  FROM  THE  NORTH? 

THE  GOOD  COLORED  PEOPLE  HAVE  ALWAf-S  LOOKED  DOWN  ON  THIS  TYPE  OF 
POOR  WHITE  TRASH.  THIS  POOR  WHITE  TRASH  IS  SO  LOW  THEY  ARE  NOT  ACCE- 
PTED IN  THE  WHITE  SOCIETY. 

WHY  DO  YOU  ALLOW  THE  JEWISH  LED  NAACP  AND  CORE  MAKE  THEM  YOUR  LEADERS? 
TRUE,  THEY  HAVE  MADE  SOME  LOCAL  COLORED  PEOpr.?  RICH.  THOSE  WHO  HAVE 
SOLD  THEIR  BROTHERS  SOUL  FOR  (BLOOD  MONEY)  ''■',   PEICES  OF  SILVER,  THE 
PRICE  JUDAS  WAS  PAID  FOR  BETRAYAL  OF  JE3US  CnRIST. 
THEY  HAVE  NOTHING  TO  GIVE  YOU  BUT  PROMISES  AND  MUST  LIVE  OFF  YOU. 
HOW  MANY. OF  YOUR  COLORED  BROTHERS  CAN  YOU  NAME  THAT  ARE  SELLING  YOU 
FOR  THEIR  OWN  PERSONAL  GAIN?  AS  JUDAS  DID  JESUS  CHRIST. 
HOW  MANY  OF  THESE  COLORED  BROTHERS  THAT  TOOK  THIS  WHITE  TRASH  INTO 
THEIR  HOMES  DO  YOU  KNOW?  LOOK  AROUND  AND  SEE  IF  IT  HELPED  THEM  TO 
MIX  WITH  THE  WHITE  SOCIETY,  NO,  FOR  NOW  THESE  SAME  COLORED  BROTHERS 
ARE  LIVING  IN  A  CLOSED  SOCIETY,  FOR  NONE  OF  THIER  WHITE  FRIENDS  WI^L 
RESPECT  THEM  NOW.  THEY  LOWERED  THEMSELVES  BY  TAKING  THIS  WHITE  TRASH 
IN  TO  THIER  HOMES. 

LOOK  AT  THOSE  WHO  ARF.  GETTING  PAYC'-UCKS  FPOM  OPERATION  HEAD  START, 
THE  SAME  ONES  THAT  ALREADY  DRAW  A  rAYCHECK  FROM  THE  TAXPAYERS. 
SHOULD  THAT  NOT  PROVE  TO  YOU  COLOP^D  PEOPLE,  THAT  THESE  SO  CALLED 
LEADERS  ARE  SELFISH.  COLORED  PEOPLE  WAKE  UP  AND  STOP  THESE  SELFISH 
(SO-CALLED)  LEADERS,  FROM  USING  YOU  AS  A  TOOL  FOR  THIER  OWN  L-A-Z-Y 
POCKET  BOOKS. 
THINK  COLORED  PEOPLE  THINK. 

REMEMBER 
IF  THE  TRUTH  SEEMS  STRANGE 
IT'S  BECAUSE  TRUTH 
HAS  BECOME  A  STRANGER  IN  THIS  LAND 

THE  K.K.K. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2459 

The  Chairiman.  Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  would  like  to  call  Mr.  Saxon  Farmer. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand.  Do  you  solemnly 
swear  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole 
truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  SAXON  FARMER,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL  S.  INGRAM 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  please  state  your  full  name  for  the  record, 
please,  sir? 

Mr.  Farmer.  Saxon  Farmer. 

Mr.  Appell.  "Wlien  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  February  13, 190Y,  at  Huttig,  Arkansas. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  IxGRAM.  Michael  S.  Ingram  from  Baton  Rouge,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Farmer,  are  you  appearing  here  this  morning  and 
this  afternoon  in  accordance  with  subpena  served  upon  you  by  Deputy 
United  States  Marshall  on  October  26,  1965  at  315  East  5th  Street 
in  Bogalusa  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Farmer,  under  the  terms  of  the  subpena  you  are 
directed  to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce  documents  set  forth  in  the 
attachment,  which  is  made  a  part  of  this  subpena. 

Paragraph  1  reads : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  and  affiliated  organizations,  namely. 
Anti-Communist  Christian  Association  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or 
maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  member  or  officer  of  the  Invisible  Em- 
pire, United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known 
as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  or  the  Origi- 
nal Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  or  the  Anti-Communist  Christian 
Association. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  produce  on  the 
grounds  that  it  might  tend  to  incriminate  me;  on  the  further  grounds 
that  it  would  violate  my  rights  under  the  1st,  4th,  5th,  and  14th  amend- 
ments as  guaranteed  by  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  the  witness  be  directed  to  produce. 

The  Chairmax.  You  were  in  the  hearing  room  when  I  explained 
the  position  of  the  committee  to  other  witnesses  preceding  you  w^ith 
reference  to  this  subpena  being  served  upon  you,  not  in  your  individ- 
ual capacity  but  in  the  capacity  indicated  in  the  subpena.  You  were 
present ;  were  you  not  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  I  take  it,  as  your  counsel  and  others  previously 
have  indicated,  you  understand  the  position.  I  now  order  and  direct 
you  to  produce  them. 

Mr.  Farmer,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  produce  this  information  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Farmer,  a  copy  of  the  opening  statement  the  chair- 
man delivered  when  these  hearings  first  started  in  October  was  sent 


2460  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

to  your  attorney.    Were  you  advised  of  the  contents  of  that  document  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  Yes. 

The  Chairmax.  Mr.  Ingram,  you  would  make  the  same  admission 
as  with  reference  to  the  previous  clients,  that  is,  you  received  a  copy 
and  are  generally  familiar  with  what  I  said  at  the  beginning  of  the 
hearings  indicating  the  purpose,  objective,  and  hopes  of  the  hearings? 

Mr.  Ingram.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Paragraph  2  calls  for  the  production  of : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  past  member  or  officer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Kiux  Klan,  or  any  other  Klan  organization,  which  the  "Constitution 
and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you 
and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession, 
custody  or  control. 

I  direct  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  produce  the  docu- 
ments on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  for  direction  of  the  witness  for 
production  of  items  called  for  in  paragraph  2. 

The  Chairmax.  For  the  reasons  previously  indicated  and  under 
the  circumstances  of  our  colloquy,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce 
these  documents. 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  produce  the  docu- 
ments on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Farmer,  are  there  any  grounds  for  refusal  to 
produce  the  documents  called  for  in  paragraphs  1  and  2  other  than  the 
reasons  which  vou  have  set  forth  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  any  of  the  books,  records,  and  documents  called 
for  in  paragraph  1  and  paragraph  2  destroyed  after  you  had  knowl- 
edge of  the  committee's  investigation  and  out  of  fear  that  those  docu- 
ments would  be  subpenaed  by  this  committee? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  on  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Farmer,  were  you  a  witness  before  the  three-judge 
court  sitting  in  September  1965  in  New  Orleans,  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  will  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  you  testified  you  were 
the  Grand  Titan  of  the  Klan  and  at  the  same  time  vice  president  of  the 
Anti-Communist  Christian  Association  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
that  fact. 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  supporting  the  Constitution  of  the  Ignited  States, 
do  you  as  the  vice  president  of  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Associa- 
tion support  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  as  it  now  exists, 
or  do  you  have  reservations  as  to  the  Constitution  which  you  support? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appeix.  I  hand  you  a  copy  of  Articles  of  Incorporation  of 
the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association. 

According  to  this  document,  the  Articles  of  Incorporation  were 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2461 

filed  with  the  recorder  of  AVashington  Parish,  Louisiana,  on  January 
21, 1965.  They  show  the  registered  agents  are  Robert  T.  Rester,  Saxon 
Farmer,  and  that  the  tirst  directors  are  W.  J.  [William  J.]  Williams 
of  Varnado,  Louisiana;  Saxon  Farmer;  and  Lloyd  Joiner,  Route  2, 
Box  270,  Ponchatoula,  Louisiana. 

Li  handing  this  document  to  you,  Mr.  Farmer,  I  ask  you  to  explain 
the  provision  Article  II,  the  purpose  of  that  part  of  it  which  reads: 

To  provide  for  the  preservation  of  the  Constitution  of  the  State  of  Louisiana, 
the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America,  as  originally  written  *  *  *. 

Would  you  explain  that  to  the  committee,  please 't 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  your  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Saxon  Farmer  Exhibit  No.  1.  See  committee 
report.  The  Present-Day  Kit  KIux  Klan,  Movement,  pp.  362-365.) 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Cliairman,  I  might  point  out  that  the  Constitu- 
tion as  originally  written  contains  neither  the  1st,  4th,  5th,  nor  the  14th 
amendment. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  historically  true. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Farmer,  as  the  number  two  man  in  both  the  Klan 
and  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association,  did  you  approve  and 
endorse  the  action  taken  against  Bascom  D.  Talley,  Jr.,  Bruce  Shep- 
herd, Paul  Gillespie,  Jerry  Chance,  Ralph  Blumberg,  and  Lou  Major 
following  knowledge  of  an  invitation  extended  to  Brooks  Hays? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  would  ask  you  if  you  can  reconcile  the  position  that 
you  took  in  light  of  reason  27  as  it  appears  in  the  "Fifty  Reasons  Why 
You  Should  Be  a  Member  of  the  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan,*'  w^hich  is 
because  the  Klan  "believes  in  free  speech  and  free  press,  as  opposed 
further  to  a  police  state."     (Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  14,  p.  2389.) 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Farmer,  on  Saturday,  May  30th  of  1964,  the  Klan 
had  a  rally  in  Bogalusa  on  public  property,  in  which  members  of  the 
Klan  were  masked  in  violation  of  Louisiana  law.  Did  the  Klan  have 
assurances  from  anyone,  law  authority,  in  Bogalusa  that  you  would 
not  be  arrested  for  violating  the  Louisiana  State  law  that  prohibits 
the  wearing  of  a  mask  on  public  property  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Farmer,  you  were  in  the  room  when  I  read  to  Mr. 
Christmas  the  findings  of  the  court  with  respect  to  violence  and  intimi- 
dation carried  out  by  the  members  of  the  Original  Knights  and  the 
Anti-Communist  Christian  Association.  I  give  you  an  opportunity  to 
express  any  comments  you  care  to  express  on  the  findings  of  the  court 
in  that  action. 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Farmer  I  would  like  you  to  answer  the  question 
if  you  can  safely  answer  it.  You  were  in  the  hearing  room  when  Mr. 
Christmas  was  on  the  stand  and  when  I  read  excerpts  from  that  deci- 
sion in  which  case  you,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  were  also  a  defendant;  were 
you  not  ?    I  am  asking  you,  were  you  in  the  room  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  Yes. 


2462  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

The  Chairman.  Without  repetition  or  consumption  of  more  time, 
I,  too,  offer  you  an  opportunity  to  confirm,  deny,  explain,  or  other- 
wise comment  on  the  findino^s  of  the  court  based  upon  admissions  made 
in  the  pleadings  and  based  upon  admissions  in  the  courtroom  and  based 
upon  sworn  testimony  before  the  court.  Do  you  care  to  avail  yourself 
of  that  offer? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitutional  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

The  Chairman.  Until  you  or  someone  else  of  the  defendants  in  that 
suit  appears  before  this  committee  and  gives  credible  testimony  which 
would  show  otherwise,  this  committee  will  assume,  under  the  circum- 
stances indicated,  that  the  excerpts  I  quoted  from  are  true. 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  of  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appei^l.  Mr.  Farmer,  do  you  know  John  Magee  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Magee  testified  at  the  three-man  court  in  Louisiana, 
identified  himself  as  being  treasurer  of  the  Anti-Communist  Christian 
Association,  and  testified  that  while  he  was  the  treasurer  you^  Saxon 
Farmer,  controlled  the  fimds.  "VVliat  are  the  sources  of  funds  of  the 
Anti-Communist  Christian  Association? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  grounds,  consti- 
tutional grounds,  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  testified  that  there  were  seven  Klan  units  in  Wash- 
ington Parish.  I  ask  you  to  identify  the  exalted  cyclops  of  those 
seven  units. 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  testified  that  you  opposed  the  appearance  of 
former  Congressman  Brooks  Havs  because  he  appeared  to  you  to  be  a 
liberal,  leftwing  Communist.  Yet  you  testified  in  court  you  had  no 
evidence.  Is  a  tactic  like  this  one  of  the  typical  tactics  of  the  Klan  of 
which  you  were  an  officer? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

IVfr.  Appell.  Isn't  it  a  fact  that  you  testified  that  vou  were  one  of 
the  incoq^orators  of  an  organization  known  as  the  United  Conserva- 
tives ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Farmer,  among  the  incorporators  listed  were  your- 
self;  your  son ;  Ned  Touchstone  of  Shreveport,  Louisiana  ;  and  Court- 
ney Smith  of  Shreveport,  Louisiana.  Did  you  know  the  other  three 
other  than  yourselves  to  be  members  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  T  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Farmer,  do  you  have  a  formal  connection  today, 
witli,  not  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klnn,  not  the  Anti- 
Communist  Christian  Association,  but  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  is  headed  bv  the  Imperial  Wiz- 
ard Kobert  Shelton? 

Mr.  Far:mer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  pre^^ously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2463 

Mr.  Appeli^.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  spoke  at  a  United  Klan  rally  held  at  Poplarville, 
Crossroads  Community,  Mississippi,  on  17  July  1965.  I  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact. 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  the  master  of  ceremonies  for  that  rally  in  which  you 
spoke  was  C.  J.  Seal  of  ^Vliite  Sands  Community,  Poplarville,  Missis- 
sippi. 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  another  speaker  along  with  yourself  was  Mr.  Ovied  Dun- 
away  of  Bogalusa,  Louisiana,  who  at  one  time  was  an  exalted  cyclops 
of  an  Original  Knights  Klavem  in  Bogalusa. 

Mr.  FarjVier.  I  decline  to  answer  the  questions  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  Mr.  Dunaway,  whom  I  have  identified  as  a  speaker 
at  that  rally,  also  in  charge  of  a  raffle  in  Bogalusa  which  was  staged  to 
raise  funds  for  the  A.C.C.A.  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  Mr.  Dunaway  to  hold  a  supervisor  posi- 
tion with  the  telephone  company  in  Bogalusa  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  Mr.  Dunaway  assist  the  Klan  in  any  manner  in 
illegally  obtaining  any  knowledge  against  citizens  of  Bogalusa? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  Mr.  John  O.  Guinn  from  Taylor,  Louisiana  was  another 
speaker  at  that  rally 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  Ernest  Gilbert,  the  grand  kleagle  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America  for  the  Realm  of  Mississippi,  was  a  speaker  at  that  rally. 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  E.  L.  McDaniel,  the  Grand  Dragon  for  the  State  of 
Mississippi,  was  also  a  speaker  at  that  rally, 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  Mr.  Jack  Helm,  an  officer  of  the  L^iiited  Klans  of  Amer- 
ica, Eealm  of  Louisiana,  was  a  speaker  at  that  rally. 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  meet  on  the  platform  at  that  rally  a  Klans- 
man  from  Waveland,  Mississippi,  by  the  name  of  DiSalvo  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 


2464  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  On  July  21,  1965,  the  United  Klans  of  America  held 

another  rally  at  Poplan-ille,  Crossroads,  Mississippi.    The  principal 

speaker  at  the  July  21  rally  was  Imperial  Wizard  Mr.  Shelton.    I 

would  like  to  ask  you  to  comment  on  a  report  made  to  the  committee 

with  respect  to  the  speakers  at  that  rally,  and  I  am  quoting  from  a 

report : 

The  last  speaker  was  a  16  year  old  boy  from  Bogalusa,  La.,  named  Mike  Copran. 
He  gave  a  short  talk  on  the  Bible  and  its  stand  on  integration.  He  also  made  a 
plea  for  boys  in  the  Bogalusa  area  to  join  a  youth  group  headed  by  Mr.  Saxon 
Farmer.  He  stated  that  any  boy  belonging  to  the  group  would  have  his  bond 
made,  and  or,  his  fine  paid  if  he  got  in  trouble  with  the  law  for  hitting  a  negro 
demonstrator. 

Do  you  have  any  comment  to  make  upon  that,  Mr.  Farmer  ? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  you  on  July  21,  1965,  organizing  a  youth  group 
under  your  leadership  as  Mike  Copran  is  reported  to  have  said  at  that 
rally? 

Mr.  Farmer.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have  no  further  questions,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused.     Call  the  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  John  Magee. 

The  Chairman.  Raise  your  right  hand.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the 
testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and 
nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  JOHN  MAGEE,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL  S.  INGRAM 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  state  you  full  name  for  the  record,  please,  sir? 

Mr.  Magee.  John  Magee. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  think  you  will  have  to  speak  up  a  little  louder  and 
get  closer  to  the  mike.     I  could  not  hear  you. 

Mr.  Magee.  John  Magee. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  January  3, 1932,  at  Tylertown,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wliere  do  you  presently  reside,  Mr.  Magee. 

Mr.  Magee.  Bogalusa. 

Mr.  Appell.  Your  street  and  address  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  531  Union  Avenue. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Magee,  are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance 
with  the  subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  28th  day  of  December  1965  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Magee,  have  you  been  apprised  through  your  at- 
torney of  the  contents  of  the  opening  statement  the  chairman  delivered 
on  October  19, 1965,  as  to  the  purpose  of  this  hearing  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Magee,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  called  for 
you  to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce  documents  called  for  in  attach- 
ment which  reads  as  follows: 

All  books,  records,  correspondence  and  memoranda  relating  to  the  organiza- 
tion of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan,  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  KIux  Klan  of  Louisiana,  the 
Louisiana  Rifle  Association,  the  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders,  and  the 
Anti-Communist  Christian  Association  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2465 

or  maintained  by  yon  or  available  to  you  as  present  or  past  officer  or  member  of 
the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan  of  Louisiana,  the  Louisiana  Rifle  Association,  the  Christian  Constitutional 
Crusaders,  and  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for  in  that  section. 

Mr.  Magee.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  decline,  to  answer  the  question — 
I  respectfully  refuse  to  produce  the  records  on  the  grounds  it  might 
tend  to  incriminate  me  under  the  Constitution,  and  on  the  further 
grounds  to  answer  the  same  would  violate  my  rights  inherent  under 
the  1st,  4th,  5th,  and  14th  amendments  to  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Magee,  you  were  in  the  hearing  room,  were  you 
not,  when  I  explained  the  position  of  the  committee  with  reference 
to  the  command  of  this  subpena  served  upon  you  to  produce  docu- 
ments in  the  capacity  indicated  in  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  For  the  reasons  I  stated  previously,  which  you  say 
you  understand,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  these  documents. 

Mr.  Magee.  I  refuse  to  produce  the  documents  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Magee,  are  there  any  reasons  other  than  the 
reasons  you  have  set  forth  that  you  did  not  produce  the  documents 
called  for? 

Mr.  Magee.  I  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Magee,  during  the  proceedings  in  the  three-judge 
court  in  Louisiana,  the  court  ordered  Mr.  Charles  Christmas  and  Mr. 
Saxon  Farmer  to  try  to  recall  from  memory,  or  from  any  records 
available  to  them,  the  identity  of  people  w-ho  were  members  of  either 
the  Klan  or  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association.  These  two 
lists  or  three  lists  were  submitted  by  Mr.  Farmer  and  Mr.  Christmas. 
One  is  a  list  headed  "Former  Officers  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the 
K.K.K.";  the  other,  "Officers"  of  the  "Anti-Communist  Christian 
Assn."  Both  of  these  documents  under  the  heading  of  "Officers" 
list  "Johnny  Magee." 

Is  the  information  supplied  by  the  court  as  it  applies  to  yourself 
in  that  proceeding,  as  it  applies,  factual  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  tlie  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Documents  marked  "John  Magee  Exhibits  Nos.  1-A  and  1-B," 
respectively.     See  pp.  2467-2469.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  presently  a  member  of  any  Klan  organiza- 
tion ? 

Mr.  Magee.  I  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  a  reproduction  of  a  signature  card  filed 
with  the  First  State  Bank  &  Trust  Co.,  Bogalusa,  Louisiana,  on  account 
in  the  name  of  the  Parish  A.C.C.A.  The  card  shows  that  the  authority 
to  the  bank  to  authorize  payment  of  checks  containing  any  two  signa- 
tures was  given  by  Robert  E.  Stall ings  and  contains  the  names  of  J.  E. 
Magee,  B.  R.  Crain,  Sidney  Brock,  for  an  account  opened  on  May  22, 
1965.    I  ask  you  if  that  signature  card  is  factual? 

Mr.  Magee.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  groimds  it  might  tend  to 
incriminate  me. 

(Document  marked  "John  Magee  Exhibit  No.  2"  follows:) 


2466  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    EST    THE    U.S. 

John  Magee  Exhibit  No.  2 


CORPORATION 

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rjO   First  S^a^e  Bank  8;  Trust  Co.        _  Bog3lusa,Louisiana 


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re  au:hori7.cd  to  rccornizc  any  (•      /O    )  °^  ^^^  sifrn.inires  subscribed  below  In  the    : 
:-nt  of  funds  or  the  transaction  of  nnv  business  for  l:ijs  account.    It  is  arreed  that  all    ; 


payment  ol  lunos  or  me  iransaciion  or  a:iv  ouhiiH-ss  lo.  i.;ijs  .n-uwunt.  n.  is  ui  itcu  mov  on 
tra'n.sactions  between  you  and  the  undersigned  shall  i»a  govern^  b^  the  con_^ract  printed 
on  the  reverse  side  of  this  cavd.  /C/y/        / 


(•  Indicate  Number  of  Signatures  Required)     1.      BY 


A.B.A.  Anproved  Contract 


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Mr.  ArPELL.  According  to  canceled  checks  submitted  by  the  banks 
in  accordance  with  the  subpena  duces  tecum,  the  makers  are  John 
Magee,  J.  E.  Magee,  Eobert  E.  Stall ings,  J.  E.  Magee,  Sidney  Brock, 
J.  E.  Magee,  Robert  E.  Stallings,  J.  E.  Magee,  Robert  E.  Stallings. 
These  checks  are  drawn  against  the  account  of  ih&  Parish  A.C.C.A. 

One  shows  that  the  purpose  for  which  drawn  is  for  district  funds. 
Can  you  explain  to  the  committee  the  division  of  the  Parish  A.C.C.A. 
into  its  district  breakdown  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  I  decline  to  r  on  the  grounds  it  might  tend  to 

incriminate  me. 

(Checks  marked  "Jolm  Magee  Exhibit  No.  3"  and  retained  in  com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  tell  the  committee  the  purpose  for  which 
these  checks  were  drawn  ? 

Mr.  jVLvgee.  I  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitutional  gi'ounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Appeul.  It  is  your  testimony  in  the  Federal  court  that  Saxon 
Farmer  actually  handled  the  funds,  therefore,  the  inference  that  your 
position  of  treasurer  is  that  of  a  figurehead  position? 

Mr.  Magee.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  under  the  constitu- 
tional grounds  it  might  incriminate  me. 

Mr.  Appeli..  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  ask  that  the  records  re- 
lating to  the  Parish  A.C.C.A.  and  the  list  of  former  officers  of  the 
Original  Knights,  and  the  current  members  of  the  Anti-Communist 
Christian  Association  be  entered  as  an  exhibit  to  Magee's  testimony. 

The  Chairman.  These  documents  will  be  admitted  in  the  record  at 
this  point. 

Mr.  Appeli..  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  of  this 
witness. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

(John  Magee  Exliilnf-^  N^os.  1-A  and  1-B  introduced  on  p.  2465 
follow:) 


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ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2467 

John  Magee  Exhibit  No.  1-A 


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2468  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU   KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

John  Magee  Exhibit  No.  1 -A— Continued 


John  Magee  Exhibit  No.  1-B 


an      .d  /]/ 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU   KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  2469 

John  Magee  Exhibit  No.  1-B— Continued 

J. 


-^    A^.j^ 


2470  ACTWITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    EST    THE    U.S. 

The  Chairman.  Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  iVpELL.  Dewey  Bernard  Smith. 

The  Chairmax.  Please  raise  your  right  hand.  Do  you  solemnly 
swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the 
whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  DEWEY  BERNARD  SMITH,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  MICHAEL  S.  INGRAM 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr. 
Smith? 

Mr.  Smith.  Dewey  B.  Smith. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  bom  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Washington  Parish,  Louisiana,  March  8,  1920. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  the  city  of  your  birth  Franklinton  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  don't  really  know. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wliere  do  you  reside? 

Mr.  Smith.  At  present  I  reside  in  Granada  Hills,  California. 

The  Chairman.  How  long  have  you  been  residing  there? 

Mr.  Smith.  The  latter  part  of  September  1965. 

The  Chairman.  And  your  residence  previous  to  that  was? 

Mr.  Smith.  Bogalusa,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smith,  are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Yes  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Ingram.  Michael  S.  Ingram,  Baton  Kouge,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smith,  have  you  been  advised  by  your  counsel  as 
to  the  contents  of  the  opening  statement  of  the  chairman  setting  forth 
the  purposes  of  this  hearing? 

Mr.  Smith.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smith,  are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accord- 
ance with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  by  the  United  States  marshal  on 
10-28-65,  October  28, 1965? 

Mr.  Smith.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Under  the  conditions  of  the  subpena  served  upon  you 
and  the  date  of  your  appearance  which  was  extended  by  telegrams, 
you  were  directed  to  produce  for  the  committee  items  contained  in  an 
attachment  tliereto,  which  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena. 

Under  paragraph  1 : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  and  affiliated  organizations,  namely,  the  Anti- 
Communist  Christian  Association  in  yoiir  ix>ssession.  custody  or  control,  or 
maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  Exalted  Cyclops  of  Washington  Parish 
Unit  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  produce  said  docu- 
ments on  the  grounds  that  it  might  incriminate  me  and  on  the  further 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2471 

grounds  that  it  would  be  a  violation  of  my  rights  under  the  1st,  4th, 
5th,  and  14th  amendments  to  the  United  States  Constitution. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Smith,  you  were  in  the  hearing  room  when  I 
exj^lained  the  position  of  this  committee  with  reference  to  the  pro- 
visions of  tliis  subpena  directing  you  to  produce  documents  in  the 
capacity  indicated  therein ;  were  you  not  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  Then  I  call  upon  you  and  direct  you  to  produce 
those  documents. 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  them  on  constitutional 
grounds  as  previously  indicated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  have  any  reasons,  other  tlian  the  constitutional 
reasons  that  you  stated,  for  failing  to  produce  the  documents  called 
for? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Is  one  of  the  reasons  for  your  failure  to  produce, 
the  fact  that  some  of  those  documents  were  documents  which  were 
destroyed  in  a  fear  that  they  might  be  subpenaed  by  the  Federal 
Government  in  the  Bogalusa  case,  as  well  as  by  this  committee? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  I  will  say  to  you  as  a  fact  that  you  were  a  defendant 
in  that  suit. 

Were  you  in  the  hearing  room — I  think  you  were — when  I  read  ex- 
cerpts from  that  decision  which,  by  reason  of  the  fact  that  you  were 
a  defendant,  apply  to  you  ?  I  am  just  asking,  were  you  in  the  hearing 
room  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  ca,re  to  avail  yourself  of  an  opportunity  to 
explain,  contradict,  deny,  or  otherwise  comment  on  the  facts  and  hold- 
ings of  the  court  based  on  the  statements  in  the  record  in  that  sworn 
testimony  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  as  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  If  people  in  that  case  do  not  decide  to  appear  and 
give  credible  contradictory  testimony  under  oath,  the  committee  may 
presume  to  be  true  the  factual  findings  made  in  that  decision. 

Mr.  Appell.  Paragraph  2  of  the  subpena  calls  for  you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity  as 
a  present  or  past  member  or  officer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America.  Inc.,  Kniglits 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan.  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization 
authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said 
organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  as  previously  stated. 


2472  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

The  Chairman.  And  for  the  reasons  I  have  previously  indicated, 
set  forth,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  these  documents. 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  produce  the  documents  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smith,  I  hand  you  a  series  of  leaflets  distributed 
in  the  Bogalusa  area  published,  according  to  the  leaflets,  by  the  Orig- 
inal Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana,  and  I  ask  you  if  you  are  the  author 
of  any  of  these  leaflets  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  as  previously  stated. 

(Documents  previously  marked  "Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibits  Nos. 
1  and  3"  and  "Charles  Christmas  Exhibits  Nos.  1-A  through  1-C," 
respectively.     See  pp.  2454-2458.) 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Smith,  I  understand  you  have  a  college  educa- 
tion and  that  you  are  a  fluent  talker — in  general  terms  I  am  talking 
about.  Would  you  care  to  describe  to  the  committee  the  purpose  and 
objectives  and  programs  that  the  Klan  organization  stands  for? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smith,  what  is  your  educational  background? 

The  Chairman.  Well,  I  just  indicated  that  it  was  my  information 
that  he  had  gone  through  college.  I  obtained  that  from  you  so  I  sup- 
pose that  is  accurate.    I  hope  it  is. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  would  like  him  to  state  the  full  extent. 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  attended  Southwestern  Louisiana  Institute  prior  to 
enrolling  in  San  Jose  State  College.  You  attended  in  1944  and  1945, 
enrolled  in  chemistry  and  botany  courses. 

September  1945  you  were  admitted  to  the  University  of  California 
at  Los  Angeles  and  completed  35  units,  majoring  in  horticulture. 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the  con- 
stitutional grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  is  your  military  background,  Mr.  Smith  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  entered  the  United  States  Army  in  June  1940 ;  were 
lionorably  discharged  as  technical  sergeant  in  May  1943;  accepted  a 
commission  in  the  Army  of  the  United  States,  the  Army  Air  Force; 
were  relieved  of  active  duty  in  April  1944  as  a  second  lieutenant  due 
to  a  duodenal  ulcer  and  neuritis. 

Mr.  Smith.  I  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  drawing  disability  or  retirement  benefits  from 
the  United  States  Army  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2473 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the  con- 
stitutional (grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smith,  in  February  1964,  did  you  attend  a  meetintr 
of  Klan  units  at  Alexandria,  Louisiana,  in  which  Royal  V.  Young,  the 
former  Imperial  Dragon  of  the  Original  Knights  of  tlie  Ku  Klux 
Klan,  appeared  before  the  representatives  of  tlie  units  and  to  ask  that 
the  organization  be  held  together  under  his  leadership  ? 

The  Chairman.  And  asked  what  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  That  the  organization  be  held  together  under  his  lead- 
ership.   Under  Young's  leadership. 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  March  1964  were  you  a  write-in  candidate  for  sheriiT 
of  "Washington  Parish,  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Wlien  you  plead  the  fifth  amendment  on  a  political  ques- 
tion, you  might  get  in  trouble  on  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  advise  the  electorate  at  the  time  you  were  a 
candidate  that  you  were  at  the  same  time  a  member  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  con- 
stitutional grounds  as  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  w^ere  you  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smith,  having  taken  a  Klan  oath  in  which  you 
promised  to  keep  secret  to  yourself  the  secret  of  a  Klansman,  except 
treason  against  the  United  States,  rape,  and  malicious  murder,  how 
could  you  in  good  conscience,  having  taken  that  oath,  appear  on  a  bal- 
lot as  a  candidate  for  the  office  of  sheriff? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  If  you  had  been  elected  to  sheriff,  under  your  oath, 
wouldn't  you  have  had  to  give  protection  to  your  fellow  Klansmen? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the  con- 
stitutional grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  July  1964,  were  you  a  member,  or  the  exalted  cyclops 
of  Unit  No.  2  in  Bogalusa,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  con- 
stitutional grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Woulcl  you  identify  to  the  committee  the  klokan  and 
the  members  of  the  wrecking  crew  of  that  Klan  unit  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answ^er  the  question  on  the  con- 
stitutional grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  December  of  1964  were  you  exalted  cyclops  of  Unit 
No.  1  of  the  Klan  in  Bogalusa,  Louisiana  ? 


2474  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU   KLUX   KLAN    EST    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  February  1965,  while  the  exalted  cyclops  of  Unit 
No.  1,  did  you  advise  fellow  Klansmen  that  you  would  put  up  your 
business  and  property  to  go  bail  bond  for  any  Klansman  arrested  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  con- 
stitutional grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  April  of  1965  did  you  attempt,  along  with  other 
Klansmen,  to  enter  Central  High  School  in  Bogalusa  to  disrupt  an 
integration  meeting? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  upon  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smith,  have  you  made  a  statement  to  your  fellow 
Klansmen  that  you  owe  no  loyalty  to  the  United  States  because  the  late 
President  Kennedy  and  President  Johnson  are  traitors? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  statement — the 
question — on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  wish  you  would  correct  me  if  I  am  wrong,  but  it  is 
my  understanding  you  are  receiving  compensation  from  the  Federal 
Government. 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  con- 
stitutional grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  While  residing  m  Bogalusa  in  January  1965,  were  you 
a  member  of  the  Minutemen  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  con- 
stitutional grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  At  a  meeting  of  the  Minutemen  in  January  1965,  did 
you  make  the  statement  the  only  way  to  keep  communism  from  taking 
over  was  to  get  rid  of  some  politicians  and  that  the  only  way  to  do  this 
was  to  kill  them  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  con- 
stitutional grounds  as  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  no  further  questions. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  until  10  o'clock  tomorrow. 

(Wliereupon,  at  4  p.m.,  Wednesday,  January  5,  1966,  the  subcom- 
mittee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  10  a.m.,  Thursday,  January  6, 1966.) 

[On  the  following  pages  appears  the  opinion  of  court  in  the  case 
of  United  States  v.  Original  Knights  of  the  Kit  KJux  Klan^  et  al. 
marked  "Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2-'  and  introduced  into  tlie 
record  on  p.  2425.] 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


2475 


(O.yjGDJAl,) 


Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.    2 

IIJ  THS  TOUTED  STATES  DISTRICT  COURT  FOR  THE 


EASTl^n  DISORICT  OF  LOUISIAi^IA 
KS^  ORLEANS  DIVISION 


U.   S.  DISTRICT  CO  ..if. 
EASTERN  DlSTRiCT  Of  LOUliiA^i;. 


KIITHD  STATES  OF  AI^SRICA,   by 
ITicholas  deB.   Katzenbach, 
Attorney  GeneraJ.  of  the 
united  States, 

Plaintiff, 


ORic-niAL  k::^hts  of  tee  ku  klux 

iCLy'T,   an  unicorporated  Associa- 
tion; .'^j'ii-coi-i:.iTOn:sT  cibistian 

ASSOCLWION,   a  corporation; 
SAXON  FABI'SR;   Ca^LES  CHRISIM.'iS; 
RUSSELL  MAG2E;   DET/JEY  ST-HTH;   VIRGIL 
CORKERN;  ALBERT  .APPLSVraiTE;   E.   J. 
(JACK)  DIXON;  DELOS  WILLIi^i'S; 
J.'J-SS  M.    ELLIS;   EiRDIE  ADRIAN 
C-OINGS,   JR.;   ESLEY  FREEMW; 
ARTHUR  R.iy  APPLS-TdlTE;   JAIffiS'  A. 
KOLLINGSWORTH,   JR.;   RANDLE  C. 
PCU-A-DS;   SIDNEY  AUGUST  W.ARNER; 
BILLY  ALFQRD;   RAVTLIN  V/ILLIANISON; 
LOUIS  .^PLff.'JHITE;   VJILLIS 
BL/i.CiC.'ELL;    J.   A.    HOLLINGSiv'ORTH, 
SR.;   LATT'~.;ORE  McNEESS;    IRA 
DTOIAWAY;   DOYLE  TYKES;    CHARLES 
RA.Y  WILLI.ai-IS;   FRAIKLIN  a^RRIS; 
CHARLES  McCLEI-n)ON;   DSLTON" 
GR.AVES;   IttLTON  E.«L  P;^i«<2R; 
I4ERVIN  TAYLOR;   VA?!  DAY;   RAY 
RISIIER;   JAMES  D.    TERRELL; 
J.   D.   JOIES;  RICHARD  E.  KREBS; 
MICHAEL  R.   KOLDEN;   J.\I-SS  BUKCS; 
.iJ^BERT  SE-KCI'S,   JR.,   and 
NOEL  BALL,    JR. 

Defendants 


DEO 


•A.  DALLAM  O'SRIEN:  JR,. 


.CIVIL  ACTIO^r  KG.  15793 


^^C2      -in 


1365 


fxJ'K 


■HD£F^ 


2476  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2  —  Continued 

Before  WISDOX,  Circuit  Judge,  and  CHRISTES,32RRY  and  AINSWORTH,  District 
Judges. 

WISDOM,  Circuit  Judge: 

This  is  a.-,  action  by  the  Nation  against  a  :^lan.* 

The  United  States  of  America  asks  for  an  injunction  to  protect 

Negro  citizens  in  Washington  Parish,  Louisiana,  seeking  to  assert  their 

civil  rights.   The  defendants  are  the  "Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 

Klan",  an  unincorporated  association,  the  "Anti-Communist  Christian 

Association)'  a  Louisiana  corporation,  and  certain  individual  klansmen, 

1 
most  of  whom  come  from  in  and  around  Bogalusa,  Louisiana. 

The  defendants  admit  most  of  the  allegations  of  the  complaint. 
Their  legal  position  is  that  a  private  organization  and  private  persons 
are  beyond  the  reach  of  the  civil  rights  acts  authorizing  the  Attorney 
General  to  sue  for  an  injunction.   There  is  no  me;:it  to  this  contention. 

Seeking  refuge  in  silence  and  secreicy,  the  defendants  object  to 
the  admission  of  any  evidence  as  to  klan  activities.   We  hold,  however, 
that  what  the  klan  is  and  what  the  klan  dc>t:s  bear  significantly  on  the 
material  issues  and  on  the  appropriate  relief. 

In  deciding  to  grant  the  injunction  prayed  for,  we  rest  our  con- 
clusions on  the  finding  of  fact  that,  within  the  n.eaning  of  the  Civil 
Rights  Acts  of  1957  and  1954,  the  defendants  have  adopted  a  pattern  and 
practice  of  intimidating,  threatening,  and  coercing  Negro  citizens  in 
Washington  Parish  for  the  purpose  of  interfering  with  the  civil  rights 
of  the  Negro  citizens.   The  compulsion  within  the  klan  to  engage  in  this 
unlawful  conduct  is  inherent  in  the  nature  of  the  klan.   This  is  its 
ineradicable  evil.  ' 

We  find  that  to  attain  its  ends,  the  klan  exploits  the 
forces  of  hate,  prejudice,  and  ignorance.   We  find  that  the  klan 
relies  on  systematic  economic  coercion,  varieties  of  intimidation, 
and  physi,.  _  violence  in  attempting  to  frustrate  the.  national 
policy  expressed  in  civil  rights  legislation.    We  find  that 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2477 

,     J  Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

the  klansmen,  whether  cloaked  and  hooded  as  members  of  the  Original 

Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  or  skulking  in  anonymity  as  members  of 

a  sham  organization,  "The  Anti-Communist  christian  Association",  or 

brazenly  resorting  to  violence  on  the  open  streets  of  Bogalusa,  are- 

a  "fearful  conspiracy  against  society  ,  ,  .  [holding]  men  silent  by 
;he  terror  of  [their  acts] and-  2 
/[their]  power  for  evil". 

As  early  as  1868  General  Nathan  Bedford  Forrest,  the  first 

and  only  Grand  Wizard  of  the  original  Invisible  Empire,  dismayed  by 

mounting,  uncontrollable  violence  laid  to  the  klan,  ordered  the  klan 

3 
to  disband  and  directed  klansmen  to  burn  their  robes  and  hoods. 

General  ?orrest  was  a  Confederate  cavalry  hero,  a  man  without  fear 

and,  certainly  to  most  Southerners,  a  man  beyond  reproach.   He 

announced  that  he  would  dissociate  himself  from  all  klansmen  and 

cooperate  with  public  officials  and  the  courts  in  enforcing  law  and 

order.   But  the  founders  of  the  Invisible  Empire  had  sown  dragon's 

teeth. 

The  evil  that  led  General  Forrest  to  disband  the  original  Ku 

Klux  Klan  was  its  perversion  of  purposes  by  undisciplined  klans  led 

4 
by  irresponsible  leaders.   The  evil  we  find  in  the  Original  Knights 

of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  is  an  absolute  evil  inherent  in  any 'secret  order 

holding  itself  above  the  law:   "the  natural  tendency  of  all  such 

5 
organizations  ...  to  violence  and  crime. "   As  history  teaches, 

and  as  the  defendants'  admissions  and  the  proof  demonstrate  in  this 

case,  violence  and  crime  follow  as  the  night  the  day.  when  masked  men 

conspire  against  society  itself.   Wrapped  in  myths  and  misbeliefs 

Which  they  think  relieve  them  of  the  obligations  of  ordinary  citizens, 

klansmen  pledge  their  first  allegiance  to  their  Konstitution  and 

give  their  fir3t  loyalty  to  a  cross  :::^;tiii;^:5~5r  in  flames. 

None  of  the  defendant  klansmen  is  a  leader  in  his  community.   As 

a  group,  they  do  not  appear  to  be  representative  of  a  cross-section  of 

the  community.   Instead  they  appear  to  be  ignorant  bullies,  callous  of 


2478  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

z.he   harm  they  know  they  are  doing  and  lacking  in  sufficient  understand- 
ing to  co.Tiprehend  the  chasm  between  their  own  twisted  Konstitution  and 
the  noble  charter  of  liberties  under  law  that  is  tie  American 
Constitution. 

Legal  tolerance  of  secret  societies  .iiust  cease  at  the  point  where 
their  merrbers  assume  supra-governmental  powers  and  take  the  law  in  their 
own  hands.   We  shall  not  allow  the  misguided  defendants  to  interfere  with 
the  rights  of  Negro  citizens  derived  from  or  protected  by  the  Consti- 
tution of  the  United  States  and  now  expressly  recognized  by  Congress  in 
various  civil  rights  statutes.   V7e  enjoin  the  Original  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klanj  its  dummy  front,  the  Anti -communist  Christian  Association, 
and  the  individual  defendants  from  interfering  with  orders  of  this  Court 
and  from  interfering  with  the  civil  rights  of  Negro  citizens  in  Washing- 
ton Parish.   Specifically,  these  rights  include: 

(1)  the  right  to  the  equal  use  and  enjoyment  of  public 
facilities,  guaranteed  by  the  Fourteenth  Amendment; 

(2)  the  right  to  the  >squal  use  and  enjoyment  of  public 
accommodations,  guaranteed  by  the  Civil  Rights  Act, 
42  use  2000a; 

(3)  the  right  to  register  to  vote  and  to  vote  in  all 
elections  guaranteed  by  the  Fifteenth  Junendment, 
by  42  use  1971,  and  by  the  Voting  Rights  Act  of 
1965;  and 

(4)  the  right  to  equal  employment  opportunities,  guaran- 
teed by  the  Civil  Rights  Act,  42  USC  2000e. 

I. 

The  United  States  sues  under  authora.ty  of  42  USC  1971; 

42  USC  2000a-5  and  e-6.   Under  those  sections  and  under  28  USC  1345, 

this  Court  has  jurisdiction  of  the  action.   We  re.solve  any  doubt  as 

to  the  reach  of  these  sections  in  favor  of  the  Government's  standing 

to  sue  in  a  case  of  this  kind.   In  its  sovereign  capacity  the  Nation 

has  a  proper  interest  in  preserving  the  integrity  of  its  judicial 

system,  in  preventing  klan  interference  wich  cour:  Carders,  and  in 

making  meaningful  both  nationally  created  and  nationally  guaranteed 

6 
civil  rights. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2479 

;  Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

II. 

We  turn  now  to  ss.-  detailed  findings  of  fact. 

A.   Background.   The  invisible  realm  of  the  Original  Knights 
coincides  with 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan/indiudes-thc-eigiTt-p'urishes— in  the  Sixth  Con- 

This  district  is  composed  of 
gressional  District  of  Louisiana.   These-a^a/the  "Florida"  p^irishes, 
the  area 
/eas^  of  the  Mississippi  River  and  north  of  Lake  Pontchartrain  claimed 

7 
by  Spain  unti.1  ISIO.   The  events  giving  rise  to  this  action  took 

place  in  Washington  Parish  and  centered  in  Bogalusa,  the  largest 

municipality  in  the  Parish.   Bogalusa  is  on  the  Pearl  River  at  a 

point  where  the  river  forms  the  boundary  between  Louisiana  andj 

Mississippi.   It  has  a  population  of  about  14,000  white  persons  and 

1 ,  500  Negroes. 

The  Grand  Dragon  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan 

and  President. of  the  Anti -Communist  christian  Association  is  Charles 

Christmas  of  Amite  in  Tangipahoa  Parish.   Saxon  Farmer,,  who  seems  to 

have  an  uncanny  capacity  for  being  present  whenever  there  is  racial 

trouble  in  ^^galusa,  is  the  second  in  cor.unand  o.-  both  organizations. 

Grand  Titan  of  the  Klan  and  Vice-Presidijnt  of  f.ie  Anti -Communist     ^  ,  ■ 

Christian  Association.   In  February  1955  he  was  elected  to  both 

offices  simultaneously.   He  is  also  the  Exalted  Cyclops  of  one  of  the 

Bogalusa  Klaverns  (local  units).   In  1950  this  Court  entered  an  order 

in  the  case  of  United  States  v.  KcElveen  et  als.  (C^A.No.  9146) 

against  Saxon  Farmer  and  others  aijgiriing  them  from  interfering  with  the 

8 
rights  of  Negro  citizens  to  vote.   That  order  restored  to  voter 

registration  rolls  of  Washington  Parish  the  names  of  1,377  Negro 

citizens  Farmer  and  others,  then  active  in  the  Citizens  Council,  had 

unlawfully  purged  from  the  rolls. ' 

The  evidence  clearly  establishes  that  the  Anti-Communist 

Christian  Association  is  not  a  bona  fide,  independent  organization 


2480  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

'  Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

but  is  the  defendant  klan  thinly  disguised  under  a  respectable  title. 

At  an  earlier  time,  the  klan '  s  duiru-ny  organization  was  called  the 
Bogalusa  Gun  ar:d-Rif-l<5  Club.   The  defends.r.ts '  .ef:orts  to  appear 
respectable  by  association  may  also  be  reflected  in  the  location  of ■ 
the  klan's  pri.-.cipal  office  in  the  Disabled  American  Veterans  Hall. 

Ths  officers,  me-iibers,  internal  structure,  method  of  paying 
dues  oi  the  ACC.A.  and  the  klan  are  identical.   The  corporate  structure 
of  ^ha  .-.CC.\  includes  nothing  but  a  charter.   The  governing  rules  and 
by-laws  cf  the  ACCA  are  the  Klan  Kcnstitution.   The  secret  oath  for 
admission  and  resignation  in  both  organizations  is  the  klan  oath. 
Nothing  is  required  of  klan  members  to  become  members  of  the  ACCA, 
except  identifying  to  the  secretary  of  the  klan  unit  their  assigned 
secret  klan  number.   Klan  members  are  then  furnished  a  small  green 
card  with  the  name  Anti -Communist  Christian  Association  printed  thereon. 
This  Court  finds  that  the  defendant  klan  has  appeared  in  this  cause. 
"he  pretiar.se  that  the  klan  does  not  exist,  has  ceased  to  exist,  or  has 
made  no  appearance  in  this  cause  is  a  sham. 

Until  recently  Washington  Parish  was  segregated  from  cradle  to 
coffin.   .^.fter  Congress  adopted  the  1964  Civil  Rights  Act,  however, 
the  Negroes  in  Bogalusa  began  a  broad  scrJ.e  camp;,ign  to  gain  recogni- 
tion of  their  rights.   Working  through  the;  3ogal\.sa  Voters  League, 
they  conducted  voter  registration  clinics,  held  nass  meetings  to  call 
attention  to  their  grievances,  picketed  places  o;;  public  accommo- 
dations to  protest  racially  discriminatory'  policz.es  -and  petitioned 
the  Mayor  of  Bogalusa  to  accord  equal  rights  in  voting,  public 
facilities,  employment,  and  education. 

The  klan  has  been  the  center  of  a— -'a^s^r-ii^- a-nd— preot-ios"-o-5 
unlawful  activity  in  Washington  Parish  de^.igned  '.o   interfere  with  the 
efforts  cf  Negro  citizens  to  gain  equal  rights  ui.der  the  law.   Its 
objective  hac  been  to  preserve  total  racial  segregation  in  Bogalusa 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2481 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

B.  'Defendants'  Admissions.   An  u-iusual  feature  of  this 

litigation  is  the  defendants'  damning  admissions.   The  defendants 
admit  that  the  klan's  objective  is  to  prevent  Washington  Parish 
Negroes  from  exercising  the  civil  rights  Congress  recognized  by 
statute.   In  their  pleadings,  the  defendants  concede  that  they 
furthered  ■^heir  objective  by  — 

(a)  assaulting,  threatening,  and  harassing  Negroes 
who  seek  to  exercise  any  of  their  civil  rights, 
and  assaulting,  threatening  and  harassing  per- 
sons who  urge  that  Negroes  should  exercise  or 
be  accorded  those  rights; 

(b)  comm.itting,  threatening  to  com"ait,  and  urging 
others  to  commit  acts  of  economic  retaliation 
against  Negroes  who  seek  to  exercise  these 
rights,  and  against  any  persons  who  urge  that 
Negroes  should  exercise  or  be  accorded  these 
rights,  or  who  permit  open,  free  and  public 
discussion  on  the  issue; 

(c)  threatening  and  intimideitinc  public  officials 
and  businessm.en  who  accord  or  seek  to  accord 
Negi^es  their  rights  wi.thout  regard  to  race  or 
color. 

The  reason  for  the  admissions  v/as  evident  at  the  trial  and  is 
evident  in  the  defendants'  brief.   The  United  States  subpoenaed  over  a 
hundred  witnesses  and,  no  doubt,  was  prt;pared  to  prove  every  allega- 
tion in  th^  complaint.   Because  of  the  c.efenda:.ts'  admissions,  the  dis-  . 
puted  issues  were  fev;  and  only  a  few  wi'.nesses  were  called.   As  a 
result,  the  klan  avoided  an  airing  of  i  t.s  acti\'ities  that  necessarily    ■ 
would  have  occurred  had  a  large  nur.ber  of  witn<:sses  testified.   Not 
content  v;ith  the  success  of  this  maneuver,  the  defendants  objected  to 
the  introduction  of  "any  evidence  pertaining  tCi  the  activities  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan"  on  the  grounds  that  (a)  the  klan  had  ceased  to  exist  and 
(b)  "Qelv[ing]  into  these  unrelated  matters"  was  solely  "to  expose"  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan,  an  invasion  of  the  "privacy  and  individual  freedoms  of 
all  thisa  defendants". 


2482  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

1      Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

As  indicated  earlier,  however,  the  nature  of  the  klan's  activities 

bears  directly  on  the  existence  of  a  pattern  and  practice  of  un- 
lawful conduct  and  also  on  the  sort  of  decree  that  should  be  issued. 

The  Government  subpoenaed  membership  lists  and  records  of  the 
klan.   The  defendants  failed  to  produce  these  records  and  at  the 
hearing  explained  that  all  of  the  records  of  the  klan  had  been 
des-royed  as  a  matter  of  klan  policy  after  suit  was  filed.   The  Court 
ordered  Chrisu-nas,  Farmer,  and  John  Magee,  the  treasurer,  to  compile 
from  memory  lists  of  officers  and  members.   Counsel  for  the 
defendants  objected  to  the  admissibility  of  the  lists  for  the  reasons 
that':   (1)  there  were  no  lists  and  records  in  the  custody  of  the 
defendants;  (2)  the  requirement  was  an  invasion  of  the  rights  of 
privacy  and  association.   The  defendants  did  net  rely  on  the  Fifth 
Amend-ment  privilege  against  self-incrimination;   tjr.ey  relied  o.i 
NAAC?  V.  Alabama,  1958,  357  U.S.  v.  449,  78  S.  Ct.  1163  2  L.  2d 
2d  1488.   The  Court  overruled  the  cbjeccions. 

NAACP  V.  Alabama  does  not  support  the  defendants'  position. 
In  z.'n.a.t  case  Justice  Karlan,  speaking  for  a  unar.im.ous  Court,  held 
that  the  rights  of  the  meiriiers  of  the  N.\.^CP  to  pursue  their  lawful 
interests  privately  and  to  associate  fraaly  with  others  were  pro- 
tected by  the  14th  Amendment.  Accordingly,  the  N.AACP  was  relieved  of 
the  necessity  of  turning  over  its  membership  list  to  the  State  of 
Alabama.   In  reaching  that  decision  the  Court  distinguished  New  York 

ex  rel.  Bryant  v.  Zim.merman,  1928,^278  U.S.  63,  49  S.  Ct.  61, 

a  case 
73  L. Ed.  184,  /involving  a  New  York  Chapter  of   ;he  Ku  Klux  Klan.   A 

New  York  statute  required  any  unincorporated  association  which 

demanded  an  oath  as  a  condition  to  membership  to  file  with  state 

officials  copi'es  of  its  "constitution,  by-laws  ...  a  roster  of  its 

In  Zim:T!erman 
me-i>ership  and  a  list  of  officers",  /the  Court  found  that  the  statutory 

classification  was  reasonable,  because  of  the  "manifest  tendency  on 
t'r.e  part  of  one  class  to  make  the  secrecy  surrounding  its  purposes 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2483 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 
ar.d  niarabership  a  cloak  for  acts  and  co.-iduc;  inir.iic  il  to  persorral.  rights 

and  public  welfare.  .  .  .  '  It  is  a  rattier  of  co.iiino  i  knowledge  that  this 

organization  [che  klan]  functions  larg-sly  a;  night,  its  members  disguised 

by  hoods  and  gowns  and  doing  things  calculiced  to  strike  terror  into  the 

minds  of  people'".   The  Supreme  Court  reaffirmed  t^iis  distinction  in 

XAACP  V.  Alabama.   Justice  Harlan  pointed  oat: 

" [In  Zimmerman]  the  Court  took  care  to  emphasize 
the  nature  of  the  organization  which  New  York 
sought  to  regulate.   The  decision  was  based  on  the 
particular  character  of  the  klan's  activities,  in- 
volving acts  of  unlawful  intimidation  and  violence 
.  . ■ .  of  which  the  Court  itself  took  judicial  notice. " 

Here  the  defendants  admit  that  the  klan's  methods  are  lawless.   Albertson 

Nov.  15, 
V.  Subversives  Activities  Board, /1965  U  S.         pretermits 

the  question  at  issue  in  Zimmerman  and  NAAC?  v.  Alabama. 

C.  Out  of  Their  Own  Mouths.   (1)  The  Konstitution  of  the  Original 
Ku  Klux  Klan  emBodies  "the  Supreme  Law  of  the  Realm".   Article  I  states  that 
one  of  the  objects  of  the  organization  is  to  "pro'cect  and  defend  the  Consti- 
tution of  the  United  States";  but  another  object  ;.s  to  "maintain  forever 
Segregation  of  the  races  and  the  Divinely  directed  and  historically  proven 
supremacy  of  the  White  Race".   The  preamble  reaffirms  "the  principles  for 
which  our  forefathers  mutually  pledged  and  freely  sacrificed  their  lives, 
their  fortunes,  and  their  sacred  honor  two  centuries  ago" ;  but  Article  II 
limits  the  membership  to  "mature,  Native-born,  White,  Gentile  Men  .  .  .  who 
profess  and  practice  the  Christian  Faith  bat  who  are  not  members  of  the 
Rom.an  Catholic  Church". 

(2)  Printed  with  the  Konstritution  is  a  Proclamation  stating  that 
it  must  be  "STRICTLY  ADHERED  TO. "   The  Proclamation  states  that  "ALL  REALM 
work  is  carried  on  by  a  chain  of  command",  establishes  the  organization 
along  military  lines,  defines  the  duties  of  the  various  officers  and  com- 
mittees,  and  describes  "The  Way  of  the  Klavern". 

"All  Klaverns  will  have  at  least  five  armed-  guards  with  flash- 
lights posted  during  regular  meetings. "   However,  "No  one  will  be  allowed 
to  carry  a  gur.  inside  the  Klavern  during  regular  meetings  except  the 
Knight  Hawk  (Keeper  of  the  Klavern  ) . " 


2484  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IN    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued     | 
.^  Klokar.'s  (Klavern  Investigator's)  duty  is  "wO  investigate  all 

questionable  matters  pertaining  to  the:  Klaverr  '.    "Any  Klansman 

who  is  known  to  violate  our  rules,  especially  those  that  give 

information  to  any  aliens  [non-iaeTJsers ]  shall  be  expelled  iircnediately, 

then  is  to  be  watched  and  visi-.ted  by  the  V/recking  Crew  if  necessary". 

(Erriohasis  added. )   Moreover,  each  klan  unit  "vill  set  up  at  least 

one  taarr.  of  six  men  to  be  used  for  wrecking  c::ev/.   These  men 

should  be  appointed  by  the  Klokan  in  secrecy".   As  judges  charged 

with  the  duty  of  drawing  inferences  from  the  demeanor  of  witnesses, 

for 
we  observed  that  a  former  klansman  exhibited  uneasiness/  i-f— ao-t 

fear  of  klan  reprisals,  whan  questioned  as  to  the  function  of 

the  klan  "wrecking  crew" .   The  defendants '  testimony  relating  to 

the  purpose  .and  functions  of  the  wrecking  crew  was  evasive.   There 

however 
is  no  doubt/that  the  wrec^cing  crew  performed  disciplinary  functions 

and  that  the  discipline  could  be  severe. 

(3)  The  Oath  of  Allegience  requires  faithful  obedience  to  the 

"iClan's  Konstitution  and  Laws",  regulations,  "rulings  and 

instructions  of  the  Grand  Dragon".   "PROVIDE^^CS  ALONE  PREVENTING". 

.  Klansmen  must  swear  "forever"  to  "keep  sacredly  secret  .  .  .  all  ... 

matters  and  knowledge  of  the  *  *  *  *  [one  asterisk  is  Klanese  for 

'Klan';  four  asterisks  mean  "Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan] 

,  .  .  [and]  never  divulge  same  nor  even  cause  same  to  be  divulged 

to  any  person  in  the  whole  world"/.   As  if  this  were  not  enough, 

the  Oath  also  requires   klansmen  to  swear  that  they  "solemnly  vow 

and  most  positively  swear"  never  "to  yield  to  bribe,  threats, 

passion,  punisiunent,  persecution,  persuasion,  nor  any  intice.ments 

(sic)  whatever  .  .  .  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  ...  a  secret 

or  secret  information  of  the  XXXX. "   Section  IV  on  "XXXX  ISHNESS" 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2485 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

(^oes   a  little  further.   In  this  section  of  the  oath  the  klansmen 

r.v>ist  sv.-^-r  cc  "'keep  secret  to  [himself]  a  secret  of  a  man  committed 

to  I'.in;  :-n  the  sacred  bond  of  *  manship.   The  crime  of  violating 

•chis  oath,  treason  against  the  United  States  of  America,  rape,  and 

malicious  murder  alone  excepted. "   (Emphasis  added. )   In  pure 

klanese^  the  kjansraain  pledges  his  "life,  property,  vote,  and  sacred 

honor"  to  uphold  "unto  death"  the  Constitution  and  "constitutional 

laws".   (Emphasis  added.)   But  he  ends  by  swearing  that  he  will 

"zealously  shield  and  preserve  .  .  .  free  segregated  public  schools, 

white  SUPREMACY.  •• 

(4)  The  "Boycott  Rules"  give  a  good  idea  of  the  Klan's 

coercive  tactics.   For  examgle: 

"The  Boycott  Committee  (one  member  from  each  local 

unit  appointed  by  the  Exalted  Cyclops)  shall  have 

exclusive  investigative  authority  and  it  shall  not 

act  at°  any  time  with  less  than  three  meirbers  present.  .  .  . 

T?  (1)  No  person  or  subject  upon  whom  a  boycott  shall 

have  been  placed  shall  be  patronized  by  any  member.  .  .  . 
Boycotts  shall  be  imposed  upon  subjects  who  are 
found  to  be  violating  the  Southern  traditions.  .  .  . 

q^  Boycotts  shall  be  placed  upon  all  members  of  the 
Commiittee  who  publicly  served  with  Basccm  Talley  in 
his  efforts  to  promote  the  Brooks  Hays  neeting. 

'7' Boycotts  shall  be  placed  upon  any  merchant  using 
i^egro  employees  to  serve  or  wait  upon  persons  of  the 
white  race.   (Service  Stations  using  Nee  roes  to  pump 
gas  are  excluded. ) 

-^f  Boycotts  shall  be  placed  against  a  subject  who  serves 
Negroes  and  whites  on  an  integrated  basis. 

-■-■  Boycotts  shall  be  placed  upon  a  subject  who  allows 
Negroes  to  use  White  rest  rooms.  .  .  . 

'<-  No  member  shall  be  punished  for  violation  of  the 
rules  by  a  member  of  his  family  under  tuelve  (12) 
years  of  age. 
".  Any  member  who  shall  after  a  hearing  have  been  found 
guilty  of  personally  patronizing  a  subject  listed  on 
the  boycott  list  shall  be  wrecked  by  the  wrecking  crew 
who  shall  be  appointed  by  the  Committee.   (Emphasis 
added. )  .  .  . 
JI-''. Second  offense  -  If  a  member  is  found  guilty  of  per- 
sonally violating  the  boycott  list  he  shall  be  wrecked 
and  banished  from  the  Klan. " 

It  is  not  surprising  that  the  attorneys  for  the  United  States 

9 
had  difficulty  extracting  from  klansmen  answers  %p   'questions. 


2486  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

(5)   In  keeping  with  its  false  fron'c  and  as  bait  for  the  devout, 

the  Klc;n  purports  to  perform  its  dirty  wo::k  in  the  name  of  Jesus 
Christ.   The  first  object  stated  in  the  "Objects  and  Purposes" 
clause  of  the  Kor.stitution  of  this  a.nti-Roman  Ca-holic,  anti- 
Ser.itic,  hate-breeding  organization  is  to  "foster  and  promote  the 
tenets  of  Christianity".   The  Proclamation  requi::es  the  Kludd 
(Klavern  Chaplain)  to  "open  and  close  each  meeting  of  the  Klavern 
with  prayer".   Setting  some  kind  of  a  record  for  sanctimonious  cant, 
the  Proclamation  directs  the  Kludd  to  "study  and  be  prepared  to 
explain  the  12th  chapter  of  ROiXiAKS  at  any  time,  as  this  is  the 
religious  foundation  of  the  Invisible  Empire".   ^Emphasis  added) 

Saint  Paul,  Apostle  to  the  Gen'ciles,  w;:ote  his  Epistle  to 
the  Romans  in  Co^^inth,  midway  between  Rome  and  Jerusalem.   Address- 
ing himself  to  Jews  and  Gentiles,  he  preached  thu  brotherhood  of 
man:   "Glory,  honour,  and  peace,  to  every  man  th;.t  worketh  good, 

to  the  Jew  first,  and  also  to  the  Gentile;:   For  --here  is  no  respect 

10 
of  persons  with  God.  "   In  the  Twelfth  Ch£.i>ter  of  Romans,  Paul  makes 

a  beautiful  and  moving  plea  for  tolerance,  for  b:-otherly  love,  for 

returning  good  for  evil: 

9  Let  love  be  without  dissimuls.tion.   Abhor' 
that  which  is  evil;  cleave  to  tr.c.t  which  is  good. 

10  3e  kindly  af fectioned  one  to  anothe:'  with 
brotherly  love;  in  honour  preferring  one:  another;  .  .  . 

14  Bless  them  which  persecute  you:   bless,  and 
curse  not.  .  .  . 

17  Recompense  to  no  man  evil  for 'evil.   Provide 
things  honest  in  the  sight  ^of  all  men. 

18  If  it  be  possible,  as  much  as  lieth  in  you, 
live  peaceably  with  all  men. 

19  Dearly  beloved,  avenge  not  ycurselve.s,  but 
rather  give  place  unto  wrath:   for  it  is.  written. 
Vengeance  is  mine;  I  will  repay,  saith  the  Lord. 

20  Therefore  if  thine  enemy  hunger,  feed  him; 

if  he  thirst,  give  him  drink;  for  in  so  doing  thou 
Shalt  heap  coals  of  fire  on  his  head. 

21  3e  not  overcome  of  evil,  but  overcome  evil  with 
good. "  , 

These  words  must  fall  on  stony  ground  in  the  Klaverns  of  .a  Klan. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2487 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

D.  Socrific  Findings  of  Klan  Intimidation  and  Violence. 

We  sel._c'-  the  following  exainples  of  the  def  enda  its '  acts  of  intimi- 
dac_cn  ind  violence. , 

(1)   January  1,    1965,  former  Congressman  Brooks  Hays  of 
.-.--k^nsas,  at  the  invitation  of  religious,  business,  and  civic 
leaders  ■■f-sa:-;  Bogalusa,  was  scheduled  to  speak  in  Bogalusa  at 
St.  Matthews  Episcopal  Church  Parish  House  on  the  subject  of 
coiTjaunity  relations.   The  meeting  was  to  be  open  to  both  Negroes 
ind  whites  and  it  was  planned  that  seating  would  be  on  a  racially 
non-segregated  basis.   After  learning  of  the  proposed  appearance 
of  Mr.  Hays  and  the  arrangements  for  an  unsegregated  meeting, 
the  Klan  and  its  members  protested  to  the  Mayor  and  the  members 
of  the  Commission  Council  and,  by  m>eans  of  threats  of  civil  dis- 
order and  economic  retaliation  against  local  businessmen  who 
suppor-ed  the  meeting,  caused  the  withdrawal  of  the  invitation 
to  Mr.  Kays  to  speak.   December  18,  1964,  before  the  Hays  invita- 
tion was  withdrawn,  the  Mayor  of  Bogalusa  and  Police  Comiuissioner 
Arnold  Spiers,  in  an  effort  to  head  off  possible  civil  disorder, 
appeared  at  a  Klan  meeting  at  the  Disabled  Veterans  Hall.   The 
show  of  force  at  this  meeting  by  over  150  hoodod  Klansmen 
unquestionably  intimidated  public  cffici.als  in  Bogalusa  and,  later, 
hindered  e_fective  police  action  ac-ainat  Kl^n  ^'iolence.   On  the 
stand.  Mayor  Cutrer  admitted  that  he  v.';;;;  "frigiitened  when  he 
looked  into  150  pairs  of  eves".   ' 

(2)   Since  at  least  January  23,  1965,  tr.e  defendants, 
including  Saxon  Farmer,  Russell  Magee,  Dewey  S;\ith,  Randle  C.  Pounds, 
Billy  Alford,  Charles  McClendon,  James  I5urke,  and  other  members  of 
the  defendant  Klan,  have  made  a  practice  of  go.Lng  to  places  where 

59-222  O — 67 — pt.  3 11 


2888  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 
they  anticipated  that  Negroes  would  atteir.pt  to   exercise  civil  rights, 

in  order  to  harass,  i;hreaten,  and  intimidate  the  Negroes  and  other 

persons.   For  chis  purpose,  nembers  of  the  defendant  Klan  have  gone 

to  PranklinTion,  Louisiana,  when  Negro  citizens  of  Washington  Parish 

Were  expected  to  apply  to  register  as  voters,  1".  ave  gone  to  restau-' 

rants  in  Bogalusa  when  Negroes  were  seeking  or  were  expected  to  seek 

service,  and  have  gone  to  locations  in  downtowr  Bogalusa  and  near 

the  Bogalusa  Labor  Temple  when  Negroes  were  attempting  or  were 

expected  to  demonstrate  publicly  in  support  of  equal  rights  for 

Negroes. 

•  (3)   William  Yatea  and  Stephen  Miller,  two  CORE  workers, 

came  to  Bogalusa  in  January  1965.   The  Grand  Dragon  and  Grand  Titan 

of  the  Klan,  defendants  Charles  Chrisfcx.as  and  Saxon  Farmer,  appeared 

at  the  Mayor's  office  t:o  ask  the  Mayor  to  send  William  Yates  and 

Stephen  Miller  out  of  Bogalusa.   Mayor  Cutrer  indicated  that  he 

could  do  nothing.   The  next  day,  February  3,  lSo5,  three  Klansmen, 

James  Kollingsworth,  Jr. ,  James  Hollingsworth,  Sr. ,  and  Delos 

Williams,  with  two  other  persons,  Doyle  Tynes  and  Ira  Dunaway, 

attempted  to  insure  Yates'  and  Miller's  departure.   This  group 

followed  Yates  and  Miller  and  assaulted  Yates. 

(4)   February  15,  1965,  defendant  Virgil  Corkern,  Klansman, 

and  approximately  30  other  white  persons  attacked  five  Negro  citizens 

and  damaged  the  car  in  which  they  were  riding.   This  occurred  because 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2489 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

th^  Xagroas  had  sought  service  at  a  gasoline  station  in  Bogalusa. 

On  that  sair.e  day,  Corkern  and  other  persons  gathered  at  Landry's 
Fine  Foods,  a  restaurant  in  Bogalusa,  to  observe  Negroes  seeking 
service  at  the  restaurant.    Corker;;  and  one  ot". ler  entered  the 
restaurant  brandishing  clubs,  orderijd  thi  Negroes  to  leave  and 
threatened  co  kill  Sam  Barnes,  a  member  of  the  3ogalusa  Voters 
League,  who  had  cone  to  the  restaurant  with  six  Negro  women. 

(5)  March  29,  1965,  defendants  Hardie  Adrian  Goings,  Jr., 
Xlansman,  and  Franklin  Harris,  Klansman,  shortly  after  meetings  had 
been  held  at  the  Bogalusa  Labor  Temple,  threw  an  ignited  tear  gas 
canister  at  a  group  of  Negroes  standing  near  the  Labor  ■Temple. 
Goings,  Jr.  then  tried  to  disguise  his  car  by  repainting  it  and 
removing  the  air  scoop  from  the  top  to  prevent  detection  of  this 
crime.   Goings  or  other  Klansmen  used  this  same  car  in  May  of  1964  to 
burn  a  cross  at  the  home  of  Lou  Major,  editor  of  the  Bogalusa  news- 
paper. 

(6)  April  7,  1965,  defendants  Lattimore  McNeese  and 

E.  J.  (Jack)  Dixon,  Klansman,  threatened  Negro  citizens  during  the 
course  of  a  meeting  at  the  Labor  Temple  by  brandishing  and  exhibiting 
a  gun  at  Negroes  standing  outside  the  Labor  Temple. 

(7)  April  9,  1965,  defendants  Billy  Alford,  Klansman, 
Randle  C.  Pounds,  Klansman,  Lattimore  McNeese,  Charles  McClendon,  and 
James  Burke,  Klansman,  with  other  parsons,  went  to  the  downtown  area 
of  Bogalusa .  yhere  Negro  citizens  v/ere  participat-ing  in  a  march  to 
the  Bogalusa  City  Hall  to  protest. denial  of  equal  rights.   Pounds, 
McClendon,  and  Burke,  in  a  group,  moved  cut  to  attack  the  marchers. 
Pounds  assaulted  the  leader  of  the  n-.arch,  James  Farmer,  with  a 
blackjac'.-:;  McClendon  and  Burke  were  temporarily  deterred  from  the 
threatened  assault,'  but  immediately  thereafter  assaulted  a  newsman 


2490  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IX    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

ar.d  an  ?3I  age.nc.   Alford  assaultod  one  of  the  Kagroes  participating 


.n  z.nc 


...<:.— ^i^. 


(S)   May  19j  lS65j  Virgil  Corkern,  Kiansman^  two  sons  of 
Virgil  Corkern^  and  other  white  persons  went  to  Cassidy  Park,  a  public 
■recreation  area  maintained  by  the  City  of  Bogalusa,  for  the  purpose  of 
interfering  with  the  enjoyiaenf  of  the  park  by  Negroes  and  white  CORE 
workers  who  were  present  at  the  park  and  using  the  facilities  for  the 
first  time  on  a  non-segregated  basis.   The  Corkern  group  entered  the 
park  and  dispersed  the  Negro  citizens  v;ith  clubs,  belts,  and  other 
weapons. 

(S)   Negro  members  -of  the  Bogaiusa  Voters  League,  unable 
to  exercise  their  civil  rights  and  also  unable  to  obtain  from  police 

officials  adeqjiate  protection  from  the  Klan,  filad  suit  June  25, 

Civ. Ac.  No. IS,: 27 
1S65,  in  the  case  of  Hicks  v.  Knight /in  this  Court.   The  complaint 

asks  for  an  injunction  requiring  officers  of  the  City  of  Bogaiusa 
to  open  the  public  parks  and  to  operate  sach  par -cs  witJ^out  racial 
discrimination,  and  also  requiring  law  eaforceme.it  officers  of  the 
City,  Parish,  and  State  to  protect  the  Kajro  plaintiffs  and  other 
Negroes  from  physical  assaults,  beatings,  harass r.ent,  and  intimi- 
dation at  the  hands  of  white  citizens.   July  10,  1965,  this  Court  issued 
an  injunction  in  Hicks  v.  Knicht  enjoini.ig  certain  city  and  parish  law 
enforcement 'officers  from  failing  to  use  all  reasonable  means  to  pro- 
tect the  Negro  plaintiffs  and  others  similarly  situated  from  physical 
assaults  and  beatings  and  from  haras smient  and  intimidation  preventing 
or  discouraging  the  exercise  of  their  rights  to  picket,  assemble 
peaceably,  and  advocate  equal  civil  rights  for  Negroes.   The  prelimi- 
nary  injunction  is  still  in  full  force  and  effect.   Even  after  this 
Ccurt  issued  its  order  July  10,  1955,  the  defendant  Klansmen  con- 
tinued  to  interfere  with  Negro  citizens  exercising  civil  rights  and 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2491 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2  — Continued      , 

interfered  with  perforr:.ance  of  the  duties  of  law  enforcement 

officials  under  the  injunction  in  Hicks  v.  Knight. 

(10)  July  11,  1S65,  during  a  Negro  march  in  downtown 
Bogalusa,  defendants  Handle  Pounds,  Klansma.n,  H.  A.  Goings,  Jr.  , 
Xlansr.an,  Franklin  Harris,  Klansn^^an,  and  Kilton  S.  Parker  were 
prese.nt.   Harris  and  Goings  passed  out  25-30  2x2  clubs  to  youths  and 
Pounds  scauioned  the  youths  along  the  inarch  route.   Parker  was 
arrested  by  a  City  policeman  along  the  route  of  march  for  disburbing 
the  peace. 

(11)  Included  in  the  exhibits  are  a  nvjtiber  of  handbills 

bearing  the  caption, "Published  by  the  Oricinal  Ki  Klux  Klan  of 

Louisiana".   These  are  crude,  scrrxlous  c.ttacks  c.n  certain  Bogalusa 

citizens  who  advocatea  a  moderate  approach  to  desegregation.   For 

exam.ple,  in  one  handbill  an  Episcopal  minister-  is  accused  of  lying 

for  having  said  that  he  had  received  calls  threatening  to  bomb  his 

church;  the  miinister's  son  is  said  to  be  e.n  alcoholic,  to  have 

faced  a  morals  charge  in  court,  and  to  have  been  comjnitted  to  a 

mental  institution.   The  handbill  adds: 

"The  Ku  Klux  Klan  is  now  in  the  process  of  checking 

on  Reverend  's  [naming  him]  moral  standards. 

If  he  is  cleared  you  will  be  so  infonried.   If  he  is  not 
cleared,  you  will  be  informed  of  any  and  all  m.isdeeds  or 
moral  violation  of  his  in  the  past. " 

In  the  same  handbill  the  Klan  announced  that  it  was  "boycotting 

businesses  which  cater  to  integration  such  as  Mobile  Gas  Stations, 

etc.  "   MobilcJ  Gas  Station  is  a  business  comipetitor  of  the  defendant. 

Grand  Titan  Saxon  Farmer. 

All  of.  the  handbills  attem.pt  to  intimidate  public  officials, 

the  Governor  of  Louisiana,  the  Congressman  from,  the  Sixth  District, 

the  Xayor  of  Bogalusa,  and  federal  judges  (by  name'i,.  'Sometimes  the 

attempted  intimidation  is  by  threat  of  violence,  sometimes  by 


2492  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

V7e  quote, 
liractcr  assassination.  /  Jor  example: 

(a)      "On  numerous  occasions  we  have:,  been  a.;'!<ed  by  local 
officials  to  refrain  from,  any  acts  of  violence  upon 
^his  outside  scum  that  has  invaded  cur  city.   Being  a 
christian  organization,  we  have  honored  thcise  requests 
each  time.   Kov7  nuch  longer  can  We  continue???   Con- 
trary to  what  the  liberal  elerr.enu  v/ould  have  you  think, 
■chis  memorandum  is  not  the  work  of  racist  iind  hate 
mongers  or  trouble  makers,  as  Governor  'Big  John' 
McKeithen  calls  us.   We  are  God  fearing  wh:.te,  southern- 
ers who  believe  in  constitutional  government  and  the 
preservation  of  our  American  heritage. 

"If  your  governor  would  have  done  the  right  thing 
uo  suart.  with,  he  would  have  refused  to  protect  these 
local  and  outside  agitators  and  did  jus.t  what  one  great 
southern  governor  did.   He  refused  to  protect  this 
outside  element,  (CORE,  NAACP,  S^CICK,  ETC."),  at  the 
expense  of  his  state.   He  chose,  instead,  to  let  LBJ  and 
Katzenbach  protect  ther^.   Only  after  the  city  of  Bogalusa 
had  spent  $96,000,  did  he  (Big  John  KcKeithen) ,  make  any 
effort  to  ease  the  situation  in  this  city.  '■ 

'(b)"As  the  people  tried  to  preserve  ovir  Southe:rn  way  of 
life,  the  Mayor  and  Council  were  slowly  selling  the 
people  out  at  every  turn.   The  Mayor  has  r€:peatedly 
GIV2X  in.   JaiTies  Farmer  did  not  ha-Vi:   the  si.pport  of  the 
local  l^fegroes.   Mayor  Cutrer  is  not  civ:-ng  the  city  of 
Bogalusa  to  the  negro  citizens  of  Lcgalusa.   No.   He  is 
giving  the  city  to  James  Farr.ier  and  a  handi  ul  of  Negro 
Teenagers.-  NO  PRESSURE  was  put  on  James  Fc.rmer  and  Dick 
Gregory  to  keep  them  out  of  Bogalusa..   Not  by  the  Mayor, 
the  State  Representative,  the  State:  Senatoi',  or  Congress- 
man Morrison.   This  w^s  not  so  when  the  Uli:  TE  CONS ERV.^T IVES 
wanted  to  stage  a  Rally.   Pressure  \Aas  exerted  from  all 
levels,  even  the  invited  guest  speakers  were  'leaned  on'. 

"The  Governor,  the  Congressman,  Jimmy  Morrison,  or 
his  com-rats,  Suksty  Rayborn,  and  Eusuer  Sheridan.   John 
McXeithen  asked  for  our  vote  and  premised  vo  serve  the 
PEOPLE.   We  now  ask.  Big  John,  isn't  this  TRUE?  What  is 
happening  under  your  administration? 

"Here  is  the  list  of  elected  officials  who  COULD  & 
AND  SHOULD  have  helped  the  People  of  Bogalusa.  '''All  these 
should  be  tarred  and  feathered; 

MAYOR  JESSIE  CUTRER 
REPRESENTATIVE  SHERIDAN 
SENATOR  SIXTY  RAYBORN 
•..  .■       SHERIFF  DORMAN  CRCWE 

CONGRESSMAN  JIMMY  MORRISON 
GOVERNOR  JOHN  MCKEITHEN 
SENATOR  RUSSELL  LONG  "      v   ■ 

"Now  the  QUESTION.   Why  have  these  men,  elected  by 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2493 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

tho  UTilTE  people  turned  their  l)ack  on  us  in  our  time  of 
need? 

"Is  Commur.isra  so  close?  Wio  bought  them?  Who 
bought  their  HONOR  and  FOR  HOW  XUCH?" 

(c)      "The  :<u  Klux  Xlan  is  strongly  organized  in  Bogalusa 
and  throughout  Washington  and  St.  Tamr.iany  Parishes. 
Being  a  secret  organization,  we  have  ICLAN  members  in 
every  conceivable  business  in  this  area.   V^e  will  know 
the  names  of  all  who  are  invited  to  the  Brooks  Hayes 
meeting  and  we  will  know  who  did  and  did  not  attend  this 
meeting.   Accordingly,  we  take  this  mieans  to  urge  all  of 
you  to  refrain  from  attending  this  meeting.   Those  who 
do  attend  this  meeting  will  be  tagged  as  intergrationists 
a.id  will  be  dealt  with  accordingly  by  the  Knights  of  the 
KU  KLUX  KLAN.  " 

E.  Summary  of  the  Facts.   We  find  that  the  defendants  have 
admitted  and  the  proof  has  shown  that  they  intimidated,  harassed, 
and  otherwise  interfered  with  (1)  Negroes  exercising  their  civil 
rights,  (2)  persons  encouraging  Negroes  to  assert  their  rights, 
and  (3)  puj5lic  officials,  police  officers,  and  other  persons  seeking 
to  accord  Negroes  their  rights.   These  aces  are  part  of  a  pattern 
and  practice  of  the  defendants  to  maintain  total  segregation  of  the 
races  in  Washington  Parish.   The  pattern  crec-tes  an  effect  extending 
beyond  the  effect  of  any  particular  c.ct  or  practice.   A  Negro  who 
is  clubbed  in  a  public  park  may  feai-  t.o  order  coffee  in  a  segregated 
sandwich  shop  or  he  may  decide  that  it  is  th;i  better  part  of  valor 
not  to  exercise  voting  rights.   The  ov;nar  of  the  sandwich  shop 
who  receives  threatening  calls  for  hc.\'ing  se;-ved  Negro  patrons 
m.ay  co.iclude  that  taking  care  of  his  iiamily  comes  ahead  of 
hiring  Negro  employees.   The  intimidation  or  violence  may  be  effec- 
tive not  only  as  to  the  particular  individua„  against  whom  it  is 
directed  but  also  as  to  others  who  may  be  le:;s  courageous  than  the 
Negroes  brave  enough  to  parade  in  Bogalusa  or  register  to  vote  in 
Franklinton.'  The  acts  of  terror  and  intimidation  admitted  or  proved 
in  ehis  case,  acts  characteristic  of  a  masked,  secret  conspiracy, 
can  be  halted  only  by  a  broad  order  enjoining  the  defendants 


2494  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

frcr.;  unlawfully  interfering  with  che  exorcise  of  civil  rights 

by  Nogro  citizens. 

III. 

Che  defendants  contend  that,  the  cor.-.plain-  fails  to  state 

a  claiiu  upon  which  relief  can  be  g;:antc;C..   They  start  with  the 

doctrine  that  the  14th  and  15th  Ant;nd.--.£:r.t3  appl.y  only  to  state 

action  or  action  under  color  of  state  lz.\-i.      A.  This  moves  them 

=  3  a  matter  of  statutory  construc^tion, 
to  concludej/that  Congress  did  not  purport  to  enforce  civil 

riches  against  private  persons.   Moreover,  so  t.hey  argue,  the 

interference  with   interf erenc:e  with 
1957  Act  applies  to/"voting"  not  to/" registering" .   B.  And, 

they  say,  if  civil  rights  acts  do  authorize  enforcement  against 
private  persons  {not  owners 'or  managers  of  a  place  of  public 
accorrjT.odation)  the  statutes  are  unconsti-cutionalo 

A. 
(1)  The  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1957.   In  the  field  of  civil 
rights  che  problem  of  enforcerr.ent  is  more  difficult  than  the 
problem  of  legislative  definition.   The  choice  of  remedy 
detenr.ines  whether  an  act  of  Congress  simply  declares  a  right 
or  carries  machinery  for  meaningful  performance  of  the  statu- 
tory promise.   In  the  past,  an  obvious  hiatus  has  been  the 
lack  of  effective  sanctions  against  private  persons  inter- 
fering with  a  citizen's  exercise  of  a  civil  ric.it.   This  lack 
may   be  explained  by  a  number  of  reasons.     ( s)  Con- 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2495 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued   , 

gross  has  b^er.  reluctant  to  assert  aff irir.atively  by  legislation 

its  rosiior.sibility  to  protect  the  priviloc/ss  and  iixnunities  of 

citizens^  of  chs  United  States,  for  fear  «;:  inper..ling  the  balanced 

11 
relationship  between  the  states  and  the  Nation,  .b)  Courts  have 

narrowly  construed  criminal  sanctions  available  ;.n  Section  241  and 

12 
242  of  Ci-cle  IS.   (c)  Congress  and  the  courts  have  been  severely 

limited  by  the  doctrine  of  state  action,  in  spite  of  the  trend 

.13 
toward  an  expansive  view  of  what  is  state  action.   (d)  Congress  has 

been  wary  of  using  an  equitable  remedy  in  civil  rights  legislation. 

The  Constitution  guarantees  an  accused  in  a  criminal  case  the  right 

;:o  indictment  by  a  grand  jury  and  trial  by  a  jury  of  the  vicinage. 

Enforce-ment  of  civil  rights  through  the  use  of  an  injunction  and 

14 
the  contempt  power  of  the  courts  would  by-pass  the  jury  system. 

Hov/ever,  in  ccrfmunities  hostile  to  civil  rights  and  resentful 

against  "outside",  that  is,  federal  interference,  injunctive  relief 

may  be  the  most  effective  method  of  enforcing  civil  rights. 

the  pros  and  cons  of  these  and  many  other  issues  when' ' 

Congress  r-nnd  r!o-ra.-^^/-!--,^s-3  -,-Tiri--v-.-'  -  .- ^r^— -»^^-.-.---"- --^-y-^-n— .-r^-  -  -  n 

15 
the  Administration  submitted  an  omnibus  civil  richts  bill  in  1956. 

The  focal  issues — the  contempt  power,  the  jury  system,  and  the 

relationship  of  the  States  with  the  Nation — produced  one  of  the  great 

debates  in  Am.erican  parliamentary  history'.   By  the  time  the  bill  was 

cut  dov/n  to  a  voting  rights  law,  as  the  Civil  Richts  Act  of  1957,  71  Stat. 

/Congress  and  the  country  thoroughly  understood  the  significance  of 
15 
the  legislation.   Congress  had  opened  the  door,  then  nearly  shut, 

to  national  responsibility  for  protecting  civil  rights — created  or 

guaranteed  by  the  Nation — by  injunction  proceedings  against  private 

persons. 

Part  III  of  the  Administration's  bill,  as  originally  proposed, 

v;ouid  have  authorized  the  Attorney  General  to  file,^uit  against  any 


2496  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

:  Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No,  2— Continued   ' 

poi-son  \vv.o  doprivad  or  was  about  to  dsprive  any  citizen  of  aay  civil  right. 

Tho  cor.-.pror.^ise  that  became  the  Civil  Heights  Act  of  1957  limits  civil  actions 

to  proteccion  of  voting  rights  in  special,  general,  or  primary  elections 

where  federal  officers  are  elected. 

Before  i::s.e   1957  Act,  Section  1971  (now  1971(a))  was  enforced  either 

by  an  accior.  for  damages  under  42  U.  S.C.§19o3  and  §2.985(3)  or  by  a  criminal 

acwion  under  13  U.S.C.  §241,  242.   The  1957  ..ct  add^  four  subsections  to 

17 
Section  1971,  including: 

"b.  yp  parson,  v/hether  acting  under  color  of  law  or  other- 
v.-jse,  shall  intimidate,  threaten,  or  coerce  any  other  person 
for  the  purpose  of  interfering  with  ->.e  righ;  of  such  other 
person  to  vote  or  to  vote  as  he  nay  o>.oose,  or  of  causing 
such  ofr.ar   person  to  vot:a  for,  or  no-  no  vota  for,  any  candi'- 
da-e  for  rhe  office  of  President.  V-ce  President,  presidential 
elecucr,  ICamber  of  the  Senate,  or  Meiaser  of  ;he  House  of 
Representatives,  Delegated  or  Commis 3  Loners  from  the  Terri- 
wories  or  possessions,  at  any  'general,  speciil,  or  primary 
election  held  solely  or  in  part  for  cne  purpose  of  selecting 
or  electing  any  such  candidate. 

* 

"c.  T^rhenever  any  person  has  engaged  or  there  are  reasonable 
grounds  to  believe  that -any  person  is  about  co  engage  in  any 
act  or  practice  which  v;ould  deprive  ?..iv  othe-  person  of  any 
richt  or  privilece  secured  b-'^  subsen-lcn  ' e.)    or  (b)  ,  the 
Attorney  General  may  insui^ute  for  tne  Uniwei  States,  or  in 
the  name  of  the  United  States,  a  civil  action  or  other  proper 
proceeding  for  preventive  relief,  including  an  application 
for  a  permanent  or  temporary  injunction,  restraining  order, 
or  other  order.;  In  any  proceeding  hereunder  the  United  States 
shall  be  liable  for  costs  the  same  as  a  private  person. " 
(Emphasis  added. )  • 

"rae   House  Report  on  the  Act — there  was  no  Senate  Report —  clearly 

states  the  purpose  of  the  amendments  to  1971: 

'"-his  section  adds  new  matter.   The  provision  is  a  further 
declaration  of  the  right  to  vote  for  federal  offices.   It 
states  clearly  that  it  is  unlav;ful  for -a  private  indivi- 
dual as  well  as  one  acting  undet  color  of  la//  to  interfere 
or  atteir.pt  to  interfere  with  the  right  to  vote  at  any 
general,  special,  or  prim.ary  election  concerning  Federal 
offices.   This  amendir^ent,  however,  does  not  provide  for 
a'rem.edy.   However,  the  succeeding  subsection  of  the 
am.endment,  which  is  designated  subsection  (c) , 


I 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IX    THE    U.S.  2497 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No,  2— Continued 

decs  provide  a  rer.'.edy  in  f.-.o  fci.v.  of  a  dvii  action 
iilSwitutvsd  ct.   the  pai't  of  iha  A'l-tcrn^y  caiieral.  " 
tlousa  Roporw  No.  2S1,  to  aGcoir.pc.r.y  K.R.  6127,  U.S. 
^odo  Co.-ig.  and  Ad.-n.  ICsws  1966,  ;.v77  (19o7)  (2.-npha3is 

.^.Ithough  Congress  narrowad  tha  cub j  act  r.atter  of  the  statute 

to  voting  rights,  there  is  nothing  narrov;  about  the  scope  of  the  Act 

as  to  intarfarence  with  voting  rights.   l^he  statute  is  not  limited  . 

to  physical  acts  or  to  direct  interference  with  the  act  of  voting 

but  applies  to — 

"any  act  or  practice  which  \.-ould  cepriv.i  any  other 
parson  of  any  right  or  privilege  secured  by  subsec- 
tion (a)  or  (b)  .  .  .  " 

The  statute  applies  to  "any  person"  who  shall — 

"intimidate,  threaten,  coerce  or  attempt  to  intimi- 
date, threaten  or  coerce  for  the  purpose  of  inter- 
fering with  the  right  of  such  person  to  vote. " 

There  is  no  doubt  that  this  language  applies  to  private  indi- 

viduals.   And  there  is  very  little  doiibc.  uhat  the  Act  protects  the 

right  to  register  and  to  engage  in  activities  encouraging  citizens  to 

register.   As  discussed  more  fully  elsawhere,  registration  is  an 

O 

integral,  indispensable  part  of  tha  voting  process.    It  is  also  a 
stage  that  is  vulnerable  to  abuse  by  the  registrar  or  to  unlawful  con- 
duct by  private  persons.   2ver  sinca  tha  Supreme  Court  outlawed  the 

"white"  Tirimarv,  it  has  bean  apparent  that  tha  main  battleground  in 

19 
the  war  over  Negro  suffrage  would  be  tha  registration  office.    See, 

for  example,  tha  description  of  the  activities  of  the  Citizens 

Councils  and  parish  registrars  in  United  States  v.  Louisiana,  E.D.La. 

1963,  225  F.  Supp.  353,  378-80.   Congress  was  wall  aware  that  a 

major  mischief  to  be  corabatted  in  the  1557  A.ct  was  economic  coercion 

and  threats  of  intimidation  by  private  parscns  that  would  deny  or 

20 
interfere  v/^th  the  Negro's  access  to  registration. 

:':ore  often  than  not,  the  .economic  coercion  and  intimidation 

bv  ~_"iva'ce  persons  are  triggered  by  an  aiucaticnal  campaign  to 

encourage  registration.   United  Staces  v.  Beatty^  6  Cir.  1961, 

283  P.  2d  653  is  a  case  in  point.    The  case  arose  in  Haywood 


2498  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IX    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

County, 'Tanr.asseej  a  county  in  which  nc  Negroes  were  registered  to 

votv2.   In  the  spring  of  1959,  a  newly  fcnriGd  Civic  and  Welfare  League, 
.   appcL.-cntly  sir.ilar  to  the  Bogalusa  Voters  Le;.gue,  initiated  a  cam- 
paign in  Haywood  and  in  Payette  Counti.as  to  uncourage  Negroes  to  regis- 
ter.  This  led  to  the  institution  of  £i  "whito"  primary  in  Fayette; 
later  prohibited  by  a  consent  decree  ir.  Apri..  1960.   In  the  face  of  a 
renewed  registration  drive,  white  businessmen  in  both  counties  re- 
taliated by  circulating  a  "blacklist"  contai;iing  the  names  of  the 
Negroes  who  registered  and  white  cit:.::ens  who  assisted  them.   The 
businessmen  induced  local  merchants  to  boyco'it  anyone  whose  name  ap- 
peared on  the  list,  by  denying  credit  and  tha  right  to  buy  necessities 
through  the  usual  business  relations.   White  landowners  evicted  share- 
croppers and  tenant  farmers  who  had  registerad  or  whose  names  appeared 

on  the  blacklist.   The  Attorney  General  sued  the  businessmen  and  land- 

21 
owners,  under  Section  1971,  for  i.T^.ediate  injunctive  relief.    The 

district  judge  granted  a  restrai.ning  order  enjoining  the  businessmen 

fro.T.  "interfering  through  intimidation  and/or  coercion",  but  refused 

to  enjoin  the  landowners  on  the  ground  that  the  Civil  Rights  Act  did 

not  vast  the  court  with  authority  "to  adjudge  contracts  and  property 

rights".   6  Race  Rel.  L.  Rep.  200.   The  Sixth  Circuit  affirmed  the 

judgment  as  to  the  businessmen  and  extended  che  injunction  to  the 

22 
landlords. 

In  East  Carroll  Parish,  Louisiana,  cotton  growers  refused  to 

gin  cotton  for  Negro  farmers  who  had  attempted  to  register  to  vote.  The 

Attorney  General  again  sued  under  the  1957  A^t.   Judge  Dawkins  granted  a 

restraining  order,  as  preventive  relief,  against  owners,  operators, 

and  managers  of  cotton  gin  businesses  and  certain  other  businesses. 

The  Court  -restrained  the  defendants  from  "refusing  to  gin  ..... 

refusing  -co  sell  goods  or  services,  and  x.o   conduct  ordinary  business 

transac-ions  with,  any  person  for  the  purpose  of  discouraging  or 

dissuading  such  person  from  attempting  to  vcta  and  ..  .  .  engaging 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IX    THE    U.S.  2499 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

ir.  any  atton-.ptea  threats,  ir.ti:.  idaticns,  c;  coercio.n  of  any 

nature,  whether  econon^.ic  or  otV. er\-.'i£e" .   Ur  ited  S-ates  v. 

Deal,  K.  D.La.  1S31,  S  5;aca  :<el.  L.  Seis.  •C7<. 

The  parallel  between  the  dsrandants'  intimidation  by 

and 
ecor.or.ie  eoercion  in  Baattv/  in  Deal,  and  the  defendants' 

boycotc  and  other  activities  in  this  case  is  too  patent 
■^io  be  spelled  out.   Beattv  and  Da?.l  also  illustra'ce  a 
principle  of  enorrr.ous  i-.portance  in  the  enforcement  of  civil 
rights:   acts  otherwise  lav/ful  .nay  become  unlawful  and  be 
enjoined  under  Section  1971,  if  uhe  purpose  and  effect  of 
the  acts  is  to  interfere  with  the  right  to  vote. 

In  United  "States  v.  Board  of  Education  of  Greene 
Counuy,  l-tssissippi,  1S64,  332  F.  2d  -.0,  the  Pifth  Circuit 
affirmed  the  holding  below  that  the  governm.ent  failed  to 
prove  that  uhe  alleged  intir.idaticn  v;as  for  the  purpose 
of  interfering  with  the  right  uo  vote.   But,  as  Judge 
Tuttle  explained  in  United  States  v.  Bruce  (not  yet  re- 
ported, decided  ICov.  16,  1SS5,  ao.  22C23},the  Court  in 
■  the  Greene  Cou~-cv  case  assumed; 

"vrnereas  a  school  board  -.night,  inder  the 
circumstances  prese.it  ...i  that  c  ise,  have 
legally  failed  to  r;;new  i  teach  :r's  con- 
tract for  any  reason  or  for  no  reason  at 
all,  if  it  in  fact  decl.^/.ed  to  renew  the 
[teacher's]  certificate  .is  a  me -ns  of 
coercing  or  intimi£.itin.j  the  te  -cher  as 
to  her  right  to  vote,  suoh  cond  :ct  would 
be  prohibited  under  the  .-.ct.  " 

In  United  States  v.  Bruce  tv/e.ity-aig.t  white  persons 

in  V.'ilcox  County,  Alaba.ma,  notified  Dannie  Drown,  a  Negro  in- 

surar.ce  collector^  to  stay  off  lar.d  c^ned  o.:   controlled  by  then. 


2500  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IX    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 
As  a  result  Brown  could  not  reach  many  of  his  policy-holders. 

Brown  had  been  active  in  urging  his  Negro  neighbors  and  friends 

to  register  to  vote  in  Wilcox  County,  a  county  where  no  Negroes 

were  registered.   The  Court  held  that  the  trial  court  erred  in 

dismissing  the  complaint: 

"The  background  allegations  make  a  strong 
case  upon  which  the  trial  court  could 
infer  the  correctness  of  the  conclusionary 
allegations  that  these  defendants  did  in 
fact  'intimidate  and  coerce'  the  Negro 
citizens  of  Wilcox  County,  through  the 
person  of  Lonnie  Brown,  for  the  purpose 
of  interfering  with  their  right  to  vote. " 

We  hold  that  the  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1957  applies  to 
private  persons,  including  the  defendants  impleaded  in  this 
case.   We  hold  that  the  Act  applies  to  interfering  with  the 
right  to  register  as  well  as  interfering  with  the  right  to 
vote;  that  the  Act  protects  Negro  citizens  against  the 
coercion,  intimidation,  and  violence  the  defendants  admitted 
or  were  proved  to  have  committed  in  this  case. 

(2)  The  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1964.   The  '64  Act  creates 
new  categories  of  civil  rights  and  extends  the  authority  of 
the  Attorney  General  to  protect  such  rights  by  a  civil  suit 
for  injunctive  relief  against  any  person,  public  or  private. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2501 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 
For  purposes  of  this  proceeding,  the  most  pertinent  provisions 
are  those  relating  to  (a)  places  of  public  accommodation,  (b)  equal 
employroent  opportunities,  and  (c)  public  facilities.   As  clearly 
as  words  can  say,  these  provisions  reach  any  person  and  any  action 
that  interferes  with  the  enjoyment  of  civil  rights  secured  by  the ' 
Act.   Thus,  42  U.S.C.  §2000a-2  of  Title  II,  is  not  limited  to  pro- 
hibiting discrimination  or  segregation  by  the  owner  or  manager  of 
a  place  of  public  accommodation.   The  section  provides: 

"No  person  shall  (a)  withhold,  deny,  or  attempt 
to  withhold  or  deny,  or  deprive  or  attempt  to 
deprive,  any  person  of  any  right  or  privilege 
secured  by  section  2000a  or  2000a-l  of  this 
title,  or  (b)  intimidate,  threaten,  or  coerce, 
or  attempt  to  intimidate,  threaten,  or  coerce 
any  person  with  the  purpose  of  interfering  with 
any  right  or  privilege  secured  by  section 
2000a  or  2000a-l  of  this  title,  or  (c)  punish 
or  attempt  to  punish  any  person  for  exercising 
or  attempting  to  exercise  any  right  or  privi- 
lege secured  by  section  2000a  or  2000a-l  of 
this  title. " 

And  to  enforce  the  law.  Section  2000a-5  (a)  allows  the  Attorney 

General  to  sue  "any  person  or  group  of  persons": 

"Whenever  the  Attorney  General  has  reasonable 
cause  to  believe  that  any  person  or  group  of 
persons  is  engaged  in  a  pattern  or  practice 
of  resistance  to  the. full  enjoyment  of  any  of 
the  rights  secured  by  this  subchapter,  and  that 
the  pattern  or  practice  is  of  such  a  nature 
and  is  intended  to  deny  the  full  exercise  of 
the  rights  herein  described,  the  Attorney 
General  may  bring  a  civil  action  requesting 
such  preventive  relief,  including  an  applica- 
tion for  a  permanent  or  temporary  injunction, 
restraining  order  or  other  order  against  the 
person  or  persons  responsible  for  such  pattern 
or  practice,  as  he  deems  necessary  to  insure 
the  full  enjoyment  of  the  rights  herein  de-  . 
scribed. "  [Emphasis  supplied. ] 

Section  2000e-6  of  Title  VII,  relating  to  equal  employment  oppor- 
tunities, tracks  the  language  of  Section  2000a-5(a) . 

This  suit  is  not  one  to  desegregate  public  facilities  under 
Title  VII  of  the  Act.   However,  Section  2000-b  is  relevant,  since 
it  demonstrates  again  the  broad  Congressional  objective  of  authorizing 
the  Attorney  General  to  sue  as  defendants  "such  parties  as  are  or 


2502  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 
become  necessary  to  the  grant  of  effective  relief".   The  defendants' 

interference  with  the  right  of  Negroes  to  use  public  facilities  in 

Bogalusa  is  relevant  to  the  cause  of  action,  for  that  interference 

was  part  of  a  pattern  and  practice  of  total  resistance  to  the  Negroes' 

exercise  of  civil  rights. 

(3)  In  sum,  in  the  Civil  Rights  Acts  of  1957  and  1964,  Congress 

recongnized  that  when  a  Negro  is  clubbed  or  coerced  for  having 

attempted  to  register  or  for  having  entered  a  "white"  restaurant, 

the  action  most  likely  to  produce  effective  relief  is  not  necessarily 

for  the  Negro  to  complain  to  the  local  police  or  to  sue  for  damages 

or  to  make  charges  under  18  USC  241,  242.   The  most  effective  relief 

for  him  and  for  all  others  affected  by  the  intimidation  may  be  an 

injunction  by  the  Nation  against  the  private  persons  responsible  for 

interfering  with  his  civil  rights. 

Effectiveness  of  remedy  is  not  the  only  reason  for  the 

Congressional  grant  of  authority  to  the  Attorney  General  of  the 

United  States.   The  Nation  has  a  responsibility  to  supply  a  meaningful 

remedy  for  a  right  it  creates  or  guarantees.   As  Justice  Story  wrote, 

in  sustaining  the  constitutionality  of  the  Fugitive  Slave  Act  of  1793: 

"If,  indeed,  the  constitution  guarantees  the  right,  and 
if  it  requires  the  delivery  [of  the  fugitive  slave]  upon 
the  claim  of  the  owner  .  .  .  ,  the  natural  inference  cer- 
tainly is,  that  the  national  government  is  clothed  with 
the  appropriate  authority  and  functions  to  enforce  it. 
The  fundamental  principle,  applicable  to  all  cases  of  this 
sort,  would  seem  to  be,  that  when  the  end  is  required,  the 
means  are  given.  .  . "  Prigg  v.  Pennsylvania,  1842,  41  U. S. 
(17  Pet.)  539,  614. 

It  is  one  thing  when  acts  are  mere  invasions  of  private  rights;  "it  is 
quite  a  different  matter  when  Congress  undertakes  to  protect  the  citi- 
zen in  the  exercise  of  rights  conferred  by  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States  essential  to  the  healthy  organization  of  the  government 
itself".   Ex  parte  Yarbrough,  1884,  110  U.S.  651,  665,  4  S.Ct.  152, 
28  L.Ed.  274.   We  turn  now  to  the  defendants'  constitutional  arguments. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2503 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

B. 

The  defendants'  constitutional  arguments  rest  on  a  mis- 
understanding of  the  constitutional  sources  for  the  Civil  Rights 

24 
Acts  of  1957  and  1964. 

(1)  The  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1957;  Protection  of  Right 
to  Vote  From  Unlawful  Interference. (aj  In  upholding  the  consti- 
tutionality of  the  voting  provisions  of  the  1957  Act^  we  need  not 

25 
consider  the  Civil  War  Amendments.   Section  1971  (b),  here  en- 
forced under  1971  (c) ,    is  limited  to  prohibiting  interference 
with  the  right  to  vote  in  elections  for  federal  office.   Article  I^ 
Section  4  of  the  Constitution  is  an  express  grant  of  authority  to 
Congress  to  regulate  federal  elections: 

"The  times,  places  and  manner  of  holding  elec- 
tions for  senators  and  representatives,  shall 
be  prescribed  in  each  State  by  the  legislature 
thereof;  but  the  Congress  may  at  any  time  by 
'    Law  make  or  alter  such  regulations,  except  as 
to  the  places  of  choosing  Senators. " 

As  the  House  Committee  pointed  out  in  its  report  on  the 
law.  United  States  v.  Classic,  1941,  313  U.S.  299,  61  S.  Ct.  1031, 
85  L.Ed.  1368,  "establishes  the  authority  in  Congress  to  legis- 
late concerning  any  and  all  elections  affecting  federal  officers, 
whether  general,  special,  or  primary,  as  long  as  they  are  ' an 
integral  part  of  the  procedure  of  choice  or  where  in  fact  the 
primary  effectively  controls  their  choice.'"   U.S. Code  Cong,  and 
Adm.  News,  85  Cong.  1957,  p.  1977.   The  Supreme  Court  said,  in 
Classic : 

"While,  in  a  loose  sense,  the  right  to  vote  for 
representatives  in  Congress  is  sometimes  spoken 
of  as  a  right  derived  from  the  states,  [cita- 
tions omitted]  this  statement  is  true  only  in  the 
sense  that  the  states  are  authorized  by  the  Con- 
stitution, to  legislate  on  the  subject  as  pro- 
vided by  §2  of  Art.  I,  to  the  extent  that 
Congress  has  not  restricted  state  action  by 
the  exercise  of  its  powers  to  regulate  elections 
under  §4  and  its  more  general  power  under  Article 
I,  §8,  clause  18  of  the  Constitution  "to  make  all 
laws  which  shall  be  necessary  and  proper  for 
carrying  into  execution  the  foregoing  powers.'" 


2504  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IN    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

(b)  Under  the  "sweeping  clause".  Article  I,  Section  8,  Clause 

18,  Congress  may  enact  all  laws  "necessary  and  proper"  to  carry 
out  any  of  its  powers,  including,  of  course,  its  power  to  regu- 
late federal  elections.   This  provision  leaves  to  Congress  the 
choice  of  the  means  to  execute  its  powers.   "Let  the  end  be 
legitimate,  let  it  be  within  the  scope  of  the  Constitution,  and 
all  means  which  are  appropriate,  which  are  plainly  adapted  to  that 
end,  which  are  not  prohibited,  but  consist  with  the  letter  and 
spirit  of  the  Constitution  are  constitutional".   McCulloch  v. 
Maryland,  1819,  4  Wheat.  316,  421. 

"There  is  little  regarding  an  election  that  is  not  in- 
cluded in  the  terms  'time,  place  and  manner  of  holding  it'". 
United  States  v.  Munford,  1833,  C.  C. ,  E.D.Va.,  16  F.  223.   The 
Supreme  Court  has  said: 

"It  cannot  be  doubted  that  these  comprehensive 
words  embrace  authority  to  provide  a  complete 
code  .for  congressional  elections,  not  only  as 
to  times  and  places,  but  in  relation  to  notices, 
registration,  supervision  of  voting,  protection 
of  voters,  prevention  of  fraud  and  corrupt  prac- 
tices, counting  of  votes,  duties  of  inspectors 
and  canvassers,  and  making  and  publication  of 
election  returns;  in  short,  to  enact  the 
numerous  requirements  as  to  procedure  and 
safeguards  which  experience  shows  are  necessary 
in  order  to  enforce  the  fundamental  right  in- 
volved. "   Smiley  v.  Holm,  1932,  285  U.S.  355, 
366,  76  L.Ed.  795. 

Two  facts  make  it  appropriate  for  Congress  to  reach  registra- 
as  part  of  the  "manner  of  holding  elections". 

tion/  First,  registering  is  a  prerequisite  to  voting.   Second, 

registration  is  a  process  for  certifying  a  citizen  as  a  qualified 

voter  in  both  federal  and  state  elections.   A  law  protecting  the 

rig'nt  to  vote  could  hardly  be  appropriate  unless  it  protected  the 

26 
right  to  register.   In  Classic  language,  registering  is  a  "neces- 
sary step"  and  "integral"  in  voting  in  "elections".   In  Classic. 
"interference  with  the  effective  choice  of  the  voters"  in  a 
Louisiana  Democratic  primary  was  interference  "at  the  only  stage 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2505 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2  — Continued 

of  the  election  procedure  when   their  choice  is  of  significance". 

Kere,  in  terns  of  a  meaningful  right  to  vote,  interference  with 

Negro  citizens'  registering  is  interference  at  the  most  critical 

It  is  true  of  course  that 
stage  of  the  election  procedure./  tne  framers  of  the  Constitution 

neither   they 
did  not  know  about  the  registration  process;  but/^hey  didAo^  have 

in  mind  the  selection  of  senators  and  representatives  by  the 

direct  primary.   In  United  States  v.  Louisianaj  E.D.La.  1963, 

on  other  grounds, 
225  F.  Supp.  353,  359,  aff'd./19S5,  380   U.S.   145      this  Court 

said: 

"Congressional  authority  [under  Article  I,  §4]  ex- 
tends to  registration,  a  phase  of  the  electoral 
process  unknown  to  the  Pounding  Fathers  but  today 
a  critical,  inseparable  part  of  the  electoral 
process  which  must  necessarily  concern  the  United 
States,  since  registration  to  vote  covers  voting 
in  federal  as  well  as  in  state  elections. 

In  United  States  v.  Manning,  W. D.La.  1963,  215  F.  Supp.  272,  one 

of  the  constitutional  attacks  on  the  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1960  was 

directed  at  the  provision  for  federal  registrars.   In  the  opinion 

upholding  the  set,  the  Court  co.isidered  it  important  that — 

"For  purposes  of  accomplishing  the  constitutional 
objective  the  electoral  process  is  indivisible. 
The  act  of  casting  a  ballot  in  a  voting  booth 
cannot  be  cut  away  from  the  rest  of  the  process. 
It  is  the  last  step  in  a  process  that  starts  with 
registration.   Similarly,  registration  is  an  in- 
divisible part  of  elections.  .  .  .  There  is  no 
separate  registration  for  federal  elections.   Any 
interference  with  the  qualified  voter's  right  to 
register  is  therefore  interference  with  a  federal 
election."   215  P.  Supp.  at  283. 

''•^>    Classic  relied  on  three  important  cases  that  construe  the 

nature  and  extent  of  the  power  of  Congress  to  regulate  federal 

elections:   Ex  parte  Siebold,  1880,  100  U.S.  371,  25  L.Ed.  717; 

Ex  parte  Yarbrough,  The  Ku  Xlux  Klan  cases,  1884,  110  U. S.  651, 

4  S.Ct.  152,  23  L.Ed.  274;  and  Burroughs  v.  United  States,  1934, 

290  U.S.  534,  54  S.Ct.  287   ,  78  L.Ed.  485.   I:i..c;u_i,  Tnese  cases 


2506  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

point  Z.O   the  principle  that  a  congressional  statute  protecting 

against  private  interference  before  the  voting  stage  is  necessary 

and  proper  legislation  under  Article  I,  Section  4,    whenever  it  is 

reasonably  related  to  "protection  of  the  integrity"  of  the  federal 

electoral  process.   Classic,  313  U. S.  at  316. 

5x  parte  Siebold  involved  a  conviction  of  state  election 

officers  for  ballot-stuffing  in  a  federal  election.   The  Court  had 

before  it  the  Snforcerr.ent  Act  from  which  Section  1971  was  derived. 

The  statute  contained  a  number  of  extensive  voting  and  registration 

regulations^  including  a  provision  for  the  appointment  of  federal 

election  supervisors.   These  supervisors  were  authorized  "to 

cause  such  names  to  be  registered  as  they  may  think  proper  to  be 

so  marked".   In  sustaining  the  validity  of  the  legislation  under 

Article  1,    Section  4,    the  Court  corrjr.ented: 

"it  is  the  duty  of  the  States  to  elect  representa- 
tives to  Congress.   The  due  and  fair  election  of 
these  reoresenta.tives  is  of  vital  importance  to 
the  United  States.    The  governrient  of  the  United 
States  is  no  less  concerned  in  the  transaction 
than  the  State  government  is.   It  certainly  is  not 


bound  to  stand  bv  as  a  passive  spectator. 

when 

duties  are  violated  and  outraceous  frauds 

are 

ccrrrnitted.   It  is  directly  interested  in  the 
faithful  performance,  by  the  officers  of  election, 
of  their  respective  duties.   Those  duties  are 
owed  as  well  to  the  United  States  as  to  the  State. " 
100  U. S.  338 

In  Yarbrouqh  the  Court  had  before  it  the  question  whether 

Congress  could  protect  civil  rights  agains;i  private  interference, 

specifically  klan  aggression  in  the  form  of  intimidation  of  voters. 

Yarbrough  and  eight  other  members  of  a  Georgia  klan  were  indicted 

for  conspiring  to  intimidate  a  Negro  in  the  exercise  of  his  right 

to  voce  for  a  congressional  representative.   It  was  shown  that 

they  used  physical  violence  and  that  they  went  in  disguise  upon 

the  public  highways.   They  were  convicted  under  the  section  of  the 

that  was 
Enforce.T.ent  Act  of  1870,  Revised  Statutes  Section  5508, /the  pre- 

also  under 
decessor  of  18  U.  S.C.  §241;  a.nd/section  5520.   These  are  the 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2507 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 
criminal  law  counterpart  to  42  U.S.C,  1971.   The  Act  forbade  two 

or  more  persons  "to  conspire  to  injure,  oppress,  threaten  or 
intimidate  any  citizen  in  the  free  exercise  or  enjoyment  of  any 
right  or  privilege  secured  to  by  the  Constitution  or  laws  of  the 
United  States"  or  to  "go  in  disguise  on  the  highway,  or  on  the 
premises  of  another,  with  intent  to  prevent  or  hinder  [such 
citizen  in]  his  free  exercise  or  enjoyment"  of  any  such  right;  or 
to  "conspire  to  prevent  by  force,  intimidation,  or  threat,  any 
citizen  who  is  lawfully  entitled  to  vote"  from  voting  for  presi- 
dential electors  or  members  of  Congress.   Justice  Miller,  in  a 
powerful  opinion  for  the  Court,  sustained  the  conviction  and  held 
the  statute  valid.   The  opinion  made  it  clear  that  the  right  to 
vote  in  federal  elections  is  a  privilege  of  national  citizenship 
derived  from  the  Constitution.   Congress  therefore  "can  by  law 
protect  the  act  of  voting,  the  place  where  it  is  done  and  the 
man  who  votes,  from  personal  violence  or  intimidation,  and  the 
election  itself  from  corruption  or  fraud. "   Nor  does  it  matter 
that  state  and  federal  offices  are  elected  in  the  same  election. 
The  congressional  powers  are  not  "annulled  because  an  election 
for  state  officers  is  held  at  the  same  time  and  place".   110 
U.S.  at  660. 

The  heart  of  the  Yarbrough  decision  is  the  Court's  emphasis 
on  the  transcendent  interest  of  the  federal  government.   The 

violence  and  intimidation  to  which  the  Negro  was  subjected  were 

they 
important  because/ite  alloyed  the  purity  of  the  federal  political 

process.   The  federal  government  "must  have  the  power  to  protect 

the  elections  on  which  its  existence  depends  from  violence  and 

corruption".   110  U.S.  at  658.   This  implied  power  arises  out  of 

governmental  necessity.   The  Court  said: 


2508  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IX    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

"The  power  in  either  case  arises  out  of  the  cir- 
cumstance that  the  function  in  which  the  party  is 
engaged  or  the  right  which  he  is  about  to  exer- 
cise is  dependent  on  the  laws  of  the  United  States. 

"In  both  cases  it  is  the  duty  of  that  government 
to  see  that  he  may  exercise  this  right  freely  and 
to  protect  him  from  violence  while  so  doing  or 
on  account  of  so  doing.   This  duty  does  not  arise 
solely  from  the  interest  of  the  party  concerned, 
but  from  the  necessity  of  the  government  itself, 
that  its  service  shall  be  free  from  the  adverse 
influence  or  force  and  fraud  practiced  on  its 
agentSj  and  that  the  votes  by  which  its  members 
of  Congress  and  its  President  are  elected  shall 
be  the  free  votes  of  the  electors,  and  the  officers 
thus  chosen  the  free  and  uncorrupted  choice  of 
those  who  have  the  right  to  take  part  in  that 
choice. " 

Since  it  is  the  purity  of  the  federal  political  process  that  must 
be  protected,  the  protection  may  be  extended  against  interference 
with  any  activity  having  a  ratiaialrelationship  with  the  federal 
political  process.   Thus,  the  "rationale  of  Yarbrough  indicates 
congressional  power  over  voting,  though  limited  to  federal  elec- 
tions, extends  to  voter  registration  activities",  including 

registration  rallies,  voter  education  classes,  and  other  activities 

28 
intended  to  encourage  registration. 

Burroughs  is  one  of  a  number  of  cases  dealing  with  corrupt 

election  practices  which  go  far  beyond  the  act  of  voting  in  an 

election.        Thearfi^tfM  operate  on  the  campaigning   stage  rather  than 

the  voting  stage  and  apply  to  private  persons  having  no  part  in  the 

election  machinery.   In  Burroughs  the  contention  was  made  that 

under  Article  II,  Section  1  the  states  control  the  manner  of 

appointing  presidential  electors;  Congress  is  limited  to  prescribing 

the  time  of  choosing  electors  and  the  day  on  which  they  cast  their 

votes.   In  upholding  the  validity  of  the  Federal  Corrupt  Practices 

Act  of  1925,  the  Court,  relying  on  Yarbrough.  said: 

"While  presidential  electors  are  not  officers  or 
agents  of  the  federal  government  .  .  . ,  they 
exercise  federal  functions  under,  and  discharge 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2509 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2  — Continued 

duties  in  virtue  of  authority  conferred  by,  the 
Constitution  of  the  United  States.   The  presi- 
dent is  vested  with  the  executive  power  of  the 
nation.   The  importance  of  his  election  and  the 
vital  character  of  its  relationship  to  and  ef- 
fect upon  the  welfare  and  safety  of  the  whole 
people  cannot  be  too  strongly  stated.   To  say 
that  Congress  is  without  power  to  pass  ap- 
propriate legislation  to  safeguard  such  an 
election  from  the  improper  use  of  money  to 
influence  the  result  is  to  deny  to  the  nation 
in  a  vital  particular  the  power  of  self-protec- 
tion.  Congress  undoubtedly,  possesses  that 
power,  as  it  possesses  every  other  power  es- 
sential to  preserve  the  departments  and  institu- 
tions of  the  general  government  from  impairment 
or  destruction,  whether  threatened  by  force  or 
by  corruption."   110  U.S.  at  545 

The  states '  power  over  the  manner  of  appointing  presidential 
electors  is  similar  to  the  states  reserved  power  to  establish 
voting  qualifications.   Notwithstanding  this  unquestioned  power 
in  the  states,  "Burroughs  holds  that  'Congress'  has  the  implied 
power  to  protect  the  integrity  of  the  processes  of  popular  election 
of  presidential  electors  once  that  mode  of  selection  has  been 
chosen  by  the  state. "   There  is  an  obvious  parallel  between  cor- 
ruption of  the  federal  electoral  process  by  the  use  of  money  and 
corruption  of  the  same  process  by  acts  of  violence  and  intimidation 
that  prevent  voters  from  getting  on  the  registration  rolls  or, 
indeed,  from  ever  reaching  the  registration  office. 

Classic  involved  federal  indictments  against  state  election 
commissioners  for  falsely  counting  ballots  in  a  Democratic  party 
primary.   The  Court  held  that  under  Article  I,  Section  4  and  the 
necessary  and  proper  clause,  Congress  had  the  implied  power  to 
regulate  party  primaries.   The  "interference  [was]  with  the  effec- 
tive choice  of  voters  at  the  only  stage  when  their  choice  is  of 
significance.  .  .  .  The  primary  in  Louisiana  is  an  integral  part 
of  the  procedure  for  the  popular  choice  of  Congressmen".   The  right 
to  choose  is  a  right  "secured  by  the  Constitution".  313  U.S.  at  314. 


2510  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IX    THE    TJ.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2  — Continued 
Moreover,    "since  the  constitutional   command   is  without   restriction  or 

limitation,  the  right,  unlike  those  guaranteed  by  the  Fourteenth  and  Fif- 
teenth Amendments,  is  secured  against  the  action  of  individuals  as  well  as 
of  states.  "   lb,  at  315  Mr.  Justice  Stone,  for  the  Court,  spelled  out  the 
rationale: 

"The  right  to  participate  in  the  choice  of  representatives 
for  Congress  ...  is  protected  just  as  the  right  to  vote 
at  the  election,  where  the  primary  is  by  law  made  an  in- 
tegral part  of  the  election  machinery.  .  .  .  Unless  the 
.constitutional  protection  of  the  integrity  of  'elections' 
extends  to  primary  elections.  Congress  is  left  powerless 
to  effect  the  constitutional  purpose.  .  ."  313  U.S.  at  318,  319. 

The  innumerable  cases  in  this  Circuit  involving  civil  rights 
speak  eloquently  against  the  use  of  economic  coercion,  intimidation,  and 
violence  to  inhibit  Negroes  from  applying  for  registration.   This  inter- 
ference with  nationally  guaranteed  rights,  whether  by  public  officials 
or  private  persons  corrupts  the  purity  of  the  political  process  on  which 
the  existence  and  health  of  the  National  Government  depend.   No  one  has 

expressed  this  better  than  Judge  Rives  in  United  States  v.  Wood,  5  Cir. 

29 
1961,  295  F.2d  772;  cert,  denied  369  U.S.  850(1962).    In  Wood  the  inter- 
organizer 
ference  was  in  the  form  of  groundless  prosecution  of  a  Negro/who  had  set 

up  a  registration  school  in  Walthall  County,  Mississippi,  where  no  Negroes 

had  ever  registered.   He  was  not  even  qualified  to  vote  in  the  county 

where  the  intimidatory  acts  occurred;  he  was  a  resident  of  another  county. 

In  reversing  the  district  judge's  refusal  to  stay  the  state  prosecution, 

the  Fifth  Circuit  noted  that  the  alleged  coercion  was  of  the  kind  the 

1957  Act  was  intended  to  reach.   Judge  Rives,  for  the  Court,  said: 

"The  foundation  of  our  form  of  government  is  the  consent 
of  the  governed.   Whenever  any  person  interferes  with  the 
right  of  any  other  person  to  vote  or  to  vote  as  he  may 
choose,  he  acts  like  a  political  termite  to  destroy  a  part 
of  that  foundation.   A  single  termite  or  many  termites  may 
pass  unnoticed,  but  each  damages  the  foundation,  and  if 
that  process  is  allowed  to  continue  the  whole  structure 
may  crumble  and  fall  even  before  the  occupants  become 
aware  of  their  peril.   Eradication  of  political  termites, 
or  at  least  checking  their  activities,  is  necessary  to 
prevent  irreparable  damage  to  our  Government. " 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IX    THE    U.S.  2511 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2  — Continued 

We  hold  that  the  defendants'  acts  of  economic  coercion,  intimi- 
dation, and  violence  directed  at  Negro  citizens  in  Washington  Parish 
for  the  purpose  of  deterring  their  registering  to  vote  strike  at  the 
integrity  of  the  federal  political  process.   The  right  to  vote  in 
federal  elections,  a  privilege  of  national  citizenship  secured  by  the 
United  States  Constitution,  includes  the  right  to  register  to  vote. 
The  right  to  register  to  vote  includes  the  right  to  be  free  from 
public  or  private  interference  with  activities  rationally  related  to 
registering  and  to  encouraging  others  to  register. 

(2)  The  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1964;   Public  Accommodation. 
The  Supreme  Court  has  upheld  the  constitutionality  of  Title  II  as  it 
applies  to  motels  and  restaurants.   Atlanta  Motel  v.  United  States, 
1964,  379  U.S.  241,  85  S.  Ct.  348,  13  L.Ed.  2d  258;  Katzenbach  v. 
McClung,  1964,  379  U.S.  294,  85  S.  Ct.  377,  13  L.Ed.  2d  290. 

The  defendants  are  left,  therefore,  only  with  the  contention 
that  the  Act,  for  reasons  not  articulated,  should  not  reach  private 
persons. 

The  defendants  are  really  arguing  against  the  judgment  of 
Congress  in  selecting  injunctive  relief  against  private  persons  as 
one  method  of  enforcing  congressional  policy.   Once  it  is  conceded 
that  Congress  has  the  power,  under  the  commerce  clause,  to  forbid 
discrimination  in  public  places,  there  is  little  doubt  that  injunctive 
relief  against  any  person  seeking  to  frustrate  the  statutory  objective 
is  appropriate. 

In  this  Circuit,  relying  on  In  re  Debs,  1895,  158  U.S.  564, 
15  S.  Ct.  900,  39  L.  Ed.  1092,  the  courts  have  held  that  when 
private  persons  burden  commerce  to  the  detriment  of  the  national 
interest,  the  Nation  may  enjoin  such  persons  even  without  enabling 
legislation.     On  two  occasions  courts  have  issued 


2512  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IX'    THE    U.S. 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2  — Continued 
injunctions   against  klans   and  klansraen  engaged  in  intimidation  and 

violence  burdening  commerce.   United  States  v.  U.S.  Klans,  M.D.Ala. 

1961,  194  F.  Supp.  897;  Plummer  v.  Brock,  M.D.Fla.  1964,  9  R. Rel.L. 

Rep.  1399.   See  also  United  States  v.  City  of  Jackson,  5  Cir.  1963, 

318  F.2d.  1. 

(3)  The  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1964;   Equal  Employment  Oppor- 
tunities.   Title  VII,  like  Title  II,  is  based  upon  the  comrr^erce 

clause.   The  term  "industry  affecting  commerce"  used  in  Title  VII 
parallels  the  definition  of  "industry  affecting  commerce"  in  the 
LMRDA  (29  U. S.C.  402  (c)).   This  in  turn  incorporates  the  definition 
of  "affecting  commerce"  in  the  NLRA  (29  U.S.C.  152  (7)).   The 
National  Labor  Relations  Act  represents  an  exercise  of  congressional 
regulatory  power  to  "the  fullest  jurisdictional  breadth  constitu- 
tionally permissible  under  the  Commerce  Clause, "  NLRB  v.  Reliance 
Fuel  Corp.,  1963,  371  U.S.  224,  226;  Polish  National  Alliance  v. 
NLRB,  1944,  322  U.S.  643,  647,  a  conclusion  equally  applicable  to 
Title  VII, 

The  sweeping  regulations  in  the  NLRA  and  LMRDA  covering  the 
terms,  conditions,  and  policies  of  hiring  and  bargaining  do  not 
differ  in  any  essential  respect  from  this  legislation  prohibiting 
discrimination  in  hiring  practices  and  on  the  job  assignments.   The 
employer- employee  relationship  has,  of  course,  direct  effect  upon 
the  production  of  industries  which  are  in  commerce  and  upon  the 
practical  utilization  of  the  labor  force  and  the  power  of  Congress 
to  regulate  these  activities  cannot  be  doubted.   NLRB  v.  Jones  & 
Laughlin  Steel  Corp.,  1936,  301  U.S.  1;  NLRB  v.  Fainblatt,  1939, 
306  U.S.  601,  606;  Mabee  v.  White  Plains  Publishing  Co.,  1946,  327 
U.S.  178. 

Defendants  admit  that  they  beat  and  threatened  Negro  pickets 
to  prevent  them  from  enjoying  the  righ^^equal  employment  opportunity. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IX    THE    U.S.  2513 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 
The  effect  of  course  is  to  prevent  Negroes  from  gaining  free  access 

to  potential  employers.   Such  acts  not  only  deter  Negroes  but 

intimidate  employers  who  might  otherwise  wish  to  comply  with  the 

law  but  fear  retaliation  and  economic  loss.   This  is  precisely  what 

the  klan's  Boycott  Rules  are  designed  to  do. 

*   *   * 

The  United  States  has  alleged,  the  defendants  have  admitted, 
and  the  proof  has  shown  that  the  defendants  have  intimidated, 
harassed,  and  in  other  ways  interfered  with  the  civil  rights  of 
Negroes  secured  by  the  Constitution.   The  admission  and  proof 
show  a  pattern  and  practice  of  interference. 

Protection  against  the  acts  of  terror  and  intimidation 
committed  by  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  and  the 
individual  defendants  can  be  halted  only  by  a  broad  injunctive 
decree  along  the  lines  of  the  order  suggested  by  the  United  States. 
The  Court  will  promptly  issue  an  appropriate  order. 


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2514  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IX    THE    U.S. 


Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

United  States  of  America  v.  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan,  et  als. 

Civil  Action  No.  15793 

FOOTNOTES 

*  Although  this  order  is  cast  in  the  form  of  an  opinion,  it  re- 
presents the  Court's  findings  of  fact  and  conclusions  of  law. 

1.  Counsel  for  the  individual  defendants  take  the  position  that  the 
defendant  klan  does  not  exist.   The  proof  shows  that  the  klan  con- 
tinues to  exist  and  to  function  as  a  klan  in  the  benign  name  of  the 
"Anti -Communist  Christian  Association".   See  Section  II,  A  of  this 
opinion. 

2.  Report  of  the  Joint  Select  Committee  to  Inquire  into  the  Condi- 
tion of  Affairs  in  the  Late  Insurrectionary  States  (Wash.  1872) , 

p.  28.  (Majority  Report.) 

3.  Testimony  of  General  Forrest  before  the  Joint  Select  Committee. 
Note  2,    p.  6-14,  449-51. 

4.  In  January  1869  General  Forrest  issued  an  order  to  disband  which 
began  "Whereas,  the  order  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  is  in  some  localities 
being  perverted  from  its  original  honorable  and  patriotic  purposes.  .  .  ' 
Davis,  Authentic  History:   Ku  Klux  Klan,  125-28,  (N."  Y.  1928); 
Carter,  The  Angry  Scar,  216  (N.  Y.  1959). 

5.  "There  is  no  doubt  about  the  fact  that  great  outrages  were 
committed  by  bands  of  disguised  men  during  those  years  of  lawlessness 
and  oppression.   The  natural  tendency  of  all  such  organizations  is 

to  violence  and  crime;  hence  it  was  that  General  Forrest  and  other 
men  of  influence  in  the  state,  by  the  influence  of  their  moral  power, 
induced  them  to  disband. "   Report  of  the  Joint  Select  Committee, 
Note  2,  p.  463.  (Minority  Report.) 

6.  In  United  States  v.  Raines,  1959,  362  U.S.  17,  27,  80  S.  Ct.  519, 
4  L.Ed.  524  upholding  the  constitutionality  of  the  Civil  Rights  Act 
of  1957  in  a  suit  on  behalf  of  private  persons  against  public  offi- 
cials, the  Court  said:   "It  is  urged  that  it  is  beyond  the  power  of 
Congress  to  authorize  the  United  States  to  bring  this  action  in  sup- 
port of  private  constitutional  rights.   But  there  is  the  highest 
public  interest  in  the  due  observance  of  all  the  constitutional 
guarantees,  including  those  that  bear  the  most  directly  on  private 
rights,  and  we  think  it  perfectly  competent  for  Congress  to  authorize 
the  United  States  to  be  guardian  of  that  public  interest  in  a  suit 
for  injunctive  relief. " 

7.  The  parishes  of  Washington,  Tangipahoa,  St.  Tammany,  St.  Helena, 
Livingston,  Ascension,  East  Feliciana,  West  Feliciana,  East  Baton 
Rouge,  West  Baton  Rouge,  Pointe  Coupee,  and  Iberville. 

8.  Aff d.  sub.  nom.  United  States  v.  Thomas  1962,  362  U.S.  58 
S.Ct.        L.Ed. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2515 


Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

9.  On  two  occasions,  the  Court  found  it  necessary  to  warn  the 
witnesses  of  the  penalty  for  perjury.   The  Court  recessed  the  hearing 
to  allow  time  for  the  witnesses  to  refresh  their  recollection,  and  to 
find,  if  possible,  any  membership  lists.   On  one  occasion,  a  witness 
pleaded  the  5th  Amendment  when,  in  a  colloquy  with  the  Court,  it  was 
apparent  that  he  was  afraid  of  klan  reprisal  for  testifying  as  to 
klan  records;  he  withdrew  his  plea  of  privilege  and  testified. 

10.  Romans,  Chap.  II,  v.  10-11. 

11.  See  United  States  v.  Cruikshank,  1875,  92  U.S.  542,  23  L.Ed.  588; 
Slaughter-House  Cases,  1873,  16  Wall  36,  21  L.Ed.  394. 

12.  In  1894  Congress  repealed  most  of  the  provisions  dealing  with 
federal  supervision  of  elections.   Two  general  provisions  for 
criminal  sanctions  were  left  standing:   42  U.S.C.  §241  (originally 
Section  6  of  the  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1870,  later  Section  5508  of 

the  Revised  Statutes)  providing  criminal  sanctions  against  conspiracies 
to  deprive  any  citizen  of  any  right  secured  by  the  Constitution  and 
laws  of  the  United  States;  and  42  U.S.C.  §242  (originally  Section  2 
of  the  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1866,  later  Section  5510  of  the  Revised 
Statutes  (1873),  as  amended  in  1909,  35  Stat.  1092  by  adding  the 
word  "wilfully")  providing  criminal  sanctions  against  the  deprivation 
of  constitutional  rights,  privileges,  and  immunities  under  color  of 
state  law.   See  United  States  v.  Williams,  1951,  341  U. S.  70, 
71  S.Ct.  581,  95  L.Ed.  758  restricting  Section  241  to  those  cases 
in  which  the  right  allegedly  violated  is  an  incident  to  national 
citizenship.   See  also  Screws  v.  United  States,  1945,  325  U.S.  91, 
65  S.Ct.  1031,  89  L.Ed.  1495  construing  Section  242  as  requiring 
specific  intent  to  deprive  a  person  of  the  right  made  specific  by 
the  Constitution  or  laws  of  the  United  States.  ,  Sections  241  and  242 
are  now  before  the  Supreme  Court  again.   United  States  v.  Price, 
Nos.  59,  60,  October  Term,  1965;  United  States  v.  Quest,  No.  65, 
October  Term,  1965. 

13.  See  Civil  Rights  Cases,  1883,  109  U.S.  3,  3  S.Ct.  18,  27  L.Ed. 
835;  United  States  v.  Reese,  1876,  92  U.S.  214,  23  L.Ed.  478. 

14.  Hence  the  compromise  affecting  jury  trials  in  the  1957  Act: 
criminal  contempt  cases  arising  under  the  act  may  be  tried  by 
district  courts  without  juries,  except  where  a  person  convicted  is 
fined  more  than  $300  or  imprisoned  for  more  than  6  months.  71  Stai. 
638  (1957),  42  U.S.C.  1995. 

15.  President  Truman's  Committee  on  Civil  Rights  submitted  equally 
broad  recommendations.   See  Report,  To  Secure  These  Rights,  151-161 

(1947) . 

16.  In  a  hearing  before  the  House  Judiciary  Committee  on  the  Civil 
Rights  Bill,  Attorney  General  Herbert  Brownell  explicitly  explained 
the  purposes  and  scope  of  the  proposed  amendments  to  Section  1971 
of  Title  42: 

"The  most  obvious  one  of  these  defects  in  the  law  is 
that  it  does  not  protect  the  voters  in  Federal  elec- 
tions from  unlawful  interference  with  their  voting 
rights  by  private  persons — in  other  words,  1971  ap- 
plies only  to  those  who  act  'under  color  of  law' 


2516  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IX    THE    U.S. 


Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

which  means  public  officials,  and  the  activities 
of  private  persons  and  organizations  designed  to 
disenfranchise  voters  in  Federal  or  State  elec- 
tions on  account  of  race  or  color  are  not  covered 
by  the  present  provisions  of  1971.   And  so  we 
say  that  the  statute  fails  to  afford  the  voters 
full  protection  from  discrimination  which  was 
contemplated  by  the  Constitution,  especially  the 
14th  and  15th  amendments. 

"Also  this  section  1971  is  defective  in  another  re- 
spect, because  it  fails  to  lodge  in  the  Department 
of  Justice  and  the  Attorney  General  any  authority 
to  invoke  civil  remedies  for  the  enforcement  of 
voting  rights.   And  it  is  particularly  lacking  in 
any  provision  which  would  authorize  the  Attorney 
General  to  apply  to  the  courts  for  preventive 
relief  against  the  violation  of  these  voting  rights. 

"And  we  think  that  this  is  also  a  major  defect.   The 
ultimate  goal  of  the  Constitution  and  the  Congress  is 
the  safeguarding  of  the  free  exercise  of  the  voting 
right,  acknowledging  of  course,  the  legitim.ate  power 
of  the  State  to  prescribe  necessary  and  fair  voting 
qualifications.   And  we  believe  that  civil  proceed- 
ings by  the  Attorney  General  to  stop  any  illegal 
interference  and  denial  of  the  right  to  vote  would 
be  far  more  effective  in  achieving  this  goal  than 
the  private  suits  for  damages  which  are  presently 
authorized  by  the  statute,  and  far  more  effective 
than  the  criminal-  proceedings  which  are  authorized 
under  other  laws  which,  of  course,  can  never  be  used 
until  after  the  harm  has  been  actually  done. 

"No  preventive  measures  can  be  brought  under  the 
criminal  statutes.   So  I  think — and  I  believe  you 
will  agree  with  me — that  Congress  should  now 
recognize  that  in  order  to  properly  execute  the 
Constitution  and  its  amendments,  and  in  order  to  per- 
fect the  intended  application  of  the  statute,  section 
1971  of  title  42,  United  States  Code,  should  be 
amended  in  three  respects: 

"First,  by  the  addition  of  a  section  which  will  pre- 
vent anyone,  whether  acting  under  color  of  law  or 
not,  from  threatening,  intimidating  or  coercing  an 
individual  in  his  right  to  vote  in  any  election, 
general,  special,  or  primary,  concerning  candidates 
for  Federal  office. 

"And  second,  to  authorize  the  Attorney  General  to 
bring  civil  proceedings  on  behalf  of  the  United 
States  or  any  aggrieved  person  for  preventive  or 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IX    THE    U.S.  2517 


Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

other  civil  relief  in  any  case  covered  by  the 
statute. 

"And  third,  an  express  provision  that  all  State 
administrative  and  judicial  remedies  need  not  be 
first  exhausted  before  resort  to  the  Federal 
courts. "   [Hearings  before  Subcommittee  No.  5  of 
the  Committee  on  the  Judiciary,  85th  Cong.  1st 
Sess.,  p.  570  (1957)] 

17.  Section  1971(a)  derived  from  the  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1870,  de- 
fined voting  rights  as  follows: 

"(a)  All  citizens  of  the  United  States  who  are  other- 
wise qualified  by  law  to  vote  at  any  election  by 
the  people  in  any  State,  Territory,  district,  county, 
city,  perish,  township,  school  district,  municipality, 
or  other  territorial  subdivision,  shall  be  entitled  and 
allowed  to  vote  at  all  such  elections,  without  dis- 
tinction of  race,  color,  or  previous  condition  of 
servitude;  any  constitution,  law,  custom,  usage,  or 
regulation  of  any  State  or  Territory,  or  by  or  under 
its  authority,  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding". 

18.  See  Section  III,  B, (l),(b)  of  opinion. 

19.  See  Key,  Southern  Politics  555(1949) ;  Civil  Rights  Commission 
Report  133-38(1961)  . 

20.  In  a  note,  Beatty. Private  Economic  Coercion  and  the  Civil  Rights 
Act  of  1957,  71  Yale  L.  Jour.  536,  543(1962),  the  author  points  out: 

"The  Circuit  Court's  construction  of  the  1957  act  to 
apply  to  economic  coercion  in  general  and  to  economic 
coercion  involving  contract  and  property  rights  in 
particular  seem.s  correct.   In  requesting  legislation 
to  protect  voting  rights.  President  Eisenhov/er  noted: 
'It  is  disturbing  that  in  som.e  localities  allegations 
persist  that  Negro  citizens  are  being  deprived  of 
their  right  to  vote  and  are  likewise  being  subjected 
to  unwarranted  economic  pressures. '   Senator  Douglas, 
a  sponsor  of  the  bill,  asserted  that  the  legislation 
was  directed  at  denials  of  voting  rights  'by  economic 
pressure'  as  well  as  by  other  m.eans.   And  Representa- 
tive Celler,  a  House  sponsor,  indicated  that  if  'the 
milk  dealer,  the  coal  dealer,  the  butcher,  the  baker 
and  the  candlestick  maker  .  .  .agree  .  .  . to  boycott' 
persons  who  try  to  vote,  the  agreement  would  violate 
the  proposed  law. " 

21.  The  Attorney  General  brought  a  similar  suit  to  enjoin  "intimi- 
dation, threat,  and  coercion"  in  Fayette  County.   United  States  v. 
Atkinson,  et  als,  Civ.Ac.  4121,  6  R.  Rel.  L.  Rep.  200(1962).   See 
Mendelson,  Discrimination  (Pren.Hall  1962)  21.   And  see  United  States 
V.  Ellis,  W.D.S.C.  1942,  43  F.  .Supp.  321,  324. 


2518 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAX    IX    THE    U.S. 


Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 


22.  The  Sixth  Circuit  said: 

"If  sharecropper- tenants  in  possession  of  real  estate 
under  contract  are  threatened,  intimidated  or  coerced 
by  the  landlords  for  the  purpose  of  interfering  with 
their  rights  of  franchise,  certainly  the  fact  that 
the  coercion  relates  to  land  or  contracts  would  furnish 
no  excuse  or  defense  to  the  landlord  for  violating  the 
law. "   288  F.  2d  653,  656. 

23.  Judge  Tuttle  added: 

"Thus,  although  the  defendants  here  may  have  had  an 
almost  restricted  right  to  invoke  the  Alabama  tres- 
pass law  to  keep  all  persons  from  entering  upon  their 
property  after  warning,  in  the  exercise  of  a  desire 
to  exercise  exclusive  ownership  and  proprietary 
interest  in  their  property,  they  could  not  legally 
invoke  the  right  of  excluding  Lonnie  Brown,  who 
had  previously  been  given  free  access  to  the 
property,  as  a  threat  or  means  of  coercion  for  the 
purpose  of  interferincr  with  his  right  or  the  right 
of  others  whom  he  represented  in  exercising  their 
right  to  register  and  vote. " 


24.  The  Supreme  Court  has  affirmed  the  constitutionality  of  various 
provisions  of  the  1957  Act  on  other  grounds  than  those  at  issue  here. 
United  States  v.  Thomas,  1960,  362  U.S.  58,  80  S.Ct.  512,  4  L.Ed. 

2d  535;  United  States  v.  Raines,  1960,  362  U.S.  17,  80  S.Ct.  519, 

4  L.Ed.  2d  524;  Hannah  v.  Larche,  1960,  363  U.S.  420,  80  S.Ct.  1502, 

4  L.Ed.  2d  1307. 

25.  Although  a  statute  that  is  "necessary  and  proper"  legislation 
to  carry  out  the  power  of  Congress  to  regulate  elections  for  federal 
office  may  also  be  "appropriate  legislation"  to  "enforce"  the  pro- 
visions of  the  15th,  14th,  and  13th  amendments.   The  predecessor  of 
Section  1971(a)  withstood  attack  on  constitutional  grounds.   In  re 
Engle,  8  Fed.  Cas. C. C.D.Kd.  1877,  716,  No.  4,438.   It  was  held  to  be 
a  valid  exercise  of  congressional  power  under  the  15th  Amendment. 
Chapman  v.  King,  5  Cir.  1946,  154  F. 2d  460,  cert. denied,  327  U.S.  SCO; 
Xellogg  v.  Warmouth,  C.C.D.La.  1872,  14  Fed. Cas.  257,  >To.  7,657. 

The  Voting  Rights  Act  of  1965  rests,  in  part,  on  Section  2  of 
the  15th  Amendment. 

26.  "An  abundance  of  judicial  dicta  and  holdings  in  analogous  situa- 
tions make  clear  that  the  federal  power  to  regulate  elections  extends 
equally  to  the  registration  process.   Any  matter  affecting  the 
character  or  choice  of  the  federal  electorate  is  so  integrally  related 
to  the  election  ultimately  held  as  to  come  within  the  'holding'  of 
the  election  under  article  I,  section  4. "   Van  Alstyne,  Anti-literacy 
Test  Legislation,  51  Kich.  L.  Rev.  805,  815(1963). 


1 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KV    KLUX    KLAX    IX    THE    U.S.  2519 

Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 

28.  Corrjnent,  Federal  Civil  Action  Against  Private  Individuals 

for  Crimes  Involving  Civil  Rights.  74  Yale  L.Jour.  1462.  1470(1965). 
And  see  Maggs  and  '■Jallace,  Congress  and  Literacy  Tests,  27  Dv.rce  L.  & 
Cont.Prob.  510,  517-521(1962). 

29.  In  that  case  Hardy.^JSTegro  resident  of  Tennessee,  a  nerfoer  of  the 
"Student  Non-Violent  Coordinating  Coir^ittee",  was  in  Walthall  Cou.nty, 
Mississippi  for  the  purpose  of  organizing  Negroes  of  that  county  to 
register  and  vote.   Flardy  engaged  in  an  arg'oiiTent  wit?n  the  registrar. 
The  registrar  ordered  him  to  leave  the  office.   As  he  got  to  the 
door,  the  registrar  struck  hir.  on  the  back  of  the  head,  v.'ith  a  re- 
volver.  Hardy  wa?  arrested  and  charged  with  a  breach  of  the  peace. 
The  Court  hurdled  (1)  the  fact  that  Kardy  was  not  eligible  to  register 
and  therefore  his  right  to  vote  was  not  interfered  with;  (2)  the 
appeal  was  from  a  denial  of  a  request  for  a  tem.porary  restraining 
order,  generally  an  unappealebile  order  under  28  U.S.C.  1291,  1292; 

(3)  the  prosecution  was  a  state  criminal  court  proceeding,  protected 
by  the  doctrine  of  comity  and  Section  2283  severely  restrictinc 
federal  injunctions  of  state  proceedings. 

30.  The  Court  finds  that  on  the  admissions  and.  on  the  evidence 
adduced  at  the  hearing,  a  preliminary  injunction  should  not  issue 
against  Charles  Ray  Williams,  Louis  Applewhite,  and  Willis  Blackwell. 
The  Court  does  not  enter  a  judgment  of  dismissal  as  to  these  defendants, 
because  the  United  States  expressly  reserved  the  right  to  introduce 
additional  evidence  at  the  hearing  for  permanent  relief,  as  to  these 
and  other  defendants.   At  the  time  of  the  hearing,  Blackv/ell  had  not 
been  correctly  served.   We  find  that  Jair.es  Ellis,  Sidney  August 
Warner,  and  Albert  Applewhite  are  members  of  the  klan — ACCA  o,r,were.  . 
members  until  recently,  and  the.refore  should  be  enjoined.   The^;request 
for  dismissal  of  the  action  as  to  these  named  defendants  and  their 
request  for  attorneys  fees  are  denied. 


59-222  O  -  67  -  pt.  3  -  13 


ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLUX  KLAN  ORGANIZATIONS 

IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 

Part  3 


THURSDAY,  JANUARY  6,  1966 

United  States  House  of  Representatives, 

Subcommittee  of  the 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 

Washington^  D.G. 
public  hearings 

The  subcommittee  met,  pursuant  to  recess,  at  10:31  a.m.  in  the 
Caucus  Eoom,  Cannon  House  Office  Building,  Washington,  D.C.,  Hon. 
Edwin  E.  Willis  (chairman)  presiding. 

(Subcommittee  members:  Representatives  Edwin  E.  Willis,  of  Lou- 
isiana, chairman;  Joe  R.  Pool,  of  Texas;  Charles  L.  Weltner,  of 
Georgia;  John  M.  Ashbrook,  of  Ohio;  and  John  H.  Buchanan,  Jr., 
of  Alabama.) 

Subcommittee  members  present :  Representatives  Willis,  Pool,  Welt- 
ner, and  Buchanan. 

Staff  members  present:  Francis  J.  McNamara,  director;  William 
Hitz,  general  counsel;  Alfred  M.  Nittle,  counsel;  Donald  T.  Appell, 
chief  investigator;  and  Philip  R.  Manuel,  investigator. 

The  Chairman.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order.  The  Chair 
wants  to  acknowledge  the  presence  in  the  hearing  room  of  the  Hon. 
Belgrano  Rosson;  Mr.  Belgrano  Rosson  is  president  of  the  Committee 
on  Constitutional  Affairs  of  the  Chamber  of  Deputies  of  Argentina. 

With  him  in  the  audience  is  his  charming  wife,  Mrs.  Belgrano 
Rosson,  and  Mr.  Caulus  F.  Soto,  an  interpreter  for  the  Department 
of  State. 

We  acknowledge  your  presence  and  appreciate  your  attendance. 

We  hope  you  can  follow  some  of  the  proceedings,  anyway.  I  under- 
stand you  have  an  interpreter  with  you. 

Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  call  Russell  E.  Magee. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand,  sir. 

Do  you  solmenly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give 
will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing^ but  the  truth,  so  help 
you  God? 

Mr.  Magee.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  RUSSELL  E.  MAGEE,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL  S.  INGRAM 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Magee,  will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record  'I 
Mr.  Magee.  Russell  E.  Magee. 

2521 


2522  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    "U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Mao;ee,  I  suegjest  that  you  pull  the  microphone  a 
little  closer.     It  is  difRciilt  to  hear  you. 

Mr.  Magee.  Russell  E.  Magee. 

Mr.  Appell.  "When  and  where  were  you  lx)rn  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  "Washington  Parish,  April  19, 1924. 

The  Chairman.  What  town  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  Franklinton.     It  is  in  a  rural  area. 

The  Chairman.  I  know  the  town  and  the  surrounding  area. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Ingram.  Michael  S.  Ingram,  Baton  Rouge,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Magee,  are  you  appearing  here  this  morning  in  ac- 
cordance with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  set  forth  for  the  record  your  educational 
background  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  that  it  might  incriminate  me;  on  the  further  grounds  that  it 
would  violate  my  rights  under  the  1st,  4th,  5th,  and  14th  amendments 
of  the  Constitution  of  the  ITnited  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  Mr.  Magee,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  are  the  recipient  of  a  master's  degree 
from  the  University  of  Southern  Mississippi,  Hattiesburg,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Magee.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  set  forth  for  the  record  your  employment 
background  ? 

Mr.  Magee,  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Magee,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  are  formerly  the  vice  principal  and 
basketball  coach  of  Thomas,  Louisiana,  School  and  that  you  now 
hold  a  supervisory  position  with  tlie  local  school  board. 

Mr.  Magee.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  hereto- 
fore stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Counsel,  is  there  any  information  there  on  what  the  Fed- 
eral participation  is  there  at  this  school  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  That  is  information  wliich  we  do  not  possess  in  full. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Magee,  you  have  a  master's  degree,  and  there- 
fore you  are  fully  capable  of  understanding  the  purposes,  objectives, 
and  programs  of  any  organization  to  which  you  might  belong. 

In  light  of  that  I  shall  ask  you  for  enlightenment  later  on,  after 
certain  identifications  will  be  made. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Magee,  I  hand  you  copy  of  a  constitution  of  the 
Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klau  of  Louisiana.  I  ask  you  if,  as 
a  member  of  that  organization,  you  operated  under  those  constitu- 
tional laws? 

Mr.  Magee.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  hereto- 
fore stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  2.") 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2523 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Majfjee,  this  constitution  provides  that  in  eacli 
Klavern  there  shall  be  appointed  a  klokan,  and  under  the  klokan 
there  shall  be  appointed  in  secret  a  wrecking;  cre-sv.  What  knowledge 
do  you  possess  of  the  existence  and  the  purpose  of  a  wrecking:  creAV  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  hereto- 
fore stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answ^er  questions,  I  now  present  to 
this  committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Magee : 

Member  of  the  Franklinton,  Louisiana,  unit  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  in  1963,  when  the  organization  was  known  as  the 
Louisiana  Rifle  Association  and  was  under  the  leadership  of  J.  D. 
Swenson  and  Royal  V.  Young. 

In  April  of  1964  he  arranged  bond  for  two  Klansmen  who  were  ar- 
rested for  assaulting  an  officer  and  resisting  arrest  in  Franklinton, 
Louisiana. 

In  June  and  July,  1964  he  received  the  sum  of  $777.01  by  checks 
from  the  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders,  the  front  or  cover  name 
of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  as  headed  by  Murry  H. 
Martin. 

These  funds  were  advanced  to  Magee  as  an  organizer  for  the  Sixth 
Congressional  District  as  well  as  to  operate  the  Sixth  District  Klan 
organization. 

(Checks  previously  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  9."  See 
p.  2373.) 

In  September  of  1964  he  was  coordinator  of  all  Klan  activities  for 
the  Sixth  Congressional  District  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan. 

He  was  a  leader  of  the  faction  w^hich  broke  from  the  Martin  lead- 
ership of  the  Original  Knights  in  or  around  December  of  1964.  This 
faction  continued  to  operate  in  Washington  Parish,  Louisiana,  inde- 
pendent of  other  Klan  groups  and  issued  leaflets  under  the  name  of  the 
Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana. 

In  March  of  1965,  Magee  and  other  Klansmen  attended  a  meeting  at 
Baton  Rouge,  Louisiana,  called  for  the  purpose  of  attempting  to  re- 
unite factions  under  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of 
America,  Inc.,  a  newly  incorporated  independent  Klan  organization. 

When  the  Bogalusa  Klan  group  created  as  its  front,  or  cover,  the 
Anti-Communist  Christian  Association,  Magee  held  membership  in 
that  organization. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  which  we  believe  the  witness  can 
confirm,  also  leads  us  to  believe  that  he  possesses  additional  informa- 
tion which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this  inquiry  and  would 
materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  remedial  legislation. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Magee,  you  have  heard  the  statement,  of  Mr. 
Appell.  You  now  have  the  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  tliat 
statement,  to  admit  or  deny  the  truth  of  any  allegation,  and  to  explain 
or  modify  any  part  of  that  statement. 

In  addition  you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  other  matter  which  the 
committee  may  deem  relevant  to  this  inquiry. 

Do  you  wish  to  take  advantage  of  the  offer  I  have  just  made? 


2524  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Magee.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  here- 
tofore stated. 

The  Chairman.  Well  then,  Mr.  Magee,  I  must  inform  you  that  m 
the  absence  of  your  rebuttal,  or  other  facts  that  may  come  to  the  atten- 
tion of  the  committee,  this  committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of 
its  investigation.    Bearing  this  in  mind,  have  you  anything  to  say  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  I  respectfully  refuse'  to  answer  on  the  grounds  hereto- 
fore stated. 

The  Chairman.  As  I  indicated  a  moment  ago,  you  possess  a  master's 
degree  and  you  are  connected  with  the  school  system  in  your  area.  I 
would  like  very  much  to  take  advantage  of  your  education  and  ability 
to  express  yourself  and  have  you  give  us  the  purposes,  objectives,  and 
the  programs  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  organization  to  which  you  belong. 

Mr.  Magee.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  hereto- 
fore stated. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  at  any  time  make  speeches  or  participate 
in  the  issuance  of  pamphlets,  literature,  and  documents  purporting  to 
define  the  objectives  and  programs  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  organization 
to  which  you  belong  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  as  part  of  your  participation  in  the  school 
system  of  your  area  discuss  these  objectives,  purposes,  and  programs 
of  the  Klan  organization  to  which  you  belong  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Magee,  visiting  the  schools  of  your  parish  as  a 
member  of  the  school  board,  I  assume  that  you  discuss  with  the  students 
the  Constitution  of  the  United  States.  The  bylaws  of  the  Anti-Com- 
munist Christian  Association  supports  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  as  originally  written.  Is  this  the  constitution  that  you  discuss 
with  your  students  ? 

Mr.  Magee.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  hereto- 
fore stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Magee,  were  you  a  defendant  in  the  three- judge 
court  seated  in  Louisiana  which  returned  an  order  and  finding  of  facts 
against  yourself  and  other  named  defendants  ?  ^ 

Mr.  Magee.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  groimds  hereto- 
fore stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  This  statement  appears  in  the  court  records  and  it  is 
my  understanding  that  the  defendants,  through  counsel,  admitted  to 
your  knowledge-— during  the  period  from  January  28,  1965,  to  the 
present  time  the  individual  defendants — 

including  Saxon  Farmer,  Russell  Magee,  Dewey  Smith,  Handle  C.  Pounds,  Billy 
Alford,  Charles  McClendon.  .Tames  l'>urke,  and  other  members  of  the  defendant 
Klan,  have  gone  to  locations  where  they  anticipated  that  Negroes  would  attempt 
to  exercise  their  rights  and  where  they  anticipated  that  persons  would  publicly 
demonstrate  in  favor  of  equal  rights  for  Negroes,  in  order  that  the  defendants 
might  identify,  harass,  threaten  and  intiniidate  such  Negroes  and  other  per- 
sons.   •'■    *    * 


1  See  Ralph  Blumberg  Exhibit  No.  2,  pp.  2475-2519. 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2525 

Is  that  statement  that  I  read  to  you  factual,  as  it  applies  to  yourself  ? 

Mr.  ]VL\GEE.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ;isk 
of  tliis  witness. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr,  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  ask  the  witness 
whether  an  employee  of  the  public  schools  of  the  State  of  Ix)uisiana 
takes  an  oath  of  office,  or  whether  he  must  subscribe  to  any  stated 
principle  prior  to  embarking  on  employment  with  the  public  school 
system  of  the  State  of  I^uisiana. 

Mr.  Magee.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  No  further  questions. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Before  calling  the  next  witness,  I  Avould  like  to  ask  that 
the  checks  made  payable  to  Mr.  Magee  be  entered  as  exhibits  to  his 
testimony  at  the  conclusion  of  his  testimony. 

The  Chairman.  The  checks  will  be  admitted  at  the  point  where  they 
were  referred  to. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  James  M.  Ellis,  Jr. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will 
be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you 
God? 

Mr.  Ellis.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  JAMES  M.  ELLIS,  JR.,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL  S.  INGRAM 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record. 

Mr.  Ellis.  James  M.  Ellis,  Jr. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  popularly  known  in  Bogalusa  by  the  nickname 
of  "Buster"? 

Mr.  Ellis.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  that  it  might  incriminate  me  and,  further,  that  it  might 
violate  my  rights  guaranteed  me  under  the  1st,  4th,  5th,  and  14th 
amendments  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  honestly  feel — and  that  is  the  basis  upon 
which  you  have  the  right  to  invoke  the  constitutional  privilege  you 
have  outlined — that  to  answer  that  question  would  tend  to  incriminate 
you  or  subject  you  to  criminal  prosecution  under  those  very  consti- 
tutional provisions  that  you  cited  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  pro- 
pounded to  me  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  bom,  Mr.  Ellis  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  July  5, 1932,  Bogalusa,  Louisiana. 

Mr,  Appell.  Where  do  you  presently  reside  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  520  Superior  Avenue,  Bogalusa. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  give  the  committee  the  benefit  of  your 
educational  background  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the  question 
propounded  to  me  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


2526  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  "Would  you  give  the  committee  the  benefit  of  your  em- 
ployment background  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the  question 
on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  are  the  owner  of  the  Ellis  Auto  Repairs,  814  Sabine 
Street,  Bogalusa,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Ellis.  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the  question 
on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Ellis,  did  you  receive  an  honorable  discharge  from 
the  United  States  Air  Force  in  April  of  1953  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the  question 
on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Ellis,  I  hand  you  a  constitution  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  and  ask  you  if,  as  a 
former  exalted  cyclops  of  a  Klavern  in  Bogalusa,  you  operated  in 
accordance  with  this  constitution  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the 
question  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  2.") 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Ellis,  are  you  appearing  before  the  committee  in 
accordance  to  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  26,  1965,  at 
Wesley  Car  Sales  at  Bogalusa,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Ellis,  under  the  conditions  of  the  subpena,  and 
the  attachment  which  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena,  you  were  com- 
manded to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce  before  the  committee : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  and  affiliated  organizations,  namely,  Anti- 
Communist  Christian  Association  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  main- 
tained by  you  or  available  to  you  as  Exalted  Cyclops  of  the  Original  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  or  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents  called  for  in  your  subpena. 

Mr,  Ellis,  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  produce  those 
documents  on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
produce  the  documents  called  for. 

The  Chairman.  Were  you  in  the  hearing  room  when  I  explained 
to  previous  witnesses  the  fact  this  subpena  was  served  on  you,  and 
ordered  you  to  produce  documents  just  read  by  Mr.  Appell  in  the 
representative  capacity  indicated? 

Mr,  Ellis.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  For  the  reasons  stated  previously,  which  you  say 
you  are  aware  of,  I  therefore  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  those 
documents. 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  produce  those 
documents  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Ellis,  paragraph  2  of  the  subpena  called  upon  you 
to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity  as 
present  or  past  member  or  officer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2527 

the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  au- 
thorize and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organi- 
zation, the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for  in  paragraph  2. 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  produce  the 
documents  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to  produce  the  docu- 
ments and  other  records  called  for  in  paragraph  2. 

The  Chairman.  For  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  order  and  direct 
you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  produce  those 
documents  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chainnan,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  now  present  to 
this  committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Ellis.  ^ 

Member  and  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan  under  the  leadership  of  Murry  H.  Martin.  In  July  1964,  Ellis 
was  the  second  endorser  on  a  check  drawn  against  the  Christian  Consti- 
tutional Crusaders,  the  cover  name  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan.  The  payee  of  the  check  was  Russell  Magee,  and  the 
check  was  advanced  for  the  purpose  of  financing  Sixth  Congressional 
District  Klan  activities.     (See  Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  9,  p.  237o.) 

From  Klansman  HoAvard  M.  Lee,  a  licensed  gun  dealer,  Ellis  re- 
ceived 6.5  Italian  surplus  rifles  by  the  case  and  either  he,  or  his  em- 
ployee at  that  time,  Klansman  Eddie  Dubison,  sold  same  out  of  Ellis's 
place  of  business,  Ellis  Auto  Repair.  Following  questioning  by  agents 
of  the  Alcohol  Tax  Unit,  Ellis  for  his  own  security  left  the  Klan. 

With  the  creation  of  the  Klan  front  or  cover,  the  Anti-Communist 
Christian  Association,  he  joined  the  association. 

On  February  15,  1964,  Ellis  and  other  Klansmen  followed  Negroes 
into  the  Negro  section  of  Bogalusa  after  having  threatened  tliem  be- 
cause they  sought  service  at  a  restaurant  in  Bogalusa. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  which  we  believe  the  witness  can 
confirm,  also  leads  us  to  believe  that  he  possesses  additional  informa- 
tion which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this  inquiry  and  would 
materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  remedial  legislation. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Ellis,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement  of  the 
committee's  chief  investigator,  Mr.  Appell.  I  now  give  you  the  oppor- 
tunity to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that  statement,  to  admit  or  deny 
the  truth  of  any  allegation,  and  to  explain  or  modify  any  part  of  that 
statement. 

Do  you  care  to  avail  yourself  of  that  opportunity  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  I  respectfully  decline  to  and  refuse  to  answer  the  question 
on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  I  must  say  to  you,  Mr.  Ellis,  in  the  absence  of  your 
rebuttal,  or  any  other  facts  that  may  come  to  the  attention  of  tliis  com- 
mittee, this  committee  will  rely  on  the  accuracy  of  its  investigation  as 
related  by  Mr.  Appell.  Bearing  this  in  mind,  do  you  have  anything 
else  to  say  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  I  respectfully  decline  to  and  refuse  to  answer  the  question 
on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


2528  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

The  Chairman.  Are  you  aware  of  the  fact,  which  is  established  in 
the  injunction  proceedings  filed  in  Louisiana,  that  some  of  the  records 
of  the  Klan  were  destroyed  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the  ques- 
tion on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairmax.  Did  you  as  a  fact,  as  related  by  Mr.  Appell,  retire 
from  the  Klan  out  of  self-protection  in  order  not  to  be  involved  in 
the  distribution  of  guns,  pursuant  to  a  license  issued  to  Howard  M. 
Lee,  who  was  charged  and  convicted  of  violating  Federal  law  in  that 
respect  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the 
question  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Chairman.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  read  from  a  report  of 
Wallace  J. 

The  Chairman.  Pardon  me. 

I  say  to  you  as  a  fact  that  you  were  one  of  the  defendants  in  that 
injunction  proceeding,  so  you  would  have  knowledge,  I  assume,  of  the 
destruction  of  the  records. 

Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  read  from  a  report  of 
Wallace  J.  Moll,  Jr.,  an  agent  of  the  Alcohol  Tax  Unit  stationed  in 
New  Orleans,  Louisiana. 

The  Chairman.  And  that  unit  has  jurisdiction  over  gun  licenses, 
strange  enough.  I  do  not  know  how  strange  it  is,  but  it  has  jurisdic- 
tion over  licensing  people  distributing  certain  types  of  guns;  is  that 
correct  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  All  right. 

Mr.  Appell.   [Reading :] 

James  M.  Ellis,  .Jr.,  .520  Superior  Avenue,  Bogalnsa,  Louisiana,  was  interviewed 
at  his  place  of  business  on  January  14.  ItXv)  and  advised  that  he  had  known 
Howard  I^^e  about  one  year  and  that  Lee  had  approached  him  on  the  pos- 
sibility of  purchasing  high-powered  rifles  at  a  cheap  price  provided  they  could 
secure  volume  sales. 

He  advised  that  he  had  delivered  about  4  cases  of  the  rifles  for  Lee,  securing 
the  money  for  him  and  receiving  the  rifles  in  shipment.  He  stated  that  he 
eventually  quit  this  as  it  as  interfering  with  his  business  operation. 

I  ask  you,  Mr.  Ellis,  if  the  paragraph  that  I  have  quoted  from  Agent 
Moll's  report  is  factual  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the  ques- 
tion on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  To  whom  did  you  distribute  the  rifles  contained  in 
the  four  cases  which  you  acknowledged  to  the  A.T.U.  that  you  had 
delivered  for  Howard  M.  Lee? 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the  ques- 
tion on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  by  "delivering"  you  meant  that  yoii  sold  these  rifles  out 
of  your  place  of  business,  either  you  or  Eddie  Dubison,  your  employee. 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the  ques- 
tion on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2529 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Ellis,  when  I  interviewed  Mr.  Howard  M.  Lee  in 
the  Federal  jienitentiary  at  Texarkana,  Texas,  Mr.  Lee  told  me  how, 
when  he  was  confronted  with  the  facts,  that  many  of  the  persons  whom 
his  records  disclosed  had  received  weapons,  that  he  had  gone  and 
called  upon  these  people  or  made  investigation  for  the  purpose  of 
determining  the  accuracy  of  the  Government's  charges.  He  deter- 
mined to  his  own  satisfaction  that  his  records  were  in  fact  false. 

I  ask  you  whether  or  not  in  the  distribution  of  these  rifles  that  you 
supplied  Howard  Lee  for  his  records  false  information  as  to  the 
identity  of  people  who  purchased  same  from  your  garage  or  auto 
repair  shop  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the  ques- 
tion on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  the  majority  of  the  rifles  sold  out  of  the  Ellis  Auto  Repair 
Shop  were  sold  to  people  known  to  you  and  to  Eddie  Dubison  to  be 
Klansmen. 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the  ques- 
tion on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Ellis,  as  the  exalted  cyclops  of  a  unit,  you  had  the 
responsibility  under  the  constitution  of  seeing  to  it  that  the  klokan 
of  your  Klavern  appointed  in  secret  a  wrecking  crew. 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I 

Mr.  Appell.  I  haven't  asked  the  question  yet. 

Was  a  wrecking  crew  appointed  within  your  Klavern  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the  ques- 
tion on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  an  exalted  cyclops,  will  you  explain  to  the  commit- 
tee the  purpose  of  a  wrecking  crew  ? 

Mr.  Ellis.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the  ques- 
tion on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  of 
this  witness. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Randle  C.  Pounds. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will 
be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you 
God? 

Mr.  Pounds.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  EANDLE  C.  POUNDS,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL  S.  INGRAM 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Pounds,  will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the 
record,  please  ? 

Mr.  Pounds.  Randle  Cozell  Pounds. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Pounds.  Picayune,  Mississippi,  September,  30th  day  of  Septem- 
ber, 1925. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  do  you  presently  reside,  Mr.  Pounds  ? 

Mr,  Pounds.  Bogalusa,  Louisiana,  Route  58-C. 


2530  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Pounds,  are  you  appearing  here  this  morning  in 
accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  30,  1965,  at  the 
Chevrolet  Motors  in  Bogahisa,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Pounds.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Pounds,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  contained 
an  attachment  which  was  made  part  of  the  subpena  and  calls  for  you  to 
produce  certain  documents. 

Paragraph  1  reads : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  and  aflSliated  organizations,  namely,  Anti- 
Communist  Christian  Association,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or 
maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  member  or  officer  of  the  Invisible 
Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known 
as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents. 

Mr.  Pounds.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  produce  the  records  on  the 
grounds  they  might  incriminate  me,  and  on  the  further  grounds  that 
it  might  violate  my  rights  guaranteed  me  under  the  1st,  4th,  5th,  and 
14th  amendment  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Pounds.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  give  his  name  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Ingilvm.  Michael  S.  Ingram,  Baton  Rouge,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Pounds,  paragraph  2  calls  for  you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
.sion,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  past  member  and/or  officer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.. 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  EHan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  orga- 
nization authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer 
of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for  in  this  paragraph  2. 

Mr.  Pounds.  I  refuse  to  produce  the  documents  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Pounds,  were  you  in  the  hearing  room  when 
I  explained  to  previous  witnesses  the  fact  that  this  subpena  was  served 
upon  you  and  requires  you  to  produce  documents  in  the  capacity  in- 
dicated in  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Pounds.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  I  therefore  now  order  and  direct  you  to  produce 
those  documents. 

Mr.  Ingram,  I  assume  what  we  have  covered  before  has  been  true 
all  along,  namely,  you  were  supplied  witli  a  copy  of  my  opening  state- 
ment and  you  are  familiar  with  its  contents? 

Mr.  Pounds.  I  refuse  to  answer  tlie  question  on  the  grounds  previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Pounds,  would  you  give  the  committee  your  edu- 
cational background? 

Mr.  Pounds.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Pounds,  is  your  i)rincipal  source  of  income  that 
from  the  business  of  a  private  contract  painter? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2531 

Mr.  Pounds.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  constitntional  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Pounds,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  served  in  the  United  States  Navy 
from  December  1950  to  October  1954,  in  the  TTnited  States  Naval  Re- 
serve from  September  1958  to  October  1960,  that  you  served  in  the 
regular  United  States  Navy  from  October  19()0  to  December  1962, 
when  you  were  transferred  to  the  temporaiy  disability  retired  list  by 
reason  of  a  physical  disability. 

I  put  that  to  you  as  a  fact  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  it. 

Mr.  Pounds.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Pounds,  do  you  presently  receive  compensation 
from  the  United  States  Government  as  a  result  of  being  placed  on  a 
temporary  disability  retired  list? 

Mr.  Pounds.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  constitutional  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Pounds,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  have  held  membership  in  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

Mr.  Pounds.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  constitutional  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness's  claimed  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  now  present  to 
this  committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Pounds. 

In  1964,  an  active  member  of  the  Original  Kniffhts  of  the  Ku  Klux 
KlaiL 

In  1965,  believed  to  be  a  member  of  the  wrecking  crew. 

On  April  6,  1965,  the  Klan  rented  a  vacant  house  near  the  Bogalusa 
Labor  Temple  to  observe  the  activities  of  civil  rights  groups  and  to 
plan  acts  of  violence  against  its  members.  Pounds  was  one  of  the  many 
Klansmen  in  the  watching  and  planning  of  violence. 

April  7,  1965,  Randall  C.  Pounds  and  Klansman  [Glenn]  Breland 
accosted  CORE  worker  William  Yates.  Pounds  struck  Yates*  car 
with  a  heavy  object  at  a  time  when  Yates  was  leaving  the  house  of 
Robert  Hicks,  vice  president  of  the  Bogalusa  Voter's  League. 

April  9,  1965,  arrested  for  the  assault  upon  Negroes  in  a  march  to 
the  Bogalusa  City  Hall,  including  James  Farmer,  whom  he  attacked 
with  a  blackjack. 

April  8,  1965,  Pounds,  together  with  other  Klansmen,  smashed  the 
rear  window  of  an  automobile  belonging  to  a  CORE  worker  while 
it  was  parked  across  the  street  from  the  house  of  Robert  Hicks. 

May  31,  1965,  Klansmen  Billy  Alford  and  Pounds  threatened, 
harassed,  and  attempted  to  intimidate  Negro  pickets  in  the  downtown 
area  of  Bogalusa. 

Pounds  is  a  member  of  the  Klan  front,  or  cover  organization,  the 
Anti-Communist  Christian  Association. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  which  we  believe  the  witnesses  can 
confirm  also,  leads  us  to  believe  that  he  possesses  additional  informa- 


2532  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU   KLUX   KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

tion  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this  inquiry  and  would 
materially  aid  the  Confess  in  enacting  remedial  legislation. 

The  Chairman.  Mr,  Pounds,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement 
of  Mr.  Appell,  the  chief  investigator  of  this  committee. 

I  now  give  you  the  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that  state- 
ment, admit  or  deny  the  truth  of  any  of  it,  and  to  explain,  or  modify, 
any  part  of  the  statement. 

In  addition,  you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  other  matter  the 
committee  may  deem  relevant  to  this  inquiry. 

Do  you  care  to  avail  yourself  of  that  opportunity  ? 

Mr.  Pounds.  I  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the  constitutional 
gromids  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  In  that  case,  Mr.  Pounds,  I  must  inform  you  that 
in  the  absence  of  your  rebuttal,  or  other  facts  that  may  come  to  the 
attention  of  the  committee,  this  committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy 
of  its  investigation. 

Bearing  this  in  mind,  do  you  have  anything  to  say  ? 

Mr.  Pounds.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  constitutional  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Pounds,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  you  were  one  of  the  defendants  before  the 
three-]* udge  court  sitting  in  Louisiana,  New  Orleans,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Pounds.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  constitutional  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to 
ask  of  this  witness. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.    Eric  Peterson. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be 
the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  ERIC  PETERSON,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL  S.  INGRAM 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Peterson,  will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the 
record,  please? 

Mr.  Peterson.  My  name  is  Captain  Eric  Peterson. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  explain  the  title  of  "captain"  that  you  give 
to  yourself? 

Mr,  Peterson,  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  and  refuse  to  answer  the 
question  propounded  to  me  on  the  grounds  it  will  discriminate  me,  on 
the  further  grounds  it  will  violate  my  rights  under  the  1st,  4th,  5th, 
and  14th  amendments  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America, 

Mr,  Appell.  Mr,  Peterson,  you  are  represented  by  counsel? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2533 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Ingram.  Michael  S.  Ingram,  attorney  at  law,  Baton  Rouge, 
Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  Mr.  Peterson  was  asked  to  set  fortli  his 
full  name  for  the  record.  He  identified  himself  on  the  record  as 
•'Captain  Eric  Peterson."  He  was  then  asked  to  explain  to  the  com- 
mittee the  designation  which  he  gave  to  himself  as  captain  and  he 
refused  to  do  so,  invoking  constitutional  grounds.  I  request  that  the 
witness  be  directed  to  answer  the  question.  Where  does  he  get  the  title 
of  captain? 

The  Chairman.  I  order  and  direct  you  to  answ^er  that  question. 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Peterson,  when  and  w^here  were  you  born? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  was  bom  in  a  rural  area  near  Sunny  Hill,  Lou- 
isiana, on  July  6, 1924. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  do  you  presently  reside  ? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  reside  in  a  rural  area  near  Sun,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  give  us  a  description  of  where  you  live? 

Mr.  Peterson.  Would  you  repeat  the  question,  please? 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  give  the  committee  a  description  of  the  area 
in  which  you  live? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  repeat  my  answer.  I  reside  in  a  rural  area  about 
11/^  miles  from  Sun,  Louisiana. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Ingram,  I  believe  our  colloquy  is  broad  enough 
with  reference  to  my  opening  statement  to  include  this  witness  and 
others  whom  you  might  represent.  So  we  may  have  it  in  the  record 
now ;  is  that  correct  ? 

Mr.  Ingram.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Peterson,  you  are  appearing  before  the  committee 
this  morning  in  accordance  with  a  subpena  which  was  served  upon  you 
by  a  United  States  Marshal  on  November  4, 1965,  at  your  residence  in 
Sun,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Peterson.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Peterson,  under  the  conditions  of  the  subpena 
served  upon  you  and  an  attachment  thereto  which  was  made  a  part  of 
the  subpena,  you  were  ordered  to  produce  the  following  items  listed  in 
paragraph  1 : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  and  affiliated  organizations,  namely,  the 
Anti-Communist  Christian  Association,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control, 
or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  member  and/or  officer  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  and  the  Anti-Communist  Christian 
Association. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  records,  sir. 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  the  documents  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 


2534  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
produce  tlie  documents  called  for  in  paragraph  1  of  the  attachment 
to  his  subpena. 

The  Chairman.  Were  you  in  the  hearing  room  when  I  commented 
on  this  subpena  served  upon  you,  which  orders  you  to  produce  docu- 
ments in  the  capacity  indicated  in  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Peterson.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  I  therefore  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  those 
documents. 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  produce  the  documents  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Peterson,  paragraph  2  calls  upon  you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capac- 
ity as  present  or  past  member  or  oflBcer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc., 
Knishts  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association 
which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  require 
to  be  maintained  by  you  or  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being 
in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  docimients. 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  do  so  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  And  for  the  reasons  I  previously  stated,  I  order 
and  direct  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  do  so  on  the  constitutional 
gromids  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Paragraph  3,  Mr.  Peterson,  calls  upon  you 

Mr.  Ingram.  May  I  speak  to  you  a  minute  ? 

(Counsel  conferring.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr,  Peterson,  paragraph  3  of  your  subpena  calls  upon 
you  to  produce : 

Copies  of  T\S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service.  Form  1040. 
"U.S.  Individual  Income  Tax  Returns,"  for  the  calendar  years  1958  through  1964 
filed  by  you  as  an  individual  taxpayer  with  the  U.S.  Treasury  Department, 
Internal  Ilevenue  Service. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents  called  for  in  paragraph  3. 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  produce  the  documents  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Peterson,  will  you  advise  the  committee  of  your 
educational  background  ? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  do  so  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  had  1  year  of  college  at  Southwestern  Louisiana 
State  College. 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2535 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  are  the  owner  of  the  Pearl  River  Towing  Company, 
Sun,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Peterson,  did  you  ever  hold  membership  in  the 
Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  the  Realm  of  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  a  copy  of  the  constitution  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  Realm  of  Louisiana,  and  I  ask  you  if, 
as  an  exalted  cyclops  of  that  unit,  of  that  organization,  you  conducted 
a  Klavern  under  the  rules  and  regulations  prescribed  therein? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Docmnent  previously  marked  "MuiTy  Martin  Exhibit  No.  2.") 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  now  present  to 
this  committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Peterson : 

October  1963,  a  member  of  the  Bush,  Louisiana,  Unit,  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  was  then  under  the  leadership 
of  J.  D.  Swenson  and  Royal  V.  Young. 

February  1964,  attended  a  meeting  at  Alexandria,  Louisiana,  at 
which  meeting  Royal  V.  Young  made  plea  with  Klan  leaders  to  hold 
organization  together  under  his  leadership. 

July  1964,  exalted  cyclops  of  Bush  Unit,  Original  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan,  then  under  the  leadership  of  Murry  H.  Martin.  Klav- 
ern funds  were  maintained  in  his  personal  bank  account. 

While  the  exalted  cyclops  he  purchased  700  rounds  of  ammunition 
and  25  rifles  from  Howard  M.  Lee,  which  rifles  were  sold  or  dis- 
tributed by  Peterson  to  Klansmen  in  the  Covington,  Louisiana,  area. 

Mr.  Peterson  paid  Howard  Lee  $125  for  the  25  rifles. 

In  September  1964,  Peterson  was  a  member  of  the  Avrecking  crew 
in  the  Saint  Tammany  Parish.  The  "wrecking  crew,''  in  Klan  termi- 
nology, refers  to  a  group  of  Klansmen  who  are  prone  to  violence  or 
who  have  been  selected  to  carry  out  violence. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  which  we  believe  the  witness  can 
confirm,  also  leads  us  to  believe  that  he  possesses  additional  informa- 
tion which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this  inquiry  and  would 
materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  remedial  legislation. 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Buchanan  left  the  hearing  room.) 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Peterson,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement 
of  Mr.  Appell,  our  chief  investigator.  You  now  have  the  opportunity 
to  reply  to  any  part  or  portion  of  that  statement,  to  admit  or  deny 
the  truth  of  any  allegation,  and  to  explain  or  modify  any  part  of  that 


59-222  O — 67 — pt.  3 14 


2536  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

statement.  In  addition,  you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  other  matter 
the  committee  may  deem  relevant  to  this  inquiry.  Do  you  care  to 
avail  yourself  of  that  opportunity? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  do  so  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairiman.  While  Mr.  Appell  was  outlining  his  sworn  state- 
ment, I  noticed  you  made  notes  of  something  when  he  described  a 
meeting  in  Alexandria,  when  he  described  that  you  put  Kllan  funds 
in  your  personal  account,  when  he  referred  to  rifles  coming  from 
Howard  Lee,  and  when  he  referred  to  you  as  a  member  of  the  wrecking 
crew. 

I  have  no  objection  at  all,  of  course,  and  have  none  to  your  making 
notes.  I  simply  wanted  to  give  you  the  opportunity  to  say  whether 
you  were  making  those  notes  because  you  were  doubtful  of  these 
things  or  because  perhaps  you  wanted  to  keep  a  memorandum  of 
what  you  had  been  questioned  about  and  what  had  been  disclosed. 
Do  you  care  to  comment? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  do  so  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  have  entered  into  the 
record  four  documents  which  I  shall  now  exhibit  to  Mr.  Peterson. 

One  is  a  notice  of  the  Ouachita  National  Bank,  Monroe,  Louisiana, 
to  the  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders,  the  cover  name  of  the 
Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  when  under  the  leadership 
of  Murry  H.  Martin,  which  reflects  that  a  check  drawn  against  the 
account  of  Eric  Peterson  in  the  amount  of  $47  was  returned  because 
of  a  missing  endorsement. 

Document  Nos.  2,  3,  and  4  are  excerpts  from  the  records  of  Howard 
M.  Lee  relating  to  his  sales  of  gims  and  ammunition.  The  first  paper 
contains  the  writing  "700  rounds  for  Sun,  La.,  Eric  Peterson."  The 
second  document,  in  addition  to  other  entries,  contains  the  entry,  "Eric 
Peterson,  25  rifles,  pd.  $125."  The  third  document  contains  the  serial 
numl>ers  of  the  25  rifles  and  is  dated  July  28, 1964. 

After  you  have  examined  those  documents,  Mr.  Peterson,  I  give  you 
an  opportunity  to  comment  on  either  or  all. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  care  to  avail  yourself  of  that  opportunity? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  do  so  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  I  order  that  these  documents  be  inserted  in  the 
record  at  this  point  and  instruct  the  reporter  to  insert  in  the  printed 
record  all  documents  as  they  are  commented  on  and  exhibited. 

(Documents  marked  "Eric  Peterson  Exhibits  Nos.  1  and  2-A,  2-B, 
and  2-C,  respectively,  follow :) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2537 

Eric  Peterson  Exhibit  No.  1 


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2538  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

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ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2539 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Peterson,  are  there  any  other  reasons,  other  than 
the  constitutional  reasons  which  you  have  set  forth,  for  your  refusal 
to  answer  or  your  refusal  to  produce  clocimients  called  for  by  the 
subpena  ? 

Mr.  Peterson.  Would  you  repeat  that  question  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir.  Are  there  any  other  reasons,  other  than  the 
constitutional  reasons  which  you  have  set  forth,  why  you  did  not 
answer  questions  propounded  to  you  or  produce  documents  called  for 
by  your  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Petersox.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Prior  to  November  6,  1965 — and  your  subpena  was 
served  upon  you  on  November  4 — were  you  telling  residents  of  Sun, 
Louisiana,  that  you  did  not  intend  to  cooperate  with  the  committee  and 
that  you  intended  to  be  completely  nonresponsive  ? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Is  that  statement  a  matter  of  fact.  Counsel  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Wliere  did  that  statement  appear  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  In  the  area  of  Sun,  Louisiana,  where  Mr.  Peterson 
resides. 

Mr.  Peterson,  it  is  the  committee's  infomiation  that  from  the  Pearl 
River  Towing  Company,  which  you  own,  you  have  a  gross  income, 
prior  to  deductions,  of  in  excess  of  $300,000.  l^-liat  percentage  of  your 
income  is  derived  from  the  United  States  Government? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  do  you  not  live  on  Government 
property  and  tie  up  your  barges  on  Government  property,  for  wjiich 
you  pay  compensation  of  only  $35  per  month  ? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  read  into  the  record  at 
this  point  a  letter  from  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Engineers,  which 
reads  as  follows : 

The  District  Engineer,  U.S.  Army  Engineer  District,  at  Mobile.  Alabama,  in- 
forms me  that  a  lease  was  entered  into  between  the  Government  and  Mr.  Peter- 
.son  on  1  January  1962  for  the  use  of  approximately  two  acres  of  land  and  a 
concrete  block  dwelling  at  Ivock  No.  3,  Pearl  River  Project,  Jjonisiana.  The 
term  of  the  lease  was  for  five  years  and  ends  31  December  19G6.  This  grant  was 
the  result  of  a  bid  submitted  by  Mr.  Peter.son  in  response  to  an  invitation  to 
bid  for  leasing  this  property.  The  compensation  is  .$3.5.00  per  month.  Mr.  Peter- 
son in  the  operation  of  his  towing  bu.siness  is  one  of  the  principal  users  of  the 
Pearl  River  Project. 

Is  the  information  supplied  to  the  committee  by  the  Corps  of  Engi- 
neers factual ? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Eric  Peterson  Exhibit  No.  3"  follows :) 


2540  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Eric  Peterson  Exhibit  No.  3 


DEPARTMENT  OF  THE  ARMY 

OFFICE  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  ENGINEERS 
WASHINGTON,  D.C.    2031S 


IN  REPLY  REFER  TO 

ENGRE-MI  27  December  I965 


Mr.  Donald  T.  Appell 

Chief  Investigator 

Conmittee  on  Un-American  Activities 

House  of  Representatives 

Washln^on^  D.C. 


Dear  Mr.  Appell: 

This  is  in  further  reply  to  yo\ir  recent  letter  concerning  the  con- 
tracttjal  relationship  between  the  Corps  of  Engineers  and  Mr.  Eric 
Peterson,  operator  of  the  Pearl  River  Towing  Company,  Sun,  Louisiana. 

Utie  District  Engineer,  U.S.  Army  Engineer  District,  at  Mobile, 
Alabama,  informs  me  that  a  lease  was  entered  into  between  the  Govern- 
ment and  Mr.  Peterson  on  1  Jantiary  I962  for  the  use  of  approxLaately 
two  acres  of  land  and  a  concrete  block  dwelling  at  Lock  No.  3>  Pearl 
River  Project,  Lovilsiana.  The  term  of  the  lease  was  for  five  years 
and  ends  3I  December  I966.  This  grant  was  the  result  of  a  bid  sub- 
mitted by  Mr.  Peterson  in  response  to  an  invitation  for  bids  for 
leasing  this  property.  The  canpensation  is  $35 '00  per  month.  Mr. 
Peterson,  in  the  operation  of  his  towing  business,  is  one  of  the 
principal,  users  of  the  Pearl  River  Project. 

I  trust  the  foregoing  information  is  svifficient  for  your  purposes. 

Sincerely  yours. 


WOODROW  BERGE 

Acting  Director  of  Real  Estate 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Peterson,  will  you  advise  the  committee  as  to  the 
Klansmen  to  whom  you  distributed  or  sold  the  25  rifles  which  you 
obtained  from  Howard  M.  Lee,  according  to  his  record  ? 

The  Chairman.  He  did  not  get  the  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  identify  to  the  committee  the  Klansmen 
to  whom  you  either  sold  or  distributed  the  25  rifles  which  you  received, 
according  to  the  records  of  Howard  M.  Lee  ? 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  decline  to  do  so  on  the  constitutional  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  To  your  certain  knowledge,  were  any  of  these  rifles 
used  as  a  part  of  any  wrecking  crew  activity  of  the  Klan  unit  in  Bush, 
Louisiana  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2541 

Mr.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  tlie 
constitutional  grounds  perviously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  stall'  has  no  further  questions  to  ask 
of  Mr.  Peterson. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  have  a  question,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Peterson,  I  note  at  page  11  of  the  court  opinion  (Ralph  Blum- 
berg  Exhibit  No.  2)  there  is  set  forth  the  boycott  rules  of  the  Anti- 
Communist  Christian  Association.  A  portion  of  those  rules  reads  as 
follows : 

"Any  member  who  shall  after  a  hearing  have  been  found  guilty  of  personally 
patronizing  a  subject  listed  on  the  boycott  list  shall  be  wrecked  by  the  wrecking 
creiv  who  shall  be  appointed  by  the  Committee.     [Emphasis  added.]   .  .  . 

Second  offense — If  a  member  is  found  guilty  of  personally  violating  the  boycott 
list  he  shall  be  wrecked  and  banished  from  the  Klan." 

I  would  like  to  know  what  is  meant  by  the  term  "wrecked."  What 
happens  to  a  Klansman  when  he  is  "wrecked"  by  the  "wrecking  crew"  ? 

M.  Peterson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chairman,  may  I  have  anotlun-  moment. 

I  would  like  to  inquire  of  Mr.  Appell  concerning  the  letter  he  pre- 
sented from  the  Department  of  the  Army.  Ts  the  Pearl  River  Project 
one  constructed  by  the  United  States  Corps  of  Engineers? 

Mr.  Appell.  It  is,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Is  that  what  is  known  generally  as  a  rivers  and 
harbors  project  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  It  is,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Is  that  project  financed  by  any  Federal  funds? 

Mr.  Appell.  It  is  my  understanding  that  the  river  is  maintained  by 
the  Corps  of  Engineers  and  all  dredging,  widening,  and  things  of 
that  nature  are  financed  by  Federal  funds. 

Mr.  Weltner.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  that  is  financed  100  percent  by 
Federal  funds ;  is  it  not  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  That  is  my  understanding,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  understand  the  company  of  this  witness,  Mr.  Peter- 
son, is  engaged  in  using  the  river,  the  harbor,  docks,  and  such  other 
facilities  there  in  the  course  of  Mr.  Peterson's  business. 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  do  not  have  a  question  but  a  sort  of  query  as  to 
whether  this  is  the  kind  of  outside  agitation  and  Federal  interference 
that  seems  to  serve  to  make  one  a  member  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

I  have  no  further  comment,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  have  no  questions. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

The  Chairman.  It  is  now  noon.  The  committee  will  stand  in  recess 
until  2  o'clock. 

(Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Willis,  Pool,  and 
Weltner. ) 

(Whereupon,  at  11 :55  a.m.,  Thursday,  January  6, 1966,  the  subcom- 
mittee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  2  p.m.  the  same  day.) 

AFTERNOON  SESSION— THURSDAY,  JANUARY  6,  1%6 

(The  subcommittee  reconvened  at  2 :10  p.m.,  Hon.  Edwin  E.  Willis, 
chairman,  presiding.) 


2542  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

(Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Willis,  Pool, 
Weltner,  and  Buchanan.) 

The  Chairman.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 

I  have  a  brief  announcement  to  make. 

The  subcommittee  which  is  conductin<r  these  hearinpfs  met  at  the 
conclusion  of  this  morning's  session.  At  that  meeting  the  four  mem- 
bers jDresent  voted  unanimously  to  recommend  to  the  full  committee 
that  certain  persons  subpenaed  to  testify  in  the  earlier  phase  of  these 
hearings  be  cited  for  contempt  of  Congress. 

The  following  seven  officials  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc., 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  were  the  subjects  of  the  subcommittee 
action : 

Robert  M.  Shelton,  Imperial  Wizard  of  the  United  Klans  of  Amer- 
ica, Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

James  R.  Jones,  Grand  Dragon,  Realm  of  North  Carolina. 

Robert  E.  Scoggin,  Grand  Dragon  of  the  Realm  of  South  Carolina. 

Calvin  F.  Craig,  Grand  Dragon  of  Georgia. 

Marshall  R.  Kornegay,  Grand  Dragon  of  Virginia. 

George  F.  Dorsett,  Imperial  Kludd,  who  is  also  a  paid  organizer  and 
a  province  titan  of  the  Realm  of  North  Carolina. 

Robert  Hudgins,  Imperial  Kladd  and  also  the  exalted  cyclops  of 
the  North  Carolina  Klavern  using  the  name  of  the  Capital  City  Res- 
toration Association. 

That  concludes  my  announcement,  but  in  that  connection  I  would 
like  to  say  this:  On  the  basis  of  the  committee's  study  and  analysis  of 
the  hearing  record  as  it  pertains  to  these  men,  it  is  my  belief  that  the 
full  committee  will  act  favorably  and  promptly  on  the  recommenda- 
tion of  the  subcommittee. 

I  also  announce  that  the  subcommittee  decided,  also,  to  cancel  the 
outstanding  subpenas  on  Mr.  Shelton  and  Mr.  Craig.  It  is  my  im- 
pression that  those  are  the  two  who  have  outstanding  subpenas.  We 
voted  to  cancel  the  subpenas  in  light  of  the  recommendation  to  be  made 
by  the  subcommittee  that  action  be  taken  by  the  full  committee  to  rec- 
ommend contempt  citation  of  Congress. 

I  would  like,  also,  to  make  this  statement :  This  morning  I  was 
handed  two  documents  which  I  have  before  me  and  which  I  can  prob- 
ably describe  by  use  of  the  term  "flyers."  These  documents  state  that 
they  are  put  out  by  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.  One  of  them 
is  a  bulletin  from  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  it  seeks  to  exhort,  the  read- 
er to  fight  back  against  the  colored  people,  whom  it  calls  "niggers." 

The  other  document  is  an  invitation  to  join  the  United  Klans  of 
America,  Inc.,  saying  that  any  native-born,  loyal  United  States  citi- 
zen, 21  years  old,  white,  gentile,  temperate  habits,  Christian  faith, 
and  believing  in  white  supremacy  in  America  can  join  the  Klan. 

There  is  actually  a  membership  blank,  with  places  to  be  filled  in. 

The  point  I  make  it  this :  These  flyers,  I  am  told,  have  been  and  are 
being  inserted  in  mail  boxes  in  and  around  Baton  Rouge. 

I  call  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  insertion  of  these  documents  in 
United  States  mail  boxes  without  payment  of  postage  in  regular  mail- 
ing constitutes  a  violation  of  section  1725  of  title  18  of  the  United 
States  Code.  We  plan  to  report,  the  incident  to  the  postal  authorities. 
In  fact,  we  have  already  talked  to  the  legal  department  about  taking 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2543 

whatever  action  and  measures  which  might  be  appropriate  in  the  cir- 
cumstances. 

Mr.  Appell,  call  the  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Pete  Holclen. 

The  Chairiman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give 
will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so 
help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  HoLDEN.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY   OF  JAMES  W.    (PETE)    HOLDEN,   ACCOMPANIED   BY 

COUNSEL,  MICHAEL  S.  INGRAM 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  HoLDEisr.  James  W.  Hoi  den. 

Mr.  Appell,  Are  you  represented  by  counsel,  Mr.  Holden  ? 

Mr.  Holden.  Yes,  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  idonlify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Ingram.  My  name  is  Michael  S.  Ingram,  Baton  Rouge,  Louisi- 
ana. 

Mr.  Appell.  "Wlien  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Holden  ? 

Mr.  Holden.  I  was  born  in  Bogalusa,  Louisiana,  May  18, 1926. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  give  the  committee  a  brief  resume  of  your 
educational  background  ? 

Mr.  Holden.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  that  it  might  incriminate  me  and  on  the  furtlier  grounds  that 
it  would  violate  my  rights  under  the  Constitution — 1,  5,  4,  and  14th 
amendments  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  operate  a  Texaco  station  in  Covington,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Holden.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Holden,  do  you  now  or  have  you  ever  held  office 
in  a  Ku  Klux  Klan  organization  ? 

Mr.  Holden.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
same  constitutional  grounds  ):)reviously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Holden.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  held  the  position  of  exalted  cyclops 
of  a  unit  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  in  Covington, 
Louisiana. 

Mr.  Holden.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  ground  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Holden,  were  you  acquainted  with  Howard  M. 
Lee,  the  gun  dealer  in  Bogalusa.  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Holden.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  ground  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Holden,  the  committee's  investigation  established 
that  Eric  Peterson,  of  Sun,  Louisiana,  obtained  25  rifles  from  Howard 
M.  Lee  and  either  sold  or  distributed  them  to  Klansmen  in  the  Cov- 
ington, Louisiana,  area.    Do  you  possess  knowledge  of  this? 

Mr.  Holden.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Appeij..  Mr.  Holden,  the  committee's  investigation  established 
that  Mr.  Lee's  records  failed  to  reflect  the  sale  of  some  154  rifles.    The 


2544  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

committee's  investigation  disclosed  that  many  of  these  rifles  were 
sold  and  not  reflected  in  Mr.  Lee's  records  and  were  purchased  by 
members  of  the  Covington,  Louisiana,  Klavern. 

As  the  exalted  cyclops  of  that  Klavern,  can  you  tell  us  whether  or 
not  any  of  your  members  obtained  these  rifles  from  Howard  M.  Lee  ? 

Mr.  HoLDEN.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Holden,  I  hand  you  a  copy  of  the  "Konstitution 
of  the  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan,  Realm  of  Louisiana,"  and  ask  you  if 
you  ever  operated  under  that  constitution. 

Mr.  HoLDEN.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  (he  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  2.") 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Holden,  under  the  constitution  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  tliere  was  provision  made  within 
Klaverns,  within  provinces,  and  within  the  realm  for  divisions  known 
as  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation.  Who  headed  the  Klan  Bureau 
of  Investigation  for  your  Klavern? 

Mr.  HoLDEN.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Provision  was  made  for  the  appointment  by  the  klokan 
of  the  Klavern  of  six  men  to  be  appointed  in  secret,  being  known  by 
the  title  of  the  "wrecking  crew."  Who  was  the  klokan  of  your 
Klavern  ? 

Mr.  Holden.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to 
ask  of  this  witness. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  have  no  questions. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  have  no  questions. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  I  have  no  questions. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Willie  Houston  Burke. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand,  sir. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  tlie  testimony  you  are  about  to  give 
will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help 
you  God  ? 

Mr.  Burke.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  WILLIE  HOUSTON  BURKE,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  MICHAEL  S.  INGRAM 

Mr.  Appell,  Would  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr. 
Burke? 

Mr.  Burke.   Willie  Houston  Burke. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wlien  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Burke.  February  2,  1917,  in  the  suburbs  of  Bogalusa,  Loui- 
siana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Burke.  Yes,  sir. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2545 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Ingram.  My  name  is  Michael  S.  Ingram,  Baton  Rouge,  Loui- 
siana. 

Mr.  Appell,  "\^^lere  do  you  reside,  Mr.  Burke  ? 

Mr.  Burke.  903  Pine  Ridge  Road,  I^ogalusa,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  before  the  committee  today,  Mr. 
Burke,  in  accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  26, 
1965,  at  903  Pine  Ridge  Drive,  Bogalusa,  Louisiana '{ 

Mr.  Burke.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Burke,  the  subpena  served  yuii  contained  an  at- 
tachment which  called  upon  you  to  produce  books  and  records  set 
forth  on  the  attachment  which  was  made  part  of  the  subpena.  I'ara- 
graph  2  calls  for  you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  ik)s- 
session  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  yon.  in  your  capacity 
as  a  present  or  past  Exalted  Cyclops  and/or  member  of  the  Original  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  au- 
thorize and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  orga- 
nization the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for  in  paragraph  2. 

Mr.  Burke.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  produce  the  records  mentioned  in  the 
question  on  the  grounds  that  it  might  incriminate  me  and  on  the 
further  grounds  that  it  would  violate  my  rights  under  the  1st,  4th, 
5th,  and  14th  amendments  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
of  America. 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Buchanan  left  the  hearing  room. ) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
produce  those  documents. 

The  Chairman.  Were  you  in  the  hearing  room  when  I  explained 
the  fact  that  this  subpena  was  being  served  on  others  and  on  you  in 
the  capacity  designated  in  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Burke.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  Accordingly,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce 
those  documents. 

Mr.  Burke.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  produce  the  records  on 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Burke,  were  you  a  member  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan 
in  1963  when  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  was  under 
the  direction  of  Royal  V.  Young  as  the  Imperial  Dragon  ? 

Mr.  Burke.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Buchanan  returned  to  the  hearing  room.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  now  present  to 
this  committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Burke : 

In  1963,  exalted  cy clops  of  the  Bogalusa  Unit  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  under  the  leadership  of  J.  D.  Swenson 
and  Royal  V.  Young. 

In  1963-64  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Bogalusa  Unit  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  under  the  leadership  of  Murry  H. 
Martin.  This  Klavem  held  its  meetings  at  the  Disabled  American 
Veterans  Hall  w^hich  was  operated  by  Klansman  Arvis  Warner. 


2546  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Head  of  the  committee  of  exalted  cyclops  under  the  Washington 
Parish  KLan  which  distributed  leaflets  under  the  title  of  the  Orginal 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana,  under  the  leadei-ship  of 
Charles  Christmas  and  Saxon  Farmer. 

Member  of  the  Klan  front  or  cover  organization,  the  Anti-Commu- 
nist Christian  Association. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  leads  us  to  believe  that  the  wit- 
ness, Mr.  Burke,  possesses  additional  information  which  is  both  per- 
tinent and  relevant  to  this  inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the 
Congress  in  the  enactment  of  remedial  legislation. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Burke,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement  of 
Mr.  Appell,  the  chief  investigator  of  this  committee. 

Now  I  give  you  the  opportmiity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that 
statement,  to  admit  or  deny  the  truth  of  any  allegation,  and  to  explain 
or  modify  any  part  of  that  statement. 

In  addition  you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  other  matter  the 
committee  may  deem  relevant  to  this  inquiry. 

Do  you  care  to  avail  youreelf  of  that  opportunity  ? 

Mr.  Burke.  Sir,  I  respectfuly  refuse  to  answer  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  In  that  case  I  must  inform  you  that,  absent  your 
rebuttal  or  other  facts  which  may  come  to  the  attention  of  the  com- 
mittee, this  committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  its  investigation. 

Bearing  tliat  in  mind,  have  you  anything  to  say  ? 

Mr.  Burke.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Burke,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
aiRrm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  are  an  employee  of  the  city  of 
Bogalusa. 

Mr.  Burke.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  have  acted  on  behalf  of  the  Klan  in  matters  affecting 
the  city  of  Bogalusa. 

Mr.  Burke.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  chairman  of  the  committee  of  exalted  cyclops,  did 
you  know-  Albert  Applewhite 

The  Chairman.  And  that  committee  operates  statewide  in  Louis- 
iana— or  did  it  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  No  ;  this  was  Washington  Parish,  Mr.  Chairman, 

The  Chairman.  I  thought  you  said  he  was  head  of  the  committee 
of  exalted  cyclops. 

Mr.  Appell.  Of  Washington  Parish. 

As  chairman  of  the  committee  of  exalted  cyclops  of  Washington 
Parish  did  you  know  Albert  Applewhite  to  be  exalted  cyclops  of  Unit 
No.  4? 

Mr.  Burke.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  know  these  following  individuals  to  have 
held  the  position  of  exalted  cvclops  at  one  time  or  another  of  Unit 
No.  2? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2547 

Dewey  B.  Smith,  Ovied  B.  Duiiaway;  James  M.  (Buster)  Ellis,  Jr.; 
Robert  Rester:  and  Billie  Clyde  Simmons? 
•  Mr.  Burke.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  Dewey  B.  Smith  to  also  have  been  the 
exalted  cyclops  of  Unit  No.  1  ? 

Mr.  Burke.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  gromids  previously  stated. 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Pool  left  the  hearing  room.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Burke,  the  mayor  of  Bogalusa,  Mayor  Cutrer,  testi- 
fied that  he  was  approached  by  a  man  identified  as  Marvin  Foster, 
whom  he  described  as  the  liaison  of  tlie  Klan,  liaison  man  of  the  Klan, 
to  the  City  Hall,  and  was  told  to  attend  a  meeting  of  the  Klan  at  the 
Disabled  American  Veterans  Hall  operated  by  Mr.  Arvis  Warner. 

The  mayor  testified  that  he  attended  this  meeting  along  with  the 
police  commissioner,  Arnold  Spiers,  and  there  the  demands  of  the 
Klan  were  made  to  him  by  150  Klansmen  robed  and  masked. 

Did  you  participate  in  that  meeting 

Mr.  Burke.  I  refuse  to  answer  under  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell — responsible  for  extending  the  demands  to  Mayor 
Cutrer,  and  wliat  demands  were  made  upon  him  with  respect  to  the 
impending  visit  to  Bogalusa,  as  a  speaker,  of  former  Congressman 
Brooks  Hays  ? 

Mr.  Burke.  I  refuse  to  answer  under  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Burke,  literature  distributed  to  the  citizenry  of 
Bogalusa,  as  well  as  the  citizenry  throughout  the  United  States,  by  the 
Klan,  advocates  that  it  supports  free  speech.  Enforcing  the  cancella- 
tion of  speaking  enngagement  of  fomier  Congressmen  Brooks  Hays, 
how  did  the  Klan  carry  out  one  of  its  purposes  and  objectives? 

Mr.  Burke.  I  refuse  to  ansAver  under  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Burke,  it  was  at  a  speech  at  Crossroads,  Mississippi, 
on  January  21,  1965,  a  16-year  old  boy  from  Bogalusa  announced  that 
there  was  a  youth  group  of  tlie  Klan  being  organized  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Saxon  Farmer  in  Bogalusa,  Louisiana,  and  this  16-year-old  boy 
asked  you  to  join  up.  Do  you  know  of  the  existence  of  such  a  youth 
group  in  Bogalusa? 

Mr.  Burke.  I  refuse  to  answer  under  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask 
of  this  witness. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  I  have  no  questions. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  have  no  questions. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Albert  Applewhite. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give 
will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help 
you  God  ? 

Mr.  Applewhite.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  ALBERT  lAFTMAN  APPLEWHITE,  ACCOMPANIED 
BY  COUNSEL,  MICHAEL  S.  INGRAM 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record  ? 
Mr.  Applewhite.  Albert  Laf tman  Applewhite. 


2548  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   EST   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  before  the  committee  this  after- 
noon represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Applewhite.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Ingram.  Michael  Ingram  from  Baton  Rouge,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  bom  ? 

Mr.  Applewhite.  Bogalusa,  December  24, 1924. 

Mr.  Appell.  "Wliere  do  you  presently  reside  ? 

Mr.  Applewhite.  1813  Washington  Street,  Bogalusa,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  in  accordance  to  a  subpena  served 
upon  you  by  U.S.  Marshal  on  October  26,  1965,  at  1813  Washington 
Street,  Bogalusa,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Applewhite.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr,  Appell.  Mr.  Applewhite,  under  the  conditions  of  the  subpena 
there  was  an  attachment  thereto  made  a  part  of  the  subpena  and 
you  were  commanded  to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce  documents 
set  forth  in  the  attachment,  paragraph  1 : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  the  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana,  and  aflBliated  organizations,  namely, 
the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association  in  your  possession,  custody  or  con- 
trol, or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  Exalted  Cyclops  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  and  the  Anti-Communist  Christian 
Association. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Applewhite.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  these  docu- 
ments because  to  me  on  the  grounds  it  might  incriminate  me,  and  on 
the  further  ground  it  would  violate  my  rights  guaranteed  under  the 
1st,  4th,  5th,  and  14th  amendments  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
produce  the  documents. 

The  Chairman.  Were  you  in  the  hearing  room  when  I  commented 
on  the  fact  these  subpenas,  including  the  one  served  upon  you,  called 
upon  you  to  produce  these  documents  in  the  representative  capacity 
indicated  in  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Applewhite.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  Therefore,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  the 
documents  for  the  reasons  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Applewhite.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  present  these  documents  on  the 
groimds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Applewhite,  under  paragraph  2  of  the  subpena 
you  were  asked  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  past  officer  or  member  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan, 
or  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws" 
of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any 
other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or 
control. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Applewhite.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  present  these  documents  on  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2549 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
produce  the  documents. 

The  CHAimiAX.  For  the  reasons  I  previously  indicated,  I  order  you 
to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Applewhite.  I  refuse  to  present  the  documents  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Applewhite,  would  you  give  the  committee  your 
educational  background? 

Mr.  Applewhite.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Applewhite,  did  you  see  service  in  the  United 
States  Navy  from  August  1943  to  March  1946,  at  which  time  you  were 
honorably  discharged  ? 

Mr.  Applewhite.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  have  a  high  school  education  and  are  employed  by 
Crown-Zellerbach  Corporation,  Bogalusa,  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Applewhite.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  propose  to  pre- 
sent to  this  committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain 
to  Mr,  Applewhite. 

In  1964,  Mr.  Applewhite  was  a  member  of  Bogalusa  Klavern  of  the 
Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  then  under  the  leadership  of 
Murry  H.  Martin. 

In  March  of  1965,  he  held  the  position  of  exalted  cyclops  of  Unit 
No.  4  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana. 

The  Chairman.  He  was  exalted  cyclops  of  Unit  No.  4  ? 

Mr.  Appel.  On  February  15,  1965,  Applewhite,  with  other  known 
Klansmen,  gathered  at  Landry's  Fine  Foods,'^a  Bogalusa  restaurant, 
for  the  purpose  of  threatening  Negroes  seeking  service. 

On  April  6,  1965,  the  Bogalusa  Klan  rented  a  vacant  house  near  the 
Bogalusa  Labor  Temple  for  the  purpose  of  observing  civil  rights 
groups  and  planning  violence  against  them.  Applewhite  was  one 
of  the  Klansmen  watching  and  planning. 

Applewhite  was  one  of  18  members  of  the  Bogalusa  Auxiliary  Police 
force  who  was  sworn  out  of  the  Original  Knights  for  security  reasons 
in  April  of  1965.  Applewhite  is  a  member  of  the  Klan  cover  organiza- 
tion, the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Crusaders.  Applewhite  is  also 
a  leader  of  the  Minutemen  in  the  Bogalusa,  Louisiana,  area. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  leads  us  to  believe  that  Mr.  Apple- 
white possesses  additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and 
relevant  to  this  inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  the 
en.actment  of  remedial  legislation. 

Tlie  Chairman.  Mr.  Applewhite,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  state- 
ment of  the  committee's  chief  investigator,  Mr.  Appell.  I  give  you 
the  opportmiity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that  statement,  to  admit 
or  deny  the  truth  of  any  allegation,  and  to  explain  or  modify  any 
part  of  it. 

In  addition,  you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  other  matter  the  com- 
mittee may  deem  relevant  to  this  inquiry. 


2550  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Do  you  wish  to  avail  yourself  of  that  opportunity  ? 

Mr.  Applewhite.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question 
on  the  ofrounds  that  I  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  In  that  case,  I  must  inform  you  in  absence  of  your 
rebuttal,  or  other  facts  that  may  come  to  the  attention  of  the  commit- 
tee, this  committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  its  investigation. 

Now,  bearing  that  in  mind,  do  you  have  anything  more  to  say? 

Mr.  Applewhite,  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question 
on  the  grounds  that  I  have  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Applewhite,  will  you  identify  for  the  committee 
the  additional  17  members  of  the  Bogalusa  Auxiliary  Police  Depart- 
ment who  were  members  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Applewhite.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  questions  on 
the  grounds  pre\nously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Applewhite,  will  you  identify  for  the  committee 
the  klokan  and  the  members  of  the  wrecking  crew  of  the  Klavern 
which  you  headed  .as  the  exalted  cyclops  ? 

Mr.  Applewhite.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  grounds  that  I  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  Klan  in  Bogalusa  provided  for  the  creation  of  a 
boycott  committee  to  be  comprised  of  one  member  from  each  unit  in 
the  Bogalusa  area.  Tliis  committee  was  to  apix>int  a  wrecking  crew 
who  would  wreck  persons  violating  the  boycott  restrictions.  Were 
you  a  member  of  this  wrecking  crew  ? 

Mr.  Applewhite.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  grounds  that  I  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask  of  this  witness. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Ewell  Kowley. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will 
be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you 
God? 

Mr.  Rowley.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY    OF   EWELL   WILLIAM    ROWLEY,   ACCOMPANIED   BY 

COUNSEL,  MICHAEL  S.  INGRAM 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record,  please  ? 

Mr.  Rowley.  Ewell  William  Rowley. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  this  afternoon  in  accordance 
with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  26,  1965,  at  the  Pearl 
River  Junior  High  School  in  Pearl  River,  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Rowley.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel? 

Mr.  Rowley.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Ingram.  Michael  S.  Ingram,  Baton  Rouge,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Rowley  ? 

Mr.  Rowley.  Marion  County,  Mississippi,  April  25,  1921, 

Mr.  Appell.  What  city  in  Marion  County  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Rowley.  It  was  in  a  rural  area  known  as  Kokomo. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  do  you  presently  reside? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2551 

Mr.  Rowley.  Sixth  Ward  Community,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  ArPELL.  Sixth  Ward  of  what  parish? 

Mr.  Rowley.  St.  Tammany. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rowley,  under  the  condition  of  the  subpena  served 
upon  you  and  attachement  that  Avas  made  a  part  of  the  subpena,  you 
were  called  to  produce: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  and  afliliated  organizations,  namely.  Pearl 
River  Hunting  and  Fishing  Lodge  #1028  and  the  Anti-Communist  Christian 
Association  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  avail- 
able to  you  as  a  member  and/or  officer  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan  of  Louisiana  and/or  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents,  sir. 

Mr.  RoAVLEY.  Are  you  speaking  of  paragraph  1  of  the  subpena  i 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  I  read  paragrapli  1. 

Mr.  Rowley.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  produce  the  records  asked 
for  in  paragraph  1  of  the  subpena  on  grounds  tliat  it  might  incriminate 
me  and,  further,  it  would  viohite  my  rights  under  the  1st,  -Ith,  5th,  and 
14th  amendments  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to  produce  the  docu- 
ments. 

The  Chairman.  Were  you  in  the  hearing  room  when  I  commented 
on  the  fact  that  these  subpenas,  including  the  one  served  upon  you, 
called  upon  you  to  produce  these  documents  in  the  representative 
capacity  indicated  in  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Rowley.  No,  sir;  I  was  not. 

The  Chairman.  I  will  expalain  it  to  you. 

This  subpena,  which  is  technically  called  a  subpena  duces  tecum, 
calls  upon  you  to  produce  certain  books,  records,  documents,  coi- 
respondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  Ku  Klux  Klan  affairs  and 
organization,  which  documents,  it  is  stated  in  tlie  subpena,  are  in 
your  possession,  custody,  or  control  or  maintained  by  you  or  are  avail- 
able to  you  as  a  member  and/or  an  officer  of  the  Original  Kniglits  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  and/or  Anti-Communist  Christian 
Association. 

In  other  words,  the  subpena  does  not  call  upon  you  to  produce 
personal  papers  of  yours,  but  papers,  as  indicated,  in  your  possession, 
custody,  or  control  in  the  capacity  stated.  Do  you  understand  that  ^ 

Mr.  Rowley.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  That  means  that  this  committee  takes  the  position 
that  the  constitutional  ground  upon  which  you  rely  is  not  applicable, 
because  you  have  been  asked  to  produce  something  not  Ijelonging  to 
you  personally,  not  your  own  papers  or  documents,  but  in  that  capac- 
ity, and  it  is  our  position  you  have  no  right  to  invoke  those  constitu- 
tional provisions. 

Under  these  circumstances,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  them. 

Mr.  Rowley.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  produce  the  records  on 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rowley,  paragraph  2  calls  for  the  production  of: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  member  and/or  officer  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  or  the 
Anti-Communist  Christian  Association  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of 
said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other 

59-322  O — 67 — pt.  3 15 


2552  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    TJ.S. 

officer  of  said  organization,   the  same  being   in  your  possession,   custody  or 
control. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Rowley.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  produce  those  records  on 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  And  for  the  reasons  and  the  grounds  I  previously 
stated,  I  again  order  you  to  produce  those  documents  mentioned  in 
paragraph  2. 

Mr.  Rowley.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  produce  these  records  on  the 
grounds  heretofore  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rowley,  will  you  set  forth  your  educational 
background  ? 

Mr.  Rowley.  Sir,  I  refuse  to  answer  that  question  on  the  constitu- 
tional grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  you  are  the  principal  of  the  Sixth  "Ward  Jmiior  High  School, 
Pearl  River,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Rowley.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  propose  to  present 
to  this  committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Rowley. 

In  1964,  Mr.  Rowley  was  a  member  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  under  the  leadership  of  Murry  H.  Martin,  which  orga- 
nization was  known  by  a  cover  name  of  the  Christian  Constitutional 
Crusaders.  He  held  membership  and  official  position  in  the  Pearl 
River  Unit  known  by  the  front,  or  cover,  name  of  the  Pearl  River 
Hunting  and  Fishing  Lodge.  Meetings  of  the  Klan  group  were  held 
in  the  Junior  High  School  of  which  Mr.  Rowley  was  its  principal. 

Officers  of  the  unit  in  addition  to  Mr.  Rowley  were  Ed  Yates,  D.  B. 
Dean  and  L.  J.  Moran,  all  of  Pearl  River. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  leads  us  to  believe  that  he  is  in 
possession  of  additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and 
relevant  to  this  inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  the 
enactment  of  remedial  legislation. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Rowley,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement 
of  the  committee's  chief  investigator. 

Now,  I  give  you  the  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that 
statement,  to  admit  or  deny  the  truth  of  any  allegation,  and  to  explain 
or  modify  any  part  of  that  statement. 

In  addition,  I  give  you  the  privilege,  if  you  desire,  to  offer  any  other 
matter  the  committee  may  deem  relevant  to  this  inquiry. 

Do  you  care  to  avail  yourself  of  this  opportunity? 

Mr.  Rowley.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
heretofore  stated. 

The  Chairman.  In  that  case,  sir,  I  inform  you  that  in  the  absence 
of  any  rebuttal  from  you,  or  anyone  else  for  that  matter,  or  other  facts 
that  may  come  to  the  attention  of  the  committee,  this  committee  will 
rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  its  investigation. 

In  view  of  that,  do  you  have  anything  to  say  ? 

Mr.  Rowley.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2553 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  would  like  to  inquire  of  Mr.  Appell  whether  he  has 
the  name  of  the  junior  high  school  in  Pearl  Ri\er. 

Mr.  Ari'ELL.  1  think  it  is  the  Sixth  Ward  Pearl  River  Junior  High 
School. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Is  that  a  part  of  the  public  school  system  of  that 
parish  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  It  is  my  understanding  it  is. 

The  Chairman.  In  the  State  of  Louisiana,  the  parish  is  divided 
into  wards,  and  in  each  ward  there  are  elected,  depending  upon  the 
population,  members  of  the  governing  authority  of  that  parish,  which 
you  would  call  a  county  in  other  States.  And  from  each  ward  there 
are  elected,  again  depending  upon  the  population,  members  of  the 
school  board  system.  The  name  "ward"  in  this  instance  is  a  political 
subdivision  of  the  parish  from  which  the  ward  officers  are  drawn  or 
elected.  So  I  affirm  the  fact  it  is  a  part  of  the  school  system  of  each 
parish. 

Mr.  Weltner.  So  it  is  a  publicly  financed  and  publicly  owned 
facility  in  which  this  Klavern  known  as  the  Pearl  River  Hunting  and 
Fishing  Lodge  was  located  '^ 

Mr.  Appell.  Those  are  the  results  of  our  investigation. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Thank  you. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  I  am  intrigued  about  the  use  of  the  school 

Do  you  feel,  sir,  this  is  a  proper  use  of  public  property,  to  use  a 
school  building  as  a  place  for  a  Klan  meeting  ? 

Mr.  Rowley.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  I  would  give  as  my  opinion,  coming  from  Loui- 
siana and  being  familiar  with  the  school  system  there  and  the  opera- 
tion of  the  public  buildings,  that  if  a  Klan  organization — or  rather  an 
organization  dedicated  to  peace,  order,  and  law  enforcement  asked  for 
the  building,  the  school  authorities  would  make  the  building  available. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  May  I  inquire  ? 

You  are  the  second  schoolman  we  have  had  here  today,  and  I  think 
it  is  fair  to  state  heretofore,  in  looking  into  the  Klan,  we  found  a 
number  of  people  of  rather  limited  education  in  positions  of  leader- 
ship. You  are  a  man  of  some  education,  of  responsibility  in  the  field 
of  education,  and  working  with  young  people.  I  am  intrjgued.  there- 
fore, to  leani  what  it  is  that  drew  you  toward  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  oi' 
makes  you  feel,  as  a  school  official  and  one  with  your  influence  on 
young  people,  that  this  is  the  sort  of  an  organization  of  which  you 
ought  to  be  a  part. 

Would  you  tell  us  what  it  is  about  the  Klan  that  makes  you  feel 
it  is  the  kind  of  organization  you  ought  to  support  and  a  man  in 
your  position  of  responsibility  ought  to  support  ? 

Mr.  Rowley.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  would  like  to  ask  Mr.  Rowley  whether  or  not  ap- 
proval was  given  for  the  Klan  to  meet  in  his  school  by  the  ward  school 
board  ? 

Mr.  Rowley.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  grounds  previously  mentioned. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask  this  witness. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused,  and  the  committee  will 
stand  in  recess  for  5  minutes. 


2554  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

CVVliereiipon  the  subcommittee  recessed  and  reconvened  at  3 :30  p.m. 
witli  tlie  following  subcommittee  members  present  at  time  of  recess 
and  when  hearings  resumed:  Representatives  Willis,  Weltner,  and 
Buchanan.) 

The  Chairman.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 

Proceed,  Mr,  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Kinch  Miley. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you 
are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but 
the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Miley.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  KINCH  WILSON  MILEY,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  MICHAEL  S.  INGEAM 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr.  Miley. 

Mr.  Miley.  Kinch  Wilson  Miley. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Miley.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Ingr.\m.  Michael  S.  Ingram,  from  Baton  Rouge,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Miley,  you  are  appearing  before  the  committee 
today  in  accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  at  Route  1, 
Varnado,  Louisiana,  on  October  26, 1965  ? 

Mr.  Miley.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  Route  1,  Varnardo,  Louisiana,  your  residence,  Mr. 
Miley? 

Mr.  Mjley.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Miley,  would  you  state  for  the  record  your  educa- 
tional background  ? 

Mr.  Miley.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  that  it 
might  intend  to  incriminate  me,  and  on  the  further  groimds  that  it 
might  violate  my  rights  under  the  1st,  4th,  5th,  and  14th  amendments 
to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Miley,  are  you  currently  employed  as  a  schoolbus 
driver? 

Mr.  Miley.  I  refuse  to  answer  that  question  on  the  grounds  previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Miley,  are  you  currently  a  member  of  a  Klan 
organization  ? 

Mr.  Miley.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  currently  a  member  of  the  Anti-Communist 
Christian  Association  ? 

Mr.  Miley.  I  refuse  to  answer  that  question  on  the  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privilege 
and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  propose  to  present  to 
this  committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Miley. 

Mr.  Miley,  as  a  member  of  the  Bogalusa  Unit  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  was  the  purchaser  of  ammunition  and 
weapons  from  Howard  M.  Lee,  the  Bogalusa  former  exalted  cyclops, 
who  was  arrested  and  convicted  of  violation  of  ATU  regulation 
governing  licensed  gun  dealers. 

Records  in  Lee's  possession  reflect  entries  as  f  ollo\vs : 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 


255/ 


.) 


Kinch  Miley,  5U0  rounds  of  aniniunit  ion. 

The  second  entry:  Two  pistols,  .32  caliber,  Savage  automatics.  No. 
127258,  No.  160634. 

Four  weapons  not  described,  with  Serial  Nos.  RxV4844,  ()K689<), 
BN6o37,  UI6718. 

Another  entry :  Three  weapons,  not  described. 

Mr.  Miley,  what  disposition  did  you  make  of  the  weapons  and  am- 
munition obtained  by  you  according  to  the  records  of  gun  dealer  How- 
ard M.  Lee? 

Mr.  Miley.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 
(Excerpts  from  Howard  M.  Lee's  records  marked  "Kincli  Milev 
Exhibit  No.  1"  follow:) 

Kinch  Miley  Exhibit  No.  1 


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2556  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  dispose  of  any  of  the  ammunition,  pistols,  or 
other  "weapons  to  individuals  known  to  you  to  be  members  of  the 
KuKluxKlan? 

Mr.  MiLEY.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  ever  serve  on  an  official  organization  of  the 
Klan  known  as  the  wrecking  crew  ? 

Mr.  Miley.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  To  your  knowledge,  was  any  of  the  ammunition  or 
weapons  obtained  by  you  from  Howard  Lee  used  for  the  purpose  of 
carrying  out  a  wrecking  crew  assignment  ? 

Mr.  Miley.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to 
ask  of  Mr.  Miley. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Miley,  I  assume  that  Varnado  is  in  Washing- 
ton Parish. 

Mr.  Miley.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  What  ward  of  Washington  Parish  is  that  town 
in? 

Mr.  Miley.  Wliat  is  that  question  again  ? 

The  Chairman.  What  ward  of  the  parish  is  that  town  in?  What 
ward  number  of  Washington  Parish? 

Mr.  Miley.  Ward  5. 

The  Chairman.  Now  I  ask  you  a  question  on  which  you  may  want 
to  consult  your  counsel.  I  assume  that  you  are  a  bus  driver  represent- 
ing the  public  school  system  in  Ward  5  of  Washington  Parish? 

Mr.  Miley.  Repeat  the  question,  please. 

The  Chairman.  I  say  I  assume  that  you  are  a  bus  driver  represent- 
ing the  public  school  system  of  Ward  5  of  Washington  Parish? 

Mr.  Miley.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Have  you  made  public  statements  or  have  you 
appeared  at  public  meetings  to  discuss  activities  of  the  Klan  of  which 
you  are  a,  member  ? 

Mr.  Miley.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  gromids  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Have  you  ever,  in  the  course  of  your  daily  trans- 
portation of  school  children,  which  would  be  bringing  them  to  school 
in  the  morning  and  driving  them  back  home  after  school  houre,  dis- 
cussed with  these  school  children  Klan  activities  or  made  suggestions 
to  them  that  they  consult  with  their  parents  to  join  up? 

Mr.  Miley.  I  refuse  to  answer  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Are  there  any  questions? 

The  witness  is  excused. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Robert  Stallings. 

The  Chairman.  Raise  your  right  hand.  Do  you  solemnly  swear 
the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth, 
and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God? 

Mr.  Stallings.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY    OF    ROBERT    EARL    STALLINGS,    ACCOMPANIED   BY 

COUNSEL,  MICHAEL  S.  INGRAM 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Stallings.  Robert  Earl  Stallings. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Stallings  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2557 

Mr.  Stallings.  July  28,  1937,  in  Bogalusa,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  'Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  STALLiNGiS.  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Ingram.  Yes.  My  name  is  Michael  S.  Ingram,  Baton  Rouge, 
Louisiana,. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stallings,  are  you  appearing  here  this  afternoon 
in  accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  at  344  Columbia  Road, 
Bogalusa,  on  the  28th  day  of  December  1965  ? 

Mr.  Stallings.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stallings,  under  the  terms  of  this  subpena  you  are 
called  up  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  correspondence  and  memoranda  relating  to  the  organization 
of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan,  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana,  the  Louisiana 
Rifle  Association,  the  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders,  and  the  Anti-Commu- 
nist Christian  Association  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained 
by  you  or  available  to  you  as  present  or  past  officer  or  member  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of 
Louisiana,  the  Louisiana  Rifle  Association,  the  Christian  Constitutional  Crusad- 
ers, and  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association. 

I  ask  you  if  you  have  those  documents  and  if  you  will  produce  them, 
sir. 

(Documents  produced.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  the  record  to  show  that, 
in  accordance  with  the  attachment  to  the  subpena  and  the  demand 
made  on  Mr.  Stallings,  Mr.  Stallings  has  produced  certain  records. 
These  records,  Mr.  Chairman,  consist  of  monthly  ledger  cards  of  an 
account  maintained  by  the  Parish  A.C.C.A.  at  the  First  State  Bank  & 
Trust  Company,  Bogalusa,  Louisiana,  copies  of  deposit  slips,  account 
signature  card,^  and  eight  checks  drawn  against  the  account.- 

These  are  identical,  Mr.  Chairman,  to  the  records  which  the  com- 
mittee received  from  the  bank  in  accordance  with  a  subpena  duces 
tecum. 

(Ledger  cards  and  deposit  slips  marked  "Robert  Stallings  Exhibit 
No.  1"  and  retained  in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stallings,  would  you  give  the  committee  a  brief 
outline  of  your  educational  background  ? 

Mr.  Stallings.  I  refuse  and  decline  to  answer  the  question  pro- 
pounded to  me  on  the  grounds  that  it  might  incriminate  me  and  on 
the  further  grounds  that  the  answers  would  tend  to  violate  my  rights 
as  guaranteed  under  the  1st,  4th,  5th,  and  the  14th  amendments  to  the 
Constitution  of  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  please  give  to  the  committee  your  employ- 
ment background,  including  current  employment  ? 

Mr.  Stallings.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  that  I  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  are  employed  by  tlie  bank  in  which  this  account  was 
maintained. 


1  Previously  marked  "John  Magee  Exhibit  No.  2.' 
3  Previously  marked  "John  Magee  Exhibit  No.  3." 


2558  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    TT.S. 

Mr.  Stallings.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  that  I  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stallings,  according  to  one  of  the  items  supplied 
by  you,  the  copy  of  the  signature  card  maintained  by  the  bank  (John 
Magee  Exhibit  No.  2),  the  card  reflects  that  Robert  E.  Stallings,  who 
is  yourself,  was  the  signature  of  the  authority  to  the  bank  to  honor 
checks  drawn  against  the  account  in  the  name  of  the  Parish  A.C.C.A., 
including  the  names  of  J.  E.  Magee,  B.  R.  Grain,  and  Sidney  Brock. 
In  light  of  the  fact  that  these  records  which  you  supplied  show  that 
you  are  the  responsible  officer  of  the  Parish  A.C.C.A.  granting  to  the 
bank  the  authority  to  honor  checks,  I  now  ask  you  if  these  documents 
are  all  of  the  documents  in  your  possession  called  for  in  the  attach- 
ment to  the  subpena  under  which  you  delivered  these  documents? 

Mr.  Stallings.  The  manner  in  which  the  question  is  phrased,  I  re- 
spectfully refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the  grounds  I  previously 
stated. 

The  Chairman.  Would  you  care  to  explain  it  in  your  own  language? 
Would  you  care  to  ? 

Frankly,  I  am  going  to  ask  the  examiner  to  rephrase  his  question. 
We  want  the  facts  here. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stallings,  are  there  any  documents  in  your  posses- 
sion called  for  in  the  attacliment  to  the  subpena  which  you  have  not 
produced  before  this  committee  in  accordance  with  the  attachment? 

Mr.  Stallings.  Would  you  repeat  the  question,  please? 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  there  any  documents  in  your  possession  called  for 
to  be  produced  in  the  attachment  to  your  subpena  which  you  have  not 
produced  in  response  to  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Stallings.  No,  sir;  this  is  all  the  dociunents  I  have. 

The  Chairman.  I  do  not  know  that  you  followed  the  question.  I 
do  not  want  to  confuse  you  in  the  least.  Tliat  would  have  been  my 
subsequent  question.  The  question  lie  asked  you  was.  Are  the  docu- 
ments that  you  have  produced  the  only  documents  called  for?  Now 
let  me  explain.  It  may  be — I  do  not  know  myself — that  the  subpena 
called  for  other  documents.  Perhaps  you  do  not  liave  them.  If  that  is 
the  case,  I  would  suggest  that  you  say,  subject  to  your  counsel;  "No, 
the  subpena  called  for  other  documents,  but  I  don't  have  them  and  I 
have  never  liad  them,"  if  that  is  the  case.  I  tliink  counsel  understands 
that  and  I  am  ti-ying  to  clarify  the  record.    That  is  all  I  want. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  understand  what  I  am  driving  at,  Mr. 
Ingram  ? 

Mr.  Ingram.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  I  might  tell  you,  Mr.  Ingram,  in  all  frankness,  my 
next  question  would  be,  since  we  are  talking  about  possession,  tliat  the 
subpena  called  for  documents  either  in  his  possession  or  under  his 
custody  or  control,  or  available  to  him  or  maintained  by  him.  I  just 
want  to  make  it  plain ;  that  is  all. 

To  be  perfectly  frank  wnth  you,  I  would  like  to  see  one  witness  who 
has  responded  to  the  call  of  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Stallings.  The  documents  which  I  have  produced  are  all  of 
the  documents,  books  and  records,  correspondence,  and  memoranda 
which  I  have  in  my  possession,  custody 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU   KLUX   KLAN   EST   THE    U.S.  2559 

The  Chairman-.  Which  I  "have"  or  "had"? 

Mr.  Stallings.  "VVliich  I  have.    Shall  I  start,  over  ? 

The  Chairman.  Yes,  please. 

Mr.  Stallings.  The  documents  which 

The  Chairman.  Talk  a  little  louder. 

Mr.  Stallings.  The  documents  which  I  have  produced  are  all  the 
documents,  records,  books,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  Avhich  I 
have  or  have  had  in  my  possession,  custody,  or  control  or  which  I  have 
or  have  had  access  to. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Stallings,  as  to  this  portion  of  your  testi- 
mony— I  do  not  know  what  comes  next — I  tell  you  that  I  appreciate 
for  once  somebody  properly  responding  to  a  subpena  issued  by  this 
committee.     I  accept  your  tender  as  satisfying  the  subpena. 

Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stallings,  do  you  know  John  Magee,  who  appeared 
before  the  three-judge  court  in  Louisiana  and  identified  himself  as 
treasurer  of  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association,  whose  account 
carried  the  name  of  the  Parish  A.C.C.A.  ? 

Mr.  Stallings.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  I  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Magee  testified  that  the  other  members  of  the 
finance  committee  were  Sidney  Brock,  Billy  Crain,  and  Robert 
Stallings.  Will  you  explain  to  the  committee  the  formation,  purpose. 
and  organization  of  the  finance  committee  of  the  Anti-Communist 
Christian  Association? 

Mr.  Stallings.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  tlie 
grounds  that  I  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Magee  testified  that  while  lie  was  treasurer,  the 
funds  were  handled  by  Mr.  Saxon  Farmer.  Was  his  testimonv 
truthful? 

Mr.  Stallings.  I 

The  Chairman.  You  mean  he  testified  in  the  Federal  court  injunc- 
tion proceedings? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stallings.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  I  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr,  Stallings,  the  deposit  slip  of  March  22,  1965,  of 
the  First  State  Bank,  which  deposit  slip  shows  a  deposit  of  currency 
of  $100  and  silver  of  68  cents 

The  Chairman.  Complete  your  question  and  the  answer  to  it,  and 
then  defer. 

Mr.  Appell.  — which  reflects  that  this  is  a  new  account,  contains 
as  the  person  who  received  the  funds  for  the  bank  a  signature  which 
I  interpret  as  "Robert  E."  or  "R.  E.  Stallings."  Will  you  tell  the 
committee  from  what  source  you  received  this  money,  either  as  a  baiik 
employee  or  as  a  member  of  the  finance  committee  of  the  Parish 
A.C.C.A.? 

Mr.  Stallings.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  that  I  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  As  chairman  of  the  full  House  Committee  on  Un- 
American  Activities,  I  hereby  reconstitute  the  subcommittee  to  conduct 
the  hearings  for  the  balance  of  the  afternoon  as  the  following :  Myself 


2560  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

as  chairman,  Mr.  Weltner  and  Mr.  Buchanan  as  the  other  two  mem- 
bers, so  for  the  balance  of  the  afternoon  two  members  shall  constitute 
a  quorum  of  the  subcommittee  of  three. 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Weltner  left  the  hearing;  room.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stallings,  as  a  member  of  the  A.C.C.A.  did  you 
at  any  time  execute  an  application  for  membership  which  application 
had  on  its  face  "Application  for  Citizenship  in  the  Invisible  Em- 
pire, The  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan"?  I  exhibit  to  you  a  copy  of 
an  application. 

Mr.  Stallings.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  1.") 

Mr.  Appell.  As  a  member  of  the  A.C.C.A.,  did  you  ever  swear  to  a 
series  of  oaths,  copies  of  which  I  am  now  handing  you  ? 

Mr.  Stallings,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  that  I  previously  stated. 

(Documents  previously  marked  "John  Swenson  Exhibit  No.  1."') 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stallings,  in  the  month  of  November  were  you 
called  to  jury  duty  at  the  courthouse  in  Franklinton,  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Stallings.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  that  I  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  whether  or  not, 
when  examined  as  a  prospective  juror  in  a  case,  you  were  asked  whether 
or  not  you  were  the  Stallings  identified  as  a  member  of  the  A.C.C.A. 
before  the  three- judge  court  in  Louisiana,  and  that  you  denied  that  you 
were,  with  the  explanation  that  the  name  in  that  record  was  R.  L. 
Stallings  and  that  you  are  R.  E.  Stallings? 

Mr.  Stallings.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  that  I  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stallings,  in  the  canceled  checks  which  ^'•ou  sub- 
mitted under  the  subpena  duces  tecum,  there  are  checks  on  December 
22, 1965,  in  the  amount  of  $135,  payable  to  cash,  cosigned  J.  E.  Magee, 
Robert  E.  Stallings;  August  2,  1965,  to  cash,  in  the  amount  of  $77^40, 
signed  J.  E.  Magee,  Robert  E.  Stallings;  July  2,  1965,  to  cash,  in  the 
amount  of  $106.48,  cosigned  J.  E.  Magee,  Robert  E.  Stallings;  July  2, 
1 965,  a  check  to  cash  for  $93,  cosigned  J.  E.  Magee,  Robert  E.  Stallings ; 
a  check  of  March  28,  1965,  to  the  District  A.C.C.A.,  in  the  amount  of 
$39 — strike  that  one  because  it  is  not  cosigned  by  Mr.  Stallings — a 
check  dat€d  April  15,  1965,  to  cash,  in  the  amount  of  $69,  cosigned 
J.  E.  Magee,  Robert  E.  Stallings;  a  check  dated  May  24,  1965,  to 
cash,  in  the  amount  of  $170.90,  cosigned  J.  E.  Magee,  Robert  E. 
Stallings;  a  check  dated  May  29,  1965,  to  cash— strike  that  one. 

Mr.  Stallings,  I  would  like  to  ask  you  the  purpose  for  which  the 
money  was  used  from  checks  made  payable  to  cash,  cosigned  by  your- 
self. 

Mr.  Stallings.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  that  I  previously  stated. 

(Checks  previously  marked  "John  Magee  Exhibit  No.  3.") 

The  Chairman.  You  wrote  the  checks. 

Mr.  Appell,  Was  the  income  that  went  into  tliis  account  income 
received  from  units  of  the  A.CCA,  which  were  identical  to  the  Klan 
Klavern? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2561 

Mr.  Stalljngs.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  that  I  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have  no  further  questions,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Houston  Pierce  Morris. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand.  Do  you  solemnly 
swear  the  testimonv  you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole 
truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  HOUSTON  PIERCE  MORRIS 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr. 
Morris  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  Houston  Pierce  Morris. 

Mr.  Appell.  Before  proceeding  further,  Mr.  Morris,  I  note  that  you 
are  not  accompanied  by  counsel.     Do  you  desire  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  No. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  understand,  Mr.  Morris,  that  you  have  a 
right — if  you  do  not,  I  am  now  telling  you — to  in  your  own  way  invoke 
the  fifth  amendment  if  you  desire  ?  Do  you  understand  you  have  that 
right? 

Mr.  Morris.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  I  say  that  because  you  do  not  have  a  lawyer.  You 
liave  that  right.  It  will  be  given  to  you  and  accorded  to  you  just  as  if 
you  had  a  lawyer  with  you. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Morris,  when  and  where  were  you  born? 

Mr.  Morris.  October  4,  1935,  Rayville,  Richland  Parish,  Route  4, 
Box  616,     Xow  I  reside  at  112  Texas  Avenue,  Monroe,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Morris,  will  you  give  the  committee  your  educa- 
tional background  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  it  miglit  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation 
of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,4,  and  14  of  the 
Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Morris,  you  are  appearing  before  the  committer 
in  accordance  witli  a  subpena  served  upon  you  the  26tli  day  of  October, 
1965,  at  112  Texas  Avenue,  Monroe,  Louisiana? 

The  Chairman.  The  question  is,  you  are  appearing  here  because 
you  were  subpenaed  to  come  here.     That  is  the  question. 

Mr.  Morris.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Appell,  Mr.  Morris,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  calls  for  you 
to  produce  certain  books  and  records  described  in  an  attacliment  to  the 
subpena  which  is  made  a  part  of  the  subpena.     Paragraph  1  reads: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan— Louisiana,  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of 
America,  Inc. — Louisiana,  and  United  Klans  of  America— Louisiana,  in  your 
possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as 
officer  and/or  member  of  the  above-mentioned  organizations. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  the  subpena  dated 


2562  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Octoter  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  lionestly  feel  to  do  so  might  tend 
to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by 
amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America.  I  respfctfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and 
all  records  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October 
14,  1965,  because  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  gennane  to  any 
subject  under  investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress 
in  the  consideration  of  any  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within  the 
scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules 
adopted  by  the  89tli  Congress  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  January 
4,  1965. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Morris,  I  am  not  going  to  ask  you  a  question, 
but  I  am  just  telling  you  that  that  response  has  been  used  many  times, 
but  yours  is  in  very  good  form. 

Were  you  here  in  the  hearing  room  when  I  explained  to  the  wit- 
nesses that  this  subpena  called  on  you  to  produce  papers,  books, 
documents,  and  so  forth  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  Not  that  they  belonged  to  you,  but  in  your  capacity 
as  an  officer.    You  understand  that  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  Yts,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  I  order  and  direct  you  to  furnish  those. 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  produce  the  documents  asked 
for  by  the  committee  in  the  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965  for  the 
reason  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do  so  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  T'nited  States  of  America.  I  respect- 
fully decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records  as  re- 
quested by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14, 1965.  That 
information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject  under  investiga- 
tion and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  its  consideration  of 
legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within  the  scope  of  that  authorized  to 
be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules  adopted  by  the  89th  Congress, 
by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  January  4, 1965. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Morris,  I  would  advise  you  that  in  the  future  in 
answer  to  a  demand  to  produce  documents  all  of  your  rights  will  be 
protected  if  you  will  resi:)ond  by  the  language  you  "refuse  to  produce 
for  tlie  reasons  previously  stated."  That  would  include  all  of  the 
reasons  which  you  have  stated. 

I  would  like  to  ask  you,  however,  Mr.  Morris,  before  asking  for  the 
production  of  documents  contained  in  part  '2,  whether  or  not  in  con- 
nection with  the  legal  advice  that  you  received  with  respect  to  your 
appearance  here  if  you  were  advised  by  counsel  of  the  opening  state- 
ment of  the  chairman  in  October  1965,  which  set  forth  the  purposes  of 
the  hearing  and  the  designation  of  the  subcommittee,  and  whether  or 
not  you  understand  them. 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate 
me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1, 
4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Morris,  on  the  first  dav  of  the  hearings,  I 
made  what  is  called  an  opening  statement  which  indicates  the  reasons. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2563 

purposes,  objectives,  the  scope,  and  the  purpose  of  holding  the  hear- 
ings. All  witnesses  who  appeared  here  with  a  lawyer  agreed  that  either 
the  lawyer  had  explained  my  statement  or  he  was  familiar  with  it. 
You  said  you  were  not. 

Therefore,  I  now  hand  you  a  copy  of  my  opening  statement  of 
October  19,  1965,  and  I  shall  excuse  you  for  a  few"  minutes  so  you  will 
have  a  chance  to  read  it. 

Call  the  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Robert  Fuller. 

The  Chairman.  Will  you  raise  your  right  hand,  sir  ? 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give 
will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help 
you  God  ? 

Mr.  Fuller.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  ROBERT  WILLIAM  FULLER 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr. 
Fuller? 

Mr.  Fuller.  Robert  William  Fuller. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Fuller,  you  are  not  represented  by  counsel.  Do 
you  desire  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Fuller.  No,  sir.  I  have  consulted  one  and  I  will  go  from  that, 
if  you  don't  miiid. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  had  a  conversation  \vith  your  counsel,  Mr.  Venable. 
He  explained  to  me  that  he  had  advised  you  of  the  purposes  of  the 
hearing  as  contamed  in  the  opening  statement.  You  are  familiar  with 
the  purpose  for  which  this  hearing  is  being  conducted? 

Mr.  Fuller.  Yes,  sir,  I  am. 

The  Chairman.  One  more  question  of  Mr.  Fuller. 

Mr.  Fuller,  I  want  you  to  know  because  you  are  entitled  to  it — it  is 
your  choice  to  invoke  constitutional  privileges  if  you  wish  to.  I  want 
you  to  know  that. 

If  you  do,  that  right  is  a  sacred  one  and  it  will  be  respected  as  if  you 
had  a  lawyer. 

Mr.  Fuller.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Fuller,  when  and  where  were  you  bom  ? 

Mr.  Fuller.  Monroe,  Louisiana,  November  11,  1920. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  before  the  committee  this  afternoon 
in  accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  26th  day  of  Octo- 
ber, 1965  at  608  Winnsboro  Road,  Monroe,  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Fuller.  Yes,  sir ;  that  is  right. 

Mr.  xVppell.  Mr.  Fuller,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  calls  for  you 
to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America — Louisiana,  also  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  and  affiliated  organizations  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or 
maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  member  and/or  officer  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America — Louisiana,  also  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan — Louisiana. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents,  sir. 


2564  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    TIJE    U.S. 

Mr,  Fuller.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  do  so.  I  honestly  believe  that 
it  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  and  is  in  violation  of  my  constitutional 
rights  provided  in  article — 1,  4,  5,  and  14t]i  amendments  of  the  Consti- 
tution of  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  for  a  direction  to  the  witness. 

The  Chairman.  You  were  in  the  hearing  room  when  I  explained 
to  the  previous  witnesses  that  this  subpena  served  on  you  calls  upon 
you  to  produce  documents,  not  of  your  own,  but  in  your  capacity  as 
stated  in  that  subpena. 

You  miderstand  that,  do  you  ? 

Mr.  Fuller.  Any  what,  now,  sir? 

The  Chairman.  That  the  subpena  calls  upon  you  to  produce  docu- 
ments which  might  have  been  in  your  possession- — not  belonging  to  you 
but  held,  controlled,  or  possessed  by  you  as  an  officer  of  the  Klan.  In 
other  words,  it  is  not  a  call  for  personal  papers.    There  is  a  distinction, 

I  say,  you  understand  that  ? 

Mr.  Fuller.  Yes,  sir.    I  still  stick  to  this.    I  understand  it;  yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  All  right.  Then  under  the  circumstances  I  order 
you  to  produce  them.  Since  you  have  no  lawyer,  you  may.  if  you  wish, 
repeat  your  refusal  to  produce  them. 

Mr.  Fuller.  Yes,  sir.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  produce  records,  and 
I  honestly  believe  that  it  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of 
the  constitutional  rights  as  provided  in  amendments  1, 4,  5,  and  14th  of 
the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 

Mr,  Appell.  Mr.  Fuller,  I  hand  you  a  series  of  oaths  given  to  mem- 
bers of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  ask  you  to 
examine  these  series  of  oaths  and  ask  you  whether  you  ever  subscribed 
to  them? 

(Documents  previously  marked  "John  Swenson  Exhibit  No.  1.") 

Mr.  Fuller.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  You're  almost  a  lawyer  yourself. 

Mr.  Fuller.  Thank  you,  Mr.  Willis.  I  don't  have  much  education. 
I  have  to  try  to  look  out  for  myself. 

^Mr^  Appell.  Mr.  Fuller,  are  you  familiar  with  the  Klavern  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  in  Louisiana  known  by  the  designation  of  the  Monroe 
Hunting  and  Fishing  Club  ? 

Mr.  Fuller.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  know  tlie  gentleman  who  was  just  excused 
from  the  witness  chair  ? 

Mr.  Fuller.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  sir,  on 
the  same  ground  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  it  a  fact  that  you  succeeded  him  as  the  exalted 
Cyclops  of  the  Klavern  known  as  the  Monroe  Iluntino;  and  Fishing 
Club? 

Mr.  Fuller.  That  question  again,  please,  sir  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  you  succeeded  him  as  the 
exalted  cyclops. 

Mr.  Fuller.  You  said  it  was  a  fact,  though,  sir.    I  didn't. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2565 

Mr,  Appei.l.  I  ask  yon  to  aflivni  or  deny  the  fact. 

Mr.  Fuller.  I  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the  constitutional 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  propose  to  pre- 
sent to  this  committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain 
to  Mr.  Fuller. 

Mr.  Fuller  has  been  in  a  leadership  capacity  in  the  Klan  in  Louisiana 
since  shortly  after  its  activation  in  the  beginning  of  the  1960's. 

In  1963  he  became  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Klavern  known  as  the 
Monroe  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club. 

He  later  became  chief  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation  under 
J.  D.  Swenson  and  Royal  V.  Young  and  received  compensation  from  its 
account  operated  under  the  front  or  cover  name  Louisiana  Rifle 
Association. 

He  led  the  revolt  against  the  leadership  of  Swenson  and  Young, 
using  the  charge  that  they  were  only  interested  in  the  money  they  were 
getting  from  Klan  income. 

Fuller  became  a  leader  under  the  reorganized  Original  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  from  this  organization  he  received  compensa- 
tion in  the  amount  of  $3,955.47  during  the  period  of  February  11, 1964, 
through  September  29,  1964,  from  that  organization's  account  known 
as  the  Christian  Constitutional  Crusaders. 

Fuller  and  other  leaders  under  Murry  H.  Martin  broke  with  Martin 
at  the  end  of  1964  and  incorporated  an  organization  known  by  the 
name  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc., 
in  March  1965  for  the  purpose  of  attempting  to  bring  all  Louisiana 
Klansmen  under  its  banner. 

In  June  1964,  the  bulk  of  the  officers  and  members  of  the  Knights 
of  the  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  joined  the  United 
Klans  of  America,  Inc.  The  Monroe  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club,  of 
which  Mr.  Fuller  was  an  exalted  cyclops,  had  gone  into  the  United 
Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  which  operates  in  Louisiana  under  the  front 
or  cover  name  of  the  Louisiana  Rescue  Service  in  the  fall  of  1964. 

According  to  the  records  of  the  Monroe  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club 
maintained  at  the  Central  Savings  Bank  &  Trust  Company,  Monroe, 
Louisiana,  Mr.  Fuller  was  described  in  the  account,  on  authority  of 
the  signature,  as  president,  and  he  remained  as  president  from  August 
21,  1963,  to  January  21,  1964. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  leads  us  to  believe  that  he  possesses 
additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this 
inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  the  enactment  of 
remedial  legislation. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Fuller,  the  name  of  the  man  w^ho  made  this 
statement  is  Don  Appell.  He  is  the  chief  investigator  of  this  com- 
mittee.    He  is  under  oath,  just  as  you  are. 

Now  I  will  give  you  the  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that 
statement,  to  admit  or  deny  the  truth  of  any  allegation,  or  to  explain 
or  modify  any  part  of  that  statement. 


2566  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

In  addition  I  shall  g-ive  you  the  opportunity,  if  you  like,  to  offer 
any  other  matter  which  this  committee  may  deem  relevant  to  this 
inquiry. 

Do  you  care  to  avail  yourself  of  that  opportunity? 

Mr.  Fuller.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question  on  the  constitutional  (grounds  previously  stated. 

The  CiiAiRMAx.  In  that  case,  Mr.  Fuller,  I  must  inform  you  that 
since  you  did  not  take  advantage  of  that  opportunity,  or  if  we  do  not 
come  in  possession  of  other  facts,  this  committee  will  rely  upon  the 
accuracy  of  what  Mr.  Appell  had  to  say.  We  have  been  very  careful 
in  our  investigation  and  it  has  come  from  many  sources. 

In  view  of  Avhat  I  have  said,  Avould  you  care  to  say  anything? 

Mr.  Fuller,  In  view  of  what,  sir? 

The  Chairman.  In  view  of  the  fact  that  unless  you  choose  to  ex- 
plain or  deny  or  affirm  or  comment  on  what  Mr,  Appell  had  to  say, 
the  committee  w^ill  assume  that  what  he  said  is  true.  We  assume  that 
in  view  of  that. 

If  you  want  to,  I  will  now  give  you  another  opportunity  to  say  any- 
thing you  want. 

Mr.  Fuller.  I  state  the  same,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  In  other  words,  you  refuse  on  the  grounds  previ- 
ously stated? 

Mr.  Fuller.  Yes,  sir ;  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
on  the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed,  Mr,  Appell. 

Mr,  Appell.  Mr.  Fuller,  on  June  26, 1965, 1  interviewed  Houston  P. 
Morris  at  Travel  Lodge  Motel  in  Monroe,  Louisiana.  Mr.  Fuller  ex- 
plained that  3  weeks  or  so  prior  to  the  interview 

Mr.  Fuller.  Mr.  Morris. 

Mr.  Appell.  — Mr.  Morris  stated  that  the  bulk  of  his  organization 
had  gone  over  to  the  United  Klans  of  America,  but  he  said  that  you 
hadn't  gone  because  you  didn't  want  to  give  up  your  title. 

Mr,  Fuller.  Didn't  want  to  give  up  what,  sir  ? 

Mr,  Appell.  Your  title. 

Mr.  Fuller.  I  have  no  comment. 

Mr.  Appeli/.  I  am  asking  you  whether  Mr.  Morris'  testimony  was 
truthful? 

Mr.  Fuller,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Fuller,  I  liand  you  two  separate  documents,  fonns 
issued  by  the  Federal  Commimications  Conmiission,  both  forms  being 
applications  for  Class  B,  C,  or  D  station  license  in  the  Citizens  Kadio 
Service.  The  first  is  Robert  W.  Fuller,  dated  8-22-1964,  and  seeks  au- 
thority to  operate  four  transmitters. 

The  second,  signed  Robert  W.  Fuller,  dated  8-14-64,  is  in  the  name 
of  Fuller's  Sanitation  Service,  and  seeks  authority  to  operate  10  trans- 
mitters. 

I  hand  you  these  and  ask  you  if  these  are  factual  copies  of  applica- 
tions which  you  made. 

Mr.  FuLi^R.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2567 

(Documents  marked  ''Robert  Fuller  Exhibits  Nos,  1-A  and  1-B," 
respectively.     See  pp.  2568-2571.) 

The  Chairman.  What  does  that  sanitation  business  do?  You  don't 
have  to  answer,  but  I  am  curious  to  know. 

Mr.  Fuller.  Mr.  Willis,  I  wouldn't  mind  answering  that  at  the  start. 
That's  my  business.  But  you  have  me  way  down  in  the  middle  of  it, 
and  I  think  that  should  have  come  up,  sir,  at  the  start  of  my  program. 

The  Chairman.  I  won't  press  it. 

Mr,  Fuller.  I  will  be  glad  to  write  you  a  letter  and  tell  you  con- 
cerning what  it  is.    It's  legitimate. 

The  Chairman.  What  I  wanted  to  know  was,  really,  that  is  an 
awful  lot  of  transmitters  to  use  in  a  cleaning  or  sanitation  business. 

Mr.  Fuller.  I  have  18  pieces  of  equipment,  no  Klan  equipment. 

The  Chairman.  Why  didn't  you  say  in  answer  to  previous  questions 
that  you  had  no  Klan  connections?  I  won't  ])ress  the  question  because 
you  don't  have  a  lawyer.  You  are  now  saying  you  have  no  Klan  con- 
nections.    I  don't  Iviiow  what  you  mean  by  that. 

Mr.  Fuller.  I  believe  you  asked  me  the  question,  sir 

The  Chairman.  I  now  ask  you  the  question — Are  you  now,  or  have 
you  ever  been,  a  member  of  the  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Fuller.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
gi'ounds  of  my  constitutional  rights. 

The  Chairman.  Are  you  now,  or  have  you  ever  been,  an  officer  of  tlie 
Klan? 

Mr.  Fuller.  I  state  the  same.     I  respectfully  decline  to  answer. 

The  Chairman.  I  thought  you  would. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Fuller,  have  any  of  the  transmitters  authorized  for 
you  ever  been  used  to  carry  out  any  activity  on  the  part  of  the  Klan? 

Mr.  Fuller.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Fuller,  if  Mr.  Morris's  statement  to  me  was  truth- 
ful, that  you  did  not  go  into  the  Klan,  United  Klan,  what  Klan  orga- 
nization, if  any,  are  you  now  affiliated  with? 

Mr.  Fuller.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Fuller,  do  you  continue  membership  in  the  Monroe 
Hunting  and  Fishing  Club  which  in  October  of  1964  was  a  Klavern 
of  the  Louisiana  Rescue  Service  ? 

Mr.  Fuller.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on 
the  constitutional  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have  no  further  questions  to  ask  of  this  witness. 

The  Chairman.  You  are  excused. 

Mr.  Fuller.  May  I  ask  a  question,  if  it  is  permissible  ? 

The  Chairman.  It  is  perfectly  all  right  with  me. 

I  must  warn  you,  if  you  do  he  will  ask  some  of  you. 

Mr.  Fuller.  Maybe  I  will  ask  him  later.  It  is  important,  but  not 
in  this  investigation. 

The  Chairman.  I  will  be  glad  to  talk  to  you. 

Mr.  Fuller.  Thank  you,  sir. 

(Robert  Fuller  Exhibits  Nos.  1-A  and  1-B  introduced  above 
follow:) 


59-222  O— 67— pt.  3 16 


2568  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Robert  Fuller  Exhibit  No.  1-A 


Ftt,  FORM  SOS 
REVISTO  MAT  m5 


UNITED  STATFS  OF  AMERICA 

FEDERAL  COMMUNICATIONS  COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON.  O.C.     lOSM 


R«M  jvraovcD 

BUDGET  9UREMJ  NO.  U-RIZLIO 


APPLICATION  FOR  CLASS  B.  C,  OR  D  STATION  LICENSE  IN  THE 

CITIZENS  RADIO   SERVICE 


DO  NOT  WRITE  IN  THIS  BLOCK 


?.^^ 


'I'l/': 


1.  Application  for  C\&-o»  A  station  liconsf  muot  be  filrrt  or  FCC  FOIIM   400. 

2.  Complptp  on  typowriter  or  print  clcsrly.         /.L'G    C  I         'J    • 

3.  Bp  sure  application  i««  nignrd  and  dated.     Mnil  application  to  Fcdrral  Com- 
munirations  Com  mi  Mi  on,  Gettysburg,  Pa..  1782.S. 


ipjmMirlnte  f.-e   with   applicnVivn.- i/  rcqii.r.d.      J)l)  "NOT  SUMMIT 
CASH,      \lakr  chrck  or  morry  o rdff bay altl*"  to  I'-'ir"""!  ('"niinuhirationB 


4.   Knrlnsc  apji 

nry   ordff'ba'.- 
CommiMion.      (Seo  Part  19,  Volume  Vr-ol  i>X'<:,nih(i  io  dttprrtifnp  whether 


a  (re  is  required  with  this  application  ) 


NAME  OF  APPLICANT 


BU^>^t^S  NAME  lOR  LA^T  NAME,  IF  AN  INDIVIDUAL) 

/^ (^  LI-  /r/r 

FIRST  N/[tlE   ItF  AN  INOIVIDUAU 


/y^  z3  y^yTT- 


MIDDLE  INITIAL 


oO 


IF  AN  INDIVIDUAL  OPERATING  UNDER  A  TRADE  NAME  GIVE  INDIVIDUAL 
NAME.  OR  IF  PARTNERSHIP.  LIST  NAMES  OF  PARTNERS  (Do  nnl  ttptal 
any  name  MMd  tn  iUm  i) 


MAILING  ADDRESS 


l,"6ER  .»D  STREET       / ^fi ^         SOf^^S^J^ 


/>6  ey<y /yc  e- 


STATE 

L   3. 


COUNT  r  OR  EQUIVALENT  SUBDIVISION 


•    t7  (//^   C/>>  /T'A 


CLASSIFICATION  OF  APPLICANT  {Sii  inttruelimt) 


[u]^NDIVIOU*L  I      [   ASSOCIATION  Q 

I      I  PARTNERSHIP  [^  CORPORATION  [^  OTHER  (Sp<ci/»). 


CLASS  OF  STATION  (Check  only  mt) 


D' 


D' 


&«• 


IS  THIS  APPLICATION  TO  MODIFY  OH  RENEW  AN  EXISTING  STATION  LICENSE' 


00  YOU  NOW  HOLD  ANY  STATION  LICENSE,  OTHER  THAN  THAT  COVERED  BY  ITEM  6, 
OF  THE  SAME  CLASS  AS  THAT  REQUESTED  BY  THIS  APPLICATION? 


□  y« 


Q^ 


TOTAL  NUMBER  OF  TRANSMITTERS  TO  BE  AUTHORIZED  UNDER  REQUESTED  STATION 
LICENSE 


(NiMbtr) 


I 

? 


DOES  EACH  TRANSMITTER  TO  BE  OPERATED  APPEAR  ON  THE  COMMIS- 
SION S  ■  RADIO  EQUIPMENT  LIST,  PART  C,  OR  IF  FOR  CLASS  C  OH 
CLASS  0  STATIONS.  IS  IT  CRYSTALCONTROLLEDI  (//  «0,  aUdcA 
dtlaiUd  deMcription:  tee  subpart  C  of  Part  t9) 


A    WILL  APPLICANT  OWN  ALL  THE  RADIO  EQUIPMENT?     (//  no,  OMlPCf 
B  and  C  below) 


NAME  OF  OWNER 


IS  THE  APPLICANT  A  PARTY  TO  A  WRITTEN  LEASE  OR  OTHER  AGREEMENT  UNDER 
WHICH  IME  CWNERSMtP  OR  CONTROL  WILL  BE  EXERCISED  IN  THE  SAME  MAN- 
NER AS  IF  THE  EQUIPMENT  WERE  OWNED  BY  THE  APPLICANT' 


HftS  APPLICANT  READ  AND  UNOfRSTOODtHE  PROVISIONS  OF  PART  19, 
SUBPART  D  DEALING  WITH  PERMISSIBLE  COMMUNICATIONS  FOR  WHICH 
THIS  CLASS  OF  STATION  MAY  BE  USED' 


WILL  THE  USE  OF  THE  STATION  CONFORM  IN  ALL  RESPECTS  WITH  THE 
PERMISSIBLE  COMMUNICATIONS  AS  SET  FORTH  IN  PART  19,  SUBPART  DJ 


WILL  THE  STATION  BE  OPERATED  BY  ANY  PERSON  OTHER  THAN  THE 
APPLICANT  MEMBERSOF  HIS  IMMEDIATE  FAMILY  OR  HIS  EMPLOYEES' 
{If  j/rs.  altarh  a  aeparaU  nhrft  tilting  (he  names  and  rtlalionshxp  of  all 
etich  prrionB  and  give  a  detailed  reason  for  their  operation  of  your 
Btation) 


IF  APPLICANT  IS  AN  INDIVIDUAL  OR  A  PARTNERSHIP.  ARE  YOU  OR  ANY 

OF  THE  PARTNERS  AN  ALIEN* 


IS  APPLICANT   THE   REPRESENTATIVE  OF  ANY  ALIEN  OR  ANY  FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENT'     (//  ^f.i.  explain  fully) 


WITHIN  10  YEARS  PREVIOUS  TO  THE  DATE  OF  THIS  APPLICATION  HAS 
THE  APPLICANT  OR  ANY  PARTY  TO  THIS  APPLICATION  BEEN  CONVICTED 
IN  A  FEDERAL  STATE  OR  LOCAL  COURT  OF  ANY  CRIME  FOR  WHICH  THE 
PENALTY  IMPOSED  WAS  A  FINEOFJSOOOR  MORE  OR  AN  IMPRISONMENT 
OF  6  MONTHS  OR  MORE'  (Sre  instruclinnn.  }f  yet.  attach  a  tfparate 
nhfct  giving  details  of  each  such  conviction) 


IF  APPLICANT  IS  AN  INDIVIDUAL  OR  A  PARTNERSHIP,  ARE  YOU  OR  ANY 
PARTNER  LESS  THAN  18  YEARS  OF  AGE  ;LESS  THAN  12  YEARS  OF  AGE  IF 
FOR  CLASS  C  STATION  LICENSE*? 


\^ 


IF  THE  PRINCIPAL  LOCATION  WHERE  THE  STATION  WILL  BE 
USED  IS  DIFFERENT  FROM  THE  MAILING  ADDRESS  (ITEM  3>. 
GIVE  THAT  LOCATION.  (DO  NOT  GIVE  POST  OFFICE  BOX  OR 
RFD  NO.)  — ^— ^— ^— ^— — — ^— 


NUMBER  AND  STREET 


DO 
SCREENING 


NOT  yn 

:ninc   %Jj4 


ITS  IS   THIS   no  V 

D   N 


UCN  AND   DATE  THE  APPLICATION   ON   REVERSE  SIDE 


/" 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2569 

Robert  Fuller  Exhibit  No.  I -A — Continued 


19   IF  APPLiCA\r  ^SJ^  nosgovehnmental 

CORPORATION.   ANSWER   THE  FOLLOWING   ITEMS: 


IS  CORF»ORXTfON  ORGANIZED  UNDtR  LA*S  OF  ANY  FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENT! 


IS  ANY  OFFICER  OR  DrflECTOR  OF  THE  CORPORATION  AN  ALIEN? 


IS  MORE  THAN  ONE  FIFTH  OF  THE  CAPITAL  STOCK  EITHER  OWNED  OF 
RECORD  OR  MAY  IT  BE  VOTED  BY  ALIENS  OR  THEIR  REPRESENTATIVES. 
OR  BY  A  FOREIGN  GOVERNMENT  OH  REPRESENTATIVE  THEREOF  OR  BY 
ANY  CORPORATION  ORGftNiZED  UNDER  THE  LAWS  OF  A  FOREIGN 
COUNTRYJ 


IS  APPLICANT  DIRECTLY  OR  iNDIRtCTLY  CONTROLLED  BY  ANY  OTHER 
CORPORATION?     (If  yt-»,  anaucr  lUmt  E  through  K  btlow) 


GIVE  NAME  AND  ADDRESS  OF  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION 


IS  MORE  THAN  ONE  FOURTH  OF  THE  CAPITAL  STOCK  OF  CONTROLLING 

cDBPORftTioN  Either  owned  of  rlcord  or  may  it  be  .jted  by 

ALIENS  Oft  THEIR  representatives.  OR  BY  A  FOREIGN  GOVERNMENT 
OR  REPRESENTATIVE  THEREOF,  OR  BY  ANY  CORPORATION  ORGANIZED 
UNDER  THE  LAWS  OF  A  FOREIGN  COUNTRY?     (1/  ye*.  ptK  dttaxU) 


(5  ANY  OFFICER  OR  MORE  THAN  ONEFOURTH  OF  THE  DIRECTORS  OF 
THE  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION  AN  ALIEN?  {// V«.  anawtT  Hem* 
I  aiid  J  btlow) 


TOTAL  NUMBER  OF  DIRECTORS  IN  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION 


LIST  ALL  OFFICERS  AND  DIRECTORS  WHO  ARE  ALIENS  IN  CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION  AND  GIVE  BRIEF  BIOGRAPHICAL  STATEMENT  FOR  EACH 

ALIEN 


IS  THE  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION   IN    TURN    CONTROLLED 

BY  OTHER  COMPANIES?    (//  yet,  ailaeh  information  for  each  I — ] 

of  thtte  conlroilino  eompanite  cottring  th«  information  re-  I 1 

quttUd  in  ilema  E  through  J,  above) 


D' 


30     IF  APPLICANT  IS  AN  UNINCORPORATED 

ASSOCIATION.   ANSWER   THE  FOLLOWING  ITEMS: 


I  OFFICER  OR  DIRECTOR  OF   THE  ASSOCIATION  AN  ALIEN? 


ARE  MORE  THAN  ONE  FIFTH  OF  THE  VOTING  MEMBERS  OF  THE  ASSOCIA 
TION  ALIENS  OR  REPRESENTATIVES  OF  ALIENS  FOREIGN  GOVERNMENTS 
OR  REPRESENTATIVES  THEREOF   OR  CORPORAIIONS  ORGANIZED  UNDER 

THE  LAWS  OF   A  FOREIGN  COUNTRY' 


IS  THE  ASSOCIATION  DiRECTLY  OR  INDIRECTLY  CONTROLLED  BY  ANY 
OTHER  ORGANIZATION?     ;//  V't.  give  detatUd  explonatton) 


USE  THIS  SPACE  FOR  ANY  ADDITIONAL  INFORMATION  OR  REMARKS 


^dd m^  S^   /  ^     /S-oo  Su/v3ef 


gnatxir© 


WILLFUL  FALSE  STATEMENTS  MADE  ON  THIS  FORM  ARE  PUN- 
ISHABLE  BY    FINE   AND    IMPRISONMCNT.     U.S.  CODE,  TITLE  18. 
SECTION   1001. 


ALL  THE  STATEMENTS  M*OE  IN  THE  APPLICATION  AND  ATTACHED  EXHIBITS  ARE  CONSIDERED  MATERIAL  REPRESENTATIONS.  AND  ALL  THE  EXHIBITS  ARE 
A  MATERIAL  PART   HEREOF  AND   ARE   INCORPORATED   HEREIN  AS   IF  SET  OUT   IN   FULL   IN   THE  APPLICATION. 

I  CERTIFY  THAT: 

The  applicant  has  (or  has  ordered  from  the  Government  Printing  Office)  a  current  copy  of  Part  19  of  the  Commission's  rules  governing 
the  Citizens  Radio  Service; 

The  applicant  waives  any  claim  to  the  use  of  any  particular  frequency  or  of  the  ether  as  against  the  regulatory  power  of  the  United 
States  because  of  the  previous  use  of  the  same,  whether  by  license  or  otherwise . 

The  applicant  accepts  full  responsibility  for  the  operation  of.  and  will  retain  control  of  any  citizens  radio  station  licensed  to  him  pursuant 
to  this  application  ; 

The  station  will  be  operated  m  full  accordance  with  the  applicable  law  and  the  current  rules  of  the  Federal  Communications  Commission  , 

The  said  station  will  not  be  used  for  any  purpose  contrary  to  Federal,  State  or  local  law ; 

The  applicant  will  have  unlimited  access  to  the  radio  equipment  and  effective  measures  will  be  taken  to  prevent  its  use  by  unauthorized 
persons ;  and 

The  statements  in  this  application  are  true,  complete,  and  correct  to  the  best  ofy^y  knowledge  and  belief  and  a^^made  in  good  faith. 

Z. ^I .^/-      OATe   SI^EDt  


DO  NOT  OPERATE  UNTIL  VOU  HAVE 
YOUR    OWN    LICENSE. 

USE  OF  ANY  CALL  SIGN  NOT  VOUR 
OWN    IS   PROHIBITED. 


SIGNATUREi 


KCheck  apprdp^'fate>T>ox  below): 

l^TKT^DtVIDUAL  | 1    MEMBER  OF  i 1   OFFICER  OF  APPLICANT         i 1   OFFICIAL  OF 

I )    APPLICANT  I APPLICANT  J    CORPORATION    OB  GOVERNMENTAL 


PARTNERSHIP 


ASSOCIATION 


U.S.  GOVERNMENT  PRINIImG  OFFICE    IH]-O-e94-fl0l 


2570 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 


Robert  Fuller  Exhibit  No.  1-B 


FCC  FORM  5« 

n£vis£0  lur  iiu 


C£  A 


^ 
^ 


^— '        /  '  LiNJTED  STUItS  OF  AMERICA 

FEDERAL  COMMUNICATIONS  COMMISSION 
WASMIN&ION.  D.C.     Jo^y 

APPLICATION   FOR  CLASS  B,  C.  OR  O  STATION  LICENSE  IN  THE 

CITIZENS   RADIO   SERVICE 


FORM  APPPOVED 

auCX^CT  BUREAU  NO.  U-HIU.IO 


DO 

NOT 

WRITE 

IN 

THIS 

BLO(^K 

i    ' 

'i. 

^ 

CrO 

3':8 

.» 

nrir;.''-' 

L 

■■■: 

T- 

;-,.  •:•«•<.. 

1.  Appliralinn  for   Class  A   station   licrnsr   muni   be   filprf   on    FCC   FORM    400. 

2.  Complete  on  typewriter  or  print  clcarly. 

3.  Br  sure  appliration  in  nignM  and  dan^d.  Mail  application  to  Frderal  Com- 
munirations  Commission.  Gettysburg,  Pa.,  1732S. 

4.  Fnclo-"*-  anprnpriale  f.-o  w.lh  application,  if  rrquirrd.  DO  NOT  SUBMIT 
("ASH.  Makr  rhiok  of  monry  ord«  r  payahlc  to  F«-drraI  Communiratinna 
Ci.mmission.  (Soc  Tart  ID.  Volume  VI  of  FCC  rules  to  drtprminc  whether 
B  frc  IS  required  with  this  application  } 


NAME  OF  APPLICANT 


BUSINESS  NAi*E  |0(t  LAST  liAME.  IF  AM  INDIVIDUAL) 


/'/y.L /  c- /f  C     >y^  yy  /  rA  /T.. .;/    5 ':r.y  , 


FIRST  NAME   (IF  AN  INCMVIOUAU 


MIDDL£  INITIAL 


IF  AN  INDIVIDUAL  OPERATING  UNDER  A  TRADE  NAME  GIVE  INDIVIDUAL 
NAME.  OR  IF  PARTNERSHIP.  LIST  NAMES  OF  PARTNERS  \Uo  nol  rrprtU 
any  name  uacd  in  tUm  t) 


LAST  NAMES 


^l/lUR 


/^Ul  l  e/^ 


/?o/e/? 


r 


/^/?//-/v  pes 


14/ 


M. 


MAILING  ADDRESS 


NUMBCfl  AND  STREET 


PO     P,o^      t?/? 


/l^   u/V    A  «-•'  C 


COUNTT  OR  EQUIVALENT  SUBDIVISION 


Aj^ 


CLASSIFICATION  OF  APPLICANT  (Ste  xn»lTuction») 


I      I   INDIVIDUAL  j~|   ASSOCIATION  Q]   ] 

[^   PARTNERSHIP  F"]   CORPORATION  [~]   OTHER  {Sptci/y): 


CLASS  OF  STATION  {Cheek  only  oiu) 


D' 


D' 


0' 


IS  THIS  APPLICATION  TO  MODIFY  OR  RENEW  AN  EXISTING  STATION  LICENSE) 
[      I   VEt  (CiM  eaU  ■ign);  [^  NO 


OO  YOU  NOW  MOLD  ANY  STATION  LICENSE.  OTHER  THAN  THAT  COVERED  BY  ITEM  6. 
OF  THE  SAME  CLASS  AS  THAT  REQUESTED  BY  THIS  APPLICATION? 


D' 


0' 


DOES  EACH  TRANSMITTER  TO  BE  OPERATED  APPEAR  ON  THE  COMMIS- 
SION S  RADIO  EQUIPMENT  LIST.  PART  C  OR  IF  FOR  CLASS  C  OR 
CLASS  D  STATIONS.  IS  IT  CRYSTAL  CONTROLLED'  (//  n«.  aUach 
dtlaiUd  dtBcripUojL    aet  tubparl   C  of   Pari   ]  9) 


A    WILL  APPLICANT  OWN  ALL  THE  KADiO  EQUIPMENT?     (//no,  aiuvier 
U  and  C  Itcliiw) 


NAME  OF  OWNER 


IS  THE  APPLICANT  *  PARTY  TO  A  WRITTEMEASE  OROTHER  AGREEMENT  UNDER 
WHICH  THE  OWNERSHIP  OR  CONTROL  WILL  b£  E  HERCISECl  IN  THE  SAME  MAN. 
NEH  AS  IF  THE  EQUIPMENT  WERE  OWNED  BY  THE  APPLICANT? 


HAS  APPLICANT  HEAD  AND  UNDERSTOOD  THE  PROVISIONS  OF  PART  19, 
SUBPART  D  DEALING  WITH  PERMISSIBLE  COMMUNICATIONS  FOR  WHICH 
THIS  CLASS  OF  STATION  MAY  BE  USEDJ 


WILL  THE  USE  OF  THE  STATION  CONFORM  IN  ALL  RESPECTS  WITH  THE 
PERMISSIBLE  COMMUNICATIONS  AS  SET  FORTH  IN  PART  19.  SUBPART  DT 


WILL  THE  STATION  BE  OPcRATED  BY  ANY  PERSON  OTHER  THAN  THE 
APPLICANT  MEMBERS  OF  HIS  IMMEDIATE  FAMILY.  OR  HIS  EMPLOYEES? 
{tf  yr*.  oUach  a  sf  parole  fhrrl  It^-ting  llie  nameti  and  retationihip  of  all 
auch  pertona  and  give  a  detailed  recmon  for  Uuir  operaiion  of  your 
itoiion) 


IF  APPLICANT  IS  AN  INDIVIDUAL  OR  A  PARTNERSHIP.  ARE  YOU  OR  ANY 
OF  THE  PARTNERS  AN  ALIEN? 


IS  APPLICANT   THE   REPRESENTATIVE  OF  ANY  ALIEN  OR  ANY  FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENT?     Uf  ve»,  explain  fully} 


WITHIN  10  YEARS  PREVIOUS  TO  THE  DATE  OF  THIS  APPLICATION.  HAS 
THE  APPLICANT  OH  ANY  PARTY  TO  THIS  APPLICATION  BEEN  CONVICTED 
IN  A  FEDERAL  STATE  OR  LOCAL  COURT  OF  ANY  CRIME  FOR  WHICH  THE 
PENALTY  IMPOSED  WAS  A  FINE  OF  1500  OR  MORE.  OR  AN  IMPRISONMENT 
OF  6  MONTHS  OH  MORE'  {Sre  instructiona.  If  yet,  aUaeh  a  »cparaU 
ahccl  gtvtng  drlaiU  of  taeh  nuch  convirtion) 


IF  APPLICANT  iS  AN  INDIVIDUAL  OR  A  PARTNERSHIP,  ARE  YOU  OR  ANY 
PARTNER  LESS  THAN  1S  YEARS  OF  AGE  <LESS  THAN  12  YEARS  OF  AGE  IF 
FOR  CLASS  C  STATION  LICENSE)* 


YES   ,    NO 


L^ 


y 


y 


IF  THE  PRINCIPAL  LOCATION  WHERE  THE  STATION  WILL  BC 
USED  IS  DIFFERENT  FROM  THE  MAILING  ADDRESS  (ITEM  3), 
GIVE  THAT  LOCATION.     (DO  NOT  GIVE  POST  OFFICE  BOX  OR 

RFD  /VO  ) 


NUMBER  AND  STREH 


jAX^^^S^sL^iL^^^r. 


'^C.^  l<o  <. 


L4 


DO  NOT   IV 
SCREENING 


(TE  IN  THIS  BOX 


SIGN  AND  DATE  THE  APPLICATION   ON    REVERSE  SIDE 


•ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 


2571 


Robert  Fuller  Exhibit  No.  1-B— Continued 


19     IF  APPLICANT  13  A  NONGOVEKNMEyTAL  :      ^^ 

CORPORATION.   ANSWER   THE  FOLLOWING    ITEMS       "^^  ' 


IS  COfiPORMiON  ORGANIZED  UNDER  LAWS  OF  ANY  FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENT! 


rS  ANY  OFFICER  OR  DIRECTOR  OF  THE  CORPORATION  AN  ALIEN' 


IS  MORE  THAN  ONE  FIFTH  QP  THE  CAPITAL  STOCK  EITHER  OWNED  OF 
RECORD  OR  MAY  IT  BE  VOTED  BY  ALIENS  OR  THEIR  REPRESENTATIVES 
OR  BY  A  FORtIGN  GOVERNMENT  OR  REPRESENTATIVE  THEREOF.  OR  BY 
ANY  CORPORATION  ORGANIZED  UNDER  THE  LAWS  OF  A  FOREIGN 
COUNTRY? 


IS  APPLICANT  DIRECTLY  OR  INDIRECTLY  CONTROLLED  BY  ANY  OTHER 
CORPORATION?     (//  yta.  ausuer  iUma  £  Ihruu^h  K'  bd^ju'i 


GIVt  NAME  AND  ADDRESS  OF  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION 


UNDER  THE  LAWS  OF  WHAT  STATE  OR  COUNTRY  IS  THE  CONTROLLING 

CORPORATION  ORGANIZED' 


IS  MORE  THAN  ONE  FOURTH  OF  THE  CAPITAL  STOCK  OF  CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION  EITHER  OWNED  OF  RECORD  OR  MAY  IT  BE  VOTED  BY 
*'  \i  ss  -jR  TMfin  nrP"r<^<-NTATivf'^.  np  nr  a  roRf  ign  GovcRnmEmt 
OR  REPRESENTATIVE  THEREOF,  OR  BY  AN^  CORPORATION  ORGANIZED 
UNDER  THE  LAWS  OF  A  FOREIGN  COUNTRY?      (//  yc3,  ffiff  dttailt) 


IS  ANY  OFFICER  OR  MORE  THAN  ONE  FOURTH  OF  THE  DIRECTORS  OF 
THE  CONTROLLING.  CORPORATION  AN  ALIEN?  (If  yes.  antwer  tUma 
I  and  J  btlow) 


TOTAL  NUMBER  OF  DIRECTORS  IN  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION 


LIST  ALL  OFFICERS  AND  DIRECTORS  WHO  ARE  ALIENS  IN  CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION  AND  GItfE  BRIEF  BIOGRAPHICAL  STATEMENT  FOR  EACH 
ALIEN 


NATIONALITY 


IS  THE  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION  IN  TURN  CONTROLLED 
BY  OTHER  COMPANIES?  (//  v'"-  aUath  informulton  fur  cacA 
of  thetf  euntrolttno  companies  covering  the  xnfarmaUon  te 
quelled  \n  xUrm  £."  thfough  J,  abope) 


n 


IF  APPLICANT  /S  AN  UNINCORPORATED 
ASSOCIATIO/V.   ANSWER    THE  FOLLOWING   ITEMS 


IS  ANY  OFFICER  OR  DIRECTOR  OF  THE  ASSOCIATION  AN  ALIEN? 


ARE  MORE  THAN  ONE  FIFTH  OF  THE  VOTING  MEMBERS  OF  THE  ASSOCIA 
HON  ALIENS  OR  RLPRESLNTATIVESOF  ALIENS  FORI  IGN  GOVERNMENTS 
OR  REPRESENTATIVES  THEREOF.  OR  CORPORATIONS  ORGANIZE  D  UNDER 
THE  LAWS  OF  A  FOREIGN  COUNTRY? 


IS  THE  ASSOCIATION   DIRECTLY  OR  INDIRECTLY  CONTROLLED  BY  ANY 
OTHER  ORGANIZATION?     (//  yta.  give  dituiUd  rxplunudoni 


HIS  SPACE  FOR  ANY  ADDITIONAL  INFORMATION  OR  REMARKS 


WILLFUL  FALSE  STATEMENTS  MADE  ON  THIS  FORM  ARE  PUN- 
ISHABLE   BY    FINE    AND    IMPRISONMENT.     U.S.  CODE,  TITLE  18. 
SECTION  1001. 


ALL  TMt  STATEMENTS  MADE  IN  THE  APPLICATION  AND  ATTACHED  EXHIBITS  ARE  CONSIDERED  MATERIAL  REPRESENTATIONS.  AND  ALL  THE  EXHIBITS  ARE 
A   MATERIAL   PART    HEREOF    AND    ARE    INCORPORATED    HEREIN    AS    IF    SET    OUT    IN    FULL    IN    THE    APPLICATION. 

I   CERTIFY  THAT: 

The  applicant  has  (or  has  ordered  from  the  Government  Printing  Office)  a  current  copy  of  Part  19  of  the  Commission's  rules  governing 

the  Citizens  Radio  Service, 
The  applicant  waives  any  claim  to  the  use  of  any  particular  frequency  or  of  the  ether  as  against  the  regulatory  power  of  the  United 

States  because  of  the  previous  use  of  the  same,  whether  by  license  or  otherwise  . 
The  applicant  accepts  full  responsibility  for  the  operation  of.  and  will  retain  control  of  any  citizens  radio  station  licensed  to  him  pursuant 

to  this  application ; 
The  station  will  be  operated  in  full  accordance  with  the  applicable  law  and  the  current  rules  of  the  Federal  Communications  Commission  ; 

The   ftdid   btatiun   wiM   nof   h^   um>H   for  any  pijFpn»o  contrary   to   FpHoral,    State  ur    luLd'    low  . 

The  applicant  will  have  unlimited  access  to  the  radio  equipment  and  effective  measures  will  be  taken  to  prevent  tls  use  by  unauthorized 
persons  .  and 

The  statements  m  this  application  are  true,  complete,  and  correct  to  the  best  of  my  knowledge  and  belief  and  are  made  m  good  faith. 

c.r.>.>T..i,r.      / //■'     4   ^  (     /^^^  '^    -j/i/yLf-L^^         DATE   SIGNED.     ^   ^ />/    -  h  ¥l 
{Check   appfopriato  hot.  b9lo<f/):  /  ( 

□    INDIVIDUAL                       ff-n    MtMBER   OF                     1 1    OFFICER   OF   APPLICANT          I 1    OFFICIAL    OF 
APPLICANT                         r        APPLICANT                          CORPORATION    OR                          GOVERNMENTAL 

^'-^    PARTNERSHIP  ASSOCIATION  ENTITY 


DO 

NOT 

OPERATE 

UNTIL    VOU 

HAVE 

YOUR 

OWN 

LICENSE. 

USE 

OF 

ANY 

CALL 

SIGN    NOT 

YOUR 

OWN 

IS   PROHIBITED. 

U.S  GOvEhNMENI  PHINllnC  OFUCt    1963-O-«fl4-«01 
Repfifiled    by    E     F,   Johnson   Company 


2572  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  will  recall  Mr.  Houston  P.  Morris. 

TESTIMONY    OP   HOUSTON   PIERCE   MORRIS— Resumed 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Morris,  during  this  interval  when  you  were 
excused  from  the  stand,  I  take  it  you  have  had  oportunity  to  famil- 
iarize yourself  with  my  stated  reasons  for  the  purposes  of  this  hearing. 

Mr.  Morris.  Right. 

The  Chairman.  He  says  he  is  familiar  with  the  opening  statement. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Morris,  will  you  give  the  committee  a  brief  resume 
of  your  educational  background? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfiilly  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  I  lionestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  viola- 
tion of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14 
of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chainnan,  in  view  of  the  fact  Mr.  Morris  did  not 
know  the  content  of  your  opening  statement,  the  purpose  of  the  hear- 
ings, I  shall  again  ask  him  to  produce  the  documents  called  for  under 
the  subpena. 

You  were  ordered  and  directed  under  the  subpena  to  produce  under 
paragraph  1 : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan — Louisiana,  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of 
America,  Inc. — Louisiana  and  United  Klans  of  America — Louisiana,  in  your 
possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  an 
officer  and/or  member  of  the  above-mentioned  organizations. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  commanded  by  the  committee  in  the  subpena 
dated  October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  to  do  so 
might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed 
to  me  by  amendments  5, 1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14, 1965,  be- 
cause that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  any  subject 
under  investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the 
consideration  of  any  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within  the  scope  of 
that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules  adopted  by 
the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  January  4,  1965. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  for  a  direction  for  the  production  of  documents 
called  for  in  paragraph  1. 

The  Chairman.  Were  you  in  the  hearing  room  when  I  explained, 
Mr.  Morris,  that  this  subpena  asked  you  to  produce  documents  as  an 
officer  of  the  Klan  and  documents  and  papers  of  your  own.  Do  you 
understand  that? 

Mr.  Morris.  Yes. 

Tlie  Chairman.  I  therefore  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  those 
documents. 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  commanded  by  the  committee  in  the  subpena  dated 
October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  to  do  so  might 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2573 

tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me 
by  amendments  5, 1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
of  xVmerica. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965, 
because  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  any  subject 
under  investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the 
consideration  of  any  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within  the  scope 
of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules  adopted 
by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  January  4, 1965. 

Mr.  Appell.  lender  part  2  of  the  subpena,  paragraph  2,  you  are 
directed  to  produce : 

AH  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  i>ast  member  and/or  officer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc. — 
Louisiana,  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan — Louisiana  and  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Klu  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc. — Louisiana,  which  the  "Constitu- 
tion and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by 
you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession, 
custody  or  control. 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  commanded  by  the  committee  in  the  subpena 
dated  October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  to  do  so 
might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed 
to  me  by  amendm.ents  5,  1,4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965, 
because  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  any  subject 
under  investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the 
consideration  of  any  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within  the  scope 
of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules  adopted 
by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  January  4, 1965. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  for  a  direction  for  the  production  of  documents 
called  for  in  paragraph  2. 

The  Chairman.  For  the  reasons  indicated,  I  order  and  direct  the 
witness  to  produce  the  documents. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Morris,  are  you  currently  a  member  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America,  Realm  of  Louisiana,  which  operates  under  the  cover 
name  of  the  Louisiana  Rescue  Service  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  4,  1, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  a  document,  authority  to  the  Central 
Savings  Bank  &  Trust  Company,  Monroe,  Louisiana,  issued  by  the 
president  and  secretary  of  the  Monroe  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club, 
which  designates  Houston  Morris  as  president  and  contains  the  signa- 
ture of  Houston  P.  Morris,  signed  by  Bruce  Bairnsfather,  secretary, 
and  Houston  P.  Morris,  president,  and  I  ask  you  if  you  are  the  Houston 
P.  Morris  who  signed  that  document. 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 


2574  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

violation  of  my  rights  as  gruaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  4,  1, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Murry  Martin  Exhibit  No.  6."  See 
pp.  2369.) 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Morris,  a  minute  or  two  ago  I  ordered  you  to 
produce  documents  called  for  in  paraofraph  2.  Somehow  you  did  not 
respond.   Mr.  Appell  then  went  to  another  question. 

I  now  again  order  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for  in 
paragraph  2  of  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  commanded  by  the  committee  in  the  subpena 
dated  October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  to  do  so 
might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed 
to  me  by  amendments  5, 1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965, 
because  that  infoiTnation  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  any  subject 
under  investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the 
consideration  of  any  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within  the  scope 
of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules  adopted 
by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  January  4, 1965. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privilege  and  his 
consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  propose  to  present  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Morris. 

Mr.  Morris  was  the  first  president  and  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Orig- 
inal Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  Klavem  in  Monroe,  Louisiana, 
known  by  the  cover  name  of  the  Monroe  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club. 
He  was  the  grand  kleagle  or  State  organizer  of  the  Original  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  under  the  leadership  of  J.  D.  Swenson  and  Royal 
V.  Young.  He  was  the  grand  kleagle — or  state  organizer,  realm  or- 
ganizer— of  the  Original  Knights  under  the  leadership  of  Murry  H. 
Martin.  He  was  the  leader  of  a  faction  which  resulted  in  the  removal 
of  leadership  of  Royal  V.  Young  and  the  succession  of  Muriy  H. 
Martin. 

At  the  time  of  the  ele<>tion  of  Murry  H.  IMartin,  a  deal  was  consum- 
mated between  Mr.  Martin  and  Mr.  Morris  whereby  Mr.  IMorris  ^^X)uld 
retain  leadership  of  the  organization,  and  Mr.  Martin  would  retain 
leadership  of  the  organization  for  6  months  until  elections  were  to  be 
held,  at  which  time  it  was  scheduled  for  Mr.  Morris  to  take  over 
the  top  office. 

Wlien  Mr.  Martin  defeated  Mr.  Morris  in  elections  in  November 
1964,  Mr.  Morris  led  dissension  within  tliat  orffanizntioii,  and  in  1965 
incorporated  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America, 
Inc.,  along  with  Jack  Saucier,  809  Sou^h  Eighth  Street,  Monroe,  and 
George  Bonner,  1511  Alabama  Street,  Monroe.^ 

After  incorporation,  Morris  became  the  Imperial  Wizard  of  the 
organization. 

April  28, 1965,  Mr.  INIorris  addressed  a  letter  to  the  secretary  of  state 
informing  the  secretary  of  state  that  he  had  resigned  from  the  board 

^  See  B.  J.   Sander  Exhibit  No.  1,  committee  report,  The  Present-Day  Ku  Klux  Klan 
Movement,  pp.  320-324. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2575 

of  directors  of  the  Original  Kii  Kkix  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  and 
advised  the  secretary  of  state  that  his  letter  of  resignation  had  been 
accepted  by  the  board  of  directors.' 

In  May  or  June  of  1965,  Mr.  Moiris,  together  with  other  former 
members  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Khix  Klan  of  America, 
Inc.,  met  with  Imperial  Wizard  Robert  Shelton  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America  and  took  the  bulk  of  his  organization  into  the  United  Klans 
of  America. 

As  the  Imperial  Wizard,  Mr.  Morris  organized  some  Klansmen  in 
the  State  of  Arkansas.  These  Arkansas  members  are  now  under  Mr. 
Shelton's  organizational  structure  in  that  State. 

Tliis  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  leads  us  to  believe  that  Mr.  Mor- 
ris possesses  additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  rele- 
vant to  this  inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting 
remedial  legislation. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Morris,  the  name  of  the  gentleman  w^io  just 
made  that  statement  is  Mr.  Appell.  He  is  under  oath  just  like  you, 
and  I  now  give  you  the  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that 
statement,  to  admit  or  deny  the  truth  of  any  allegation,  and  explain 
or  modify  any  part  of  the  statement. 

In  addition,  I  give  you  the  opportunity,  if  you  wish,  to  offer  any 
other  matter  the  committee  may  deem  pertinent  to  this  inquiry. 

Do  you  wish  to  avail  yourself  of  this  opportunity? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  4,  1, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

The  Chairman.  In  that  case,  Mr.  Morris,  I  inform  you  that  in  the 
absence  of  your  rebuttal,  or  other  facts  that  may  come  to  the  atten- 
tion of  the  committee,  the  committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of 
its  investigation. 

Do  you  wish  to  say  anything  to  that  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  4,  1,  and 
14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  TTnited  States  of  America. 

The  Chairman.  All  right,  proceed. 

INIr.  Appell.  Mr.  Morris,  were  you  interviewed  by  me  at  the  Travel 
Lodge  Motel  in  Monroe,  Louisiana,  on  June  16, 1965? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  4,  1,  and 
14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Morris,  did  vou  admit  to  me  during  that  interview 
that  you  were  a  member  of  the  Klan,  and  that  you  had  recently  taken 
your  Klan  organization,  yourself  and  others,  into  the  TTnited  Klans 
of  America  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  4,  1, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 


1  See  B.  J.  Saucier  Exhibit  No.  2,  p.  2583. 


2576  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Morris,  when  I  discussed  with  you  income  which 
you  had  received  as  an  organizer  for  the  Khm  and  asked  you  whether 
you  had  reported  same  on  your  income  tax  returns,  you  advised  me  you 
had  reported  it  and  for  me  to  find  it. 

Is  that  factual,  sir  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  4,  1, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  1963,  did  you  report  $925  of  that  as  public  good  will 
donations  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  .5,  4, 1,  and 
14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  1964,  did  you  report  $2,353.65  as  donations  from 
speeches  at  political  meetings  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  4,  1, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  discussing  the  organizational  structure  of  the  Klan, 
Mr.  Morris,  did  you  advise  me  that  the  Klan  was  a  nonviolent  organiza- 
tion ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  4,  1, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  admit  to  me  that  investigating  procedures  of 
new  members  was  such  that  people  prone  to  \aolence  would  not  be 
kept  out  of  membership  in  the  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  4,  1, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Morris,  this  next  statement  I  will  put  to  you  as  a 
fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact. 

When  asked  what  action  you  would  take  against  a  member  who  was 
guilty  of  killing  a  Negro,  that  you  responded,  you  "don't  give  a  damn 
if  they  went  out  and  killed  100." 

Mr.  Morris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  4,  1, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have  no  further  questions,  Mr.  Chairman,  to  ask  of 
this  witness. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

The  committee  stands  in  recess. 

(Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Willis  and 
Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon,  at  5  :10  p.m.,  Thursday,  January  6,  1966,  the  subcom- 
mittee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  10  a.m.,  Friday,  January  7,  1966.) 


ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLUX  KLAN  ORGANIZATIONS  IN 

THE  UNITED  STATES 

Part  3 


FRIDAY,  JANUARY  7,  1966 

United  States  House  of  Representatives 

Subcommittee  of  the 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 

Washington,  D.G. 
public  hearings 

The  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  as 
reconstituted  for  the  January  7  hearings,  met,  pursuant  to  recess,  at 
10:20  a.m.  in  the  Caucus  Room,  Cannon  House  Office  Building, 
Washington,  D.C.,  Hon.  Edwin  E.  Willis  (chairman)  presiding. 

(Subcommittee  members:  Representatives  Edwin  E.  Willis,  of 
Louisiana,  chairman;  Charles  L.  Weltner,  of  Georgia;  and  John  H. 
Buchanan,  Jr.,  of  Alabama.) 

Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Willis  and  Bu- 
chanan. 

Staff  members  present:  Francis  J.  McNamara,  director;  William 
Hitz,  general  counsel;  Alfred  M.  Nittle,  counsel;  Donald  T.  Appell, 
chief  investigator;  and  Philip  R.  Manuel,  investigator. 

The  Chairman.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 

As  chairman  of  the  full  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  I 
hereby  constitute  a  committee  of  three  to  conduct  the  hearings  today, 
of  the  following:  myself,  as  chairman  of  the  subcommittee;  Mr.  Welt- 
ner, of  Georgia ;  and  Mr.  Buchanan,  of  Alabama.  And,  of  course,  two 
members  constitute  a  quorum  of  this  subcommittee,  and  I  announce 
the  presence  of  a  quorum. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  call  to  the  witness  stand  Robert  T. 
Rester. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  solemnly  swear,  sir,  the  testimony  you  are 
about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the 
truth,  so  help  you  God? 

Mr.  Rester.  I  do,  sir. 

TESTIMONY  OF  ROBERT  T.  RESTER,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL  S.  INGRAM 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rester,  will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record, 
please. 
Mr.  Rester.  Robert  T.  Rester. 

2577 


2578  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr,  Rester.  Yes,  sir,  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Ingram.  Michael  S.  Ingram,  Baton  Rouge,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rester,  are  you  appearing  today  in  accordance 
with  the  subpena  served  upon 'you  on  December  28,  1965,  which  calls 
for  your  appearance  on  January  10,  and  you  are  appearing  this  morn- 
ing because  of  an  arrangement  between  your  coimsel  and  the  com- 
mittee? 

Mr.  Rester.  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rester,  when  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Rester.  Bogalusa,  Louisiana,  May  3, 1930. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  do  you  presently  reside  ? 

Mr.  Rester.  Bogalusa,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  reside  at  a  street  and  number?  ' 

Mr,  Rester,  1353  Edward  Lane. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  have  a  business  address  in  Bogalusa? 

Mr.  Rester,  311  First  Avenue, 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rester,  would  you  give  the  committee  your  educa- 
tional background  ? 

Mr.  Rester.  I  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the  grounds  that  it 
might  tend  to  incriminate  me  and  cite  as  the  basis  of  this  refusal  the 
1st,  the  4th,  the  5th,  and  the  14th  amendments  of  the  United  States 
Consitution. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  give  the  committee  your  employment  back- 
ground ? 

Mr.  Rester.  I  decline  to  answer  that,  sir,  on  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rester,  are  you  a  member  of  the  bar  of  the  State  of 
Louisiana  as  well  as  the  city  attorney  of  Bogalusa? 

Mr.  Rester.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  grounds  prev- 
iously stated,  sir.  ' 

Mr.  Appell,  Mr,  Rester,  I  hand  you  a  copy  of  the  articles  of  incor- 
poration of  the  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association.  I  invite  your 
attention  to  page  2  of  tlie  articles  of  incorporation,  specifically  Article 
V.  Registered  Agents,  wliicli  reads,  "The  full  names  and  post  office 
addresses  of  the  corporation's  registered  agents  are :  Robert  T.  Rester, 
311  First  Avenue,  P.O.  Box  1160,  Bogalusa,  Louisiana ;  Saxon  Fanner, 
315  East  Fifth  Street,  Bogalusa,  Louisiana."  And  I  ask  you  if  you 
are  the  Robert  T,  Rester  indicated  as  one  of  tlie  two  agents. 

Mr.  Rester.  Sir,  I  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Saxon  Farmer  Exhibit  No.  1.") 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rester,  the  three-judge  court 

The  Chairman.  Please  speak  up  a  little  bit,  both  of  you.  It  is  hard 
for  us  to  follow. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rester,  the  three-judge  court  in  New  Orleans 
which  considered  an  injunction  against  certain  residents  of  Bogalusa, 
including  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  and  the  iA.nti- 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2579 

Communist  Christian  Association,  found  that  the  Anti-Communist 
Christian  Association  was  a  front  or|i;anized  to  operate  as  a  Klan-type 
organization.  As  one  of  the  agents  of  tliat  corporation,  is  the  finding 
of  the  tliree-judge  court  factual  ? 

Mr.  Rester.  I  decline  to  answer  the  question,  sir,  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rester,  at  the  time  these  incorporation  papers  were 
drawn — and  according  to  the  corporation  papers,  they  were  drawn 
"the  1st  day  of  the  month  of  December,  in  the  year  of  Our  Lord,  One 
Thousand  Nine  Hundred  and  Sixty  Four," — were  you  a  member  of 
the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Rester.  I  decline  to  answer  that,  sir,  on  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  were  the  exalted  cyclops  of  a  unit  in  Bogalusa. 

Mr.  Rester.  I  decline  to  answer  that,  sir,  on  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rester,  as  the  exalted  cyclops  of  a  unit  and  under 
the  constitution  by  which  the  organization  was  supposed  to  govern 
itself,  there  was  in  each  Klavem  a  klokan  chief.  I  ask  you  who  was 
the  klokan  chief  of  your  Klavern. 

Mr.  Rester.  I  decline  to  answer  that,  sir,  on  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  klokan  chief  was  supposed  to  appoint  six  members 
to  an  organization  known  within  the  Klavem  and  Klan  as  the  wreck- 
ing crew.  Who  were  the  members  of  the  wrecking  crew  of  your 
Klavem  ? 

Mr.  Rester.  I  decline  to  answer  that,  sir,  on  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rester,  in  light  of  the  admissions  of  Saxon  Farmer 
and  Charles  Christmas  and  the  admission  of  counsel  representing  the 
Klan,  Anti-Communist  Christian  Association,  as  well  as  the  defend- 
ants in  that  action — I  might  point  out  you  were  not  a  defendant — 
members  did  in  fact  engage  in  violent  acts.  I  would  like  to  ask  you 
whether  or  not  you  are  quoted  correctly  in  a  syndicated  article  by 
Murray  Kempton  which  quotes  you  as  saying  that  the  town  of  Boga- 
lusa owes  the  Klan  a  vote  of  thanks.  I  show  you  the  article  to  which 
I  am  referring. 

(Document  handed  to  witness.) 

Mr.  Rester.  Sir,  I  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Robert,  Rester  Exhibit  No.  1"  and  retained  in 
committee  files.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rester,  do  you  know  Clayton  Hines  of  T^ees  Creek 
near  Bogalusa  ? 

Mr.  Rester.  I  decline  to  answer  that,  sir,  on  the  gi'ounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  According  to  Mr.  Hines'  testimony  before  the  three- 
judge  court,  he  was  the  secretary  of  the  Klavem  of  which  you  were 
the  exalted  cyclops,  and  through  him  the  Government  introduced  in 


2580  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

evidence  a  list  of,  I  believe,  151  members  of  the  Klan  in  the  Bog'alusa 
area,  and  Mr.  Hines  testified  that  the  list  was  made  up  in  your  office 
with  your  assistance.     I  ask  you  if  his  testimony  was  true. 

Mr.  Rester.  I  decline  to  answer  that,  sir,  on  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  no  further  questions  to  ask  of 
this  witness.  I  ask  that  the  documents  referred  to  be  entered  in  the 
record  at  the  place  where  they  were  mentioned. 

The  Chairman".  The  documents  will  be  inserted  in  the  record  at  the 
respective  points  indicated. 

(The  chairman,  Mr.  Appell,  and  Mr.  Ingram  confer.) 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Rester,  are  you  now  a  member  of  any  Klan-type 
organization  ? 

Mr.  Rester.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  And  that  is  your  statement  under  oath  ? 

Mr.  Rester.  Yes,  sir ;  that  is  my  statement. 

The  Chairman.  And  you  are  an  attorney  and  you  know  the  mean- 
ing of  an  oath  ? 

Mr.  Rester.  Correct. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  no  further  questions  to  ask  of 
this  witness. 

The  Chairman,  The  witness  is  excused. 

Mr.  Rester.  Thank  you. 

The  Chairman.  Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  B.  J.  Saucier. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimonv  you  are  about  to  give  will  he 
the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God? 

Mr.  Saucier.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  B.  J.  "JACK"  SATJCIER 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr. 
Saucier? 

Mr.  Saucier.  I  have  initials  only.  B.  J.  Saucier.  Jack  is  a  nick- 
name. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  response  to  a  sub- 
pena  served  upon  you  on  the  26th  day  of  October  1965  at  608  Winns- 
boro  Road,  Monroe,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Saucier.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Saucier,  you  are  not  accompanied  by  counsel.  Do 
you  desire  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Saucier.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Saucier,  T  want  to  tell  you  that  if  von  wish 
you  may  invoke  the  fifth  amendment  at  any  point  you  think  you 
ought  to.  T  say  that  because  you  won't  have  the  benefit  of  advice 
from  counsel.  If  you  exercise  that  ricfht,  I  will  accept  it  in  the  same 
manner  and  treat  it  in  the  same  wav  as  if  you  had  counsel. 

Mr.  Saucier.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Saucier,  Attorney  James  Venable  advised  me  that 
he  was  your  attorney  or  is  your  attorney,  that  he  had  given  you  legal 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2581 

advice,  and  that  it  was  agreeable  with  him  that  yon  testify  without 
him.     Is  that  right,  sir? 

Mr.  Saucier.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  ^fr.  Venable  exphiin  to  you  the  purposes  for  which 
the  committee  is  sitting  and  holding  these  hearings  as  outlined  in  the 
opening  statement  of  Chairman  AVillis  in  October  of  last  year? 

Mr.  Saucier.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  ]Mr.  Saucier,  paragraph  1  of  the  subpena  served  upon 
you  called  for  you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans.  of  America,  Inc.,  and  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and 
affiliated  organizations,  namely,  Choshota  Parish  Unit  of  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by 
you  or  available  to  you  as  member  and/or  officer  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana,  or  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Louisiana. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents,  Mr.  Saucier. 

Mr.  Saucier.  Sir,  I  respectfully  refuse  to  do  so.  I  earnestly  believe 
that  it  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  and  violate  my  constitutional 
rights  as  provided  under  article  I,  article  IV,  article  V,  and  the  14th 
amendment  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Saucier,  I  think  you  were  in  the  hearing  room 
and  heard  me  explain  that  this  subpena  was  served  on  you  as  an 
officer  of  the  Klan  group  and  to  produce  those  records  in  that  capacity. 
You  are  aware  of  that? 

Mr.  Saucier.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  In  view  of  that,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce 
those  documents. 

Mr.  Saucier.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  do  so  on  the  previously  stated 
grounds. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Saucier,  paragraph  2  called  for  you  to  produce: 

ah  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  past  member  and/or  officer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
Louisiana  and  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  Louisiana  which  the 
"Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  main- 
tained by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your 
possession,  custody  or  control. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documets. 

Mr.  Saucier.  I  respectfully  decline  to  on  the  previously  stated 
groimds. 

The  Chairman.  For  the  reasons  I  stated,  I  order  and  direct  you 
to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Saucier.  I  respectfully  decline  to  do  so  on  the  previously  stated 
grounds. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Saucier,  when  and  where  were  you  bom  ? 

Mr.  Saucier.  I  was  born  July  2,  1927,  in  the  rural  area  of  Winns- 
boro,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  do  you  presently  reside? 

Mr.  Saucier.  809  South  Eightli  Street,  Monroe,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Saucier,  would  you  give  the  committee  the  benefit 
of  your  educational  background? 


2582  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Saucier.  I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  that  I  earnestly  believe  it  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  and 
further  violate  my  constitutional  rights  under  article  I,  article  IV, 
article  V,  and  the  14th  amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  give  the  committee  the  benefit  of  your  em- 
ployment backgromid? 

Mr.  Saucier.  I  respectfully  de(iline  to  answer  on  the  grounds  pre- 
viously stated.  * 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Saucier,  were  you  a  member  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  I^ux  Klan  at  the  time  said  organization  was 
under  the  leadership  of  Koyal  V.  Young? 

Mr.  Saucier.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Under  the  leadership  of  Murry  H.  Martin,  were  you 
the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Ouachita  Parish  Unit? 

Mr.  Saucier.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  know  Willis  J.  Kidd  to  be  the  exalted  cyclops 
of  the  Swartz  Unit? 

Mr.  Saucier.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  November  1964  at  an  election  of  jthe  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  HoustoA  P.  Morris  sought  the  position 
of  Imperial  Wizard  and  was  defeated. 

Did  you,  Mr.  Kidd,  and  others  subsequently  break  with  that  organi- 
zation as  a  result  of  the  dissension  that  grew  out  of  his  defeat  ? 

Mr.  Saucier.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Saucier,  I  hand  you  a  copy  of  an  incorporation — 
articles  of  incorporation  of  an  organization  designated  as  the  Original 
Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc. 

I  invite  your  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  incorporators  are  listed 
in  this  document  as  being  Houston  P.  Morris,  112  Texas  Avenue,  Mon- 
roe, Louisiana ;  Jack  Saucier,  809  South  8th  Street,  Monroe,  Louisiana; 
and  George  Bonner,  1511  Alabama  Street,  Monroe,  Louisiana. 

I  hand  you  this  document  for  you  to  review  and  put  it  to  you  as 
a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  cteny  the  fact,  that  you  are  the  Jack 
Saucier  named  in  this  document. 

Mr.  Saucier.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "B.  J.  Saucier  Exhibit  No.  1.") 

Mr.  Appell.  According  to  a  letter  obtained  from  tlie  Office  of  Sec- 
retary of  State,  the  State  of  Louisiana,  Houston  P.  INIorris  resigned 
from  this  organization,  according  to  the  letter  dated  April  28,  1965. 

Will  you  tell  the  committee  what  caused  Houston  P.  Morris  to  break 
with  the  organization? 

Mr.  Saucier.  I  respectfully  decline  to  do  so  on  tlie  same  grounds 
previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "B.  J.  Saucier  Exhibit  No.  2"  follows:) 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2583 

B.  J.  Saucier  Exhibit  No.  2 

/'bnywe^    LouLdLana 
ApAll  28,   l<^S 


y 


SecA£yLaAy  of.  State. 

State,  oji  LoLuM-ana  /^      "^ 

(jopLLaJ.  LiuLixii/tg. 

HcUon.  f^uQj^,    LouL^iafWL 

DeaA  Siyt: 

JihLd  La  to  in(x>/vn  uuu  that  I  kave  leAJj^ea.  fjwm  the 
boa/id  of.  Diji£ctoA/i  of.  ihA^OriiqinxjJ.  Ku  KJjxk  ULcfi  of  AneAJ-Ca, 
lac  \  \  letieA.  of  njeyiignation.  ka^  been  ^uhmLtted  and  acce.pied 
'~5i(  ihe.  ixtoAd  of  OLnecton^  of  the  O/vigUnaJ.  Ku  Kiux  Kian  of 
/hiejvic,    lac 

■  'lea/;e  njsmove.  mu  none  fjwm  the  chaAteA  on  file  tuLih  ^u/i 
office. 


l<  ^ 


f"-^ 


Mr.  Appell.  Wasn't  it  again  because  of  dissension  within  a  Klan 
group  in  which  Mr.  Morris  wanted  to  take  the  bulk  of  the  organization 
into  the  United  Klans  of  America? 

Mr.  Saucier.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  on  the 
previously  stated  grounds. 

Mr,  Appell.  I  have  no  further  questions,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  call  Mr.  Willis  J.  Kidd. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand,  sir. 


59-222  O— 67— pt.  3 17 


2584  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be 
the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 
Mr.  KiDD.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  WILLIS  JAMES  KIDD,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 

LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  AVill  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr. 
Kidd? 

Mr.  Kidd.  Willis  James  Kidd. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  this  morning  in  accordance 
with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  26tli  day  of  October  1965  at 
Music  Road  in  Swartz,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Kidd.  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel? 

Mr.  Kidd,  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  I  am  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law^,  501 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Kidd  ? 

Mr.  Kidd.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the  rea- 
son that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me 
in  violation  of  my  rights  guaranteed  to  me  in  the  amendments  5,  1,  4, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Kidd,  you  have  been  a  member  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  under  Mr.  Young,  the  Original  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  under  Mr.  Martin,  the  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan 
of  America,  Inc.,  as  well  as  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Kidd.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate 
me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1, 
4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr,  Appell.  Mr,  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness"  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  present  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr.  Kidd. 

Mr.  Kidd  was  born  on  June  11, 1932,  in  Ouachita  Parish,  Louisiana. 
He  is  employed  as  assistant  office  manager  at  the  Columbia  Carbon 
Company,  Swartz,  Louisiana.  He  served  in  the  United  States  Navy 
from  1952  to  1956.  He  has  been  a  member  of  Ku  Klux  Klan  organi- 
zations since  1968,  He  recently  held  membership,  in  the  office  of 
exalted  cyclops,  of  the  Swartz  Taiit,  Original  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Amer- 
ica, Lie,  and  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc. 

In  April  1965,  he  was  the  Imperial  Dragon  of  the  Original  Ku  Klux 
Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  which  organization  was  incorporated  by 
Houston  P.  Morris  and  Jack  Saucier,  the  previous  witness. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  he  possesses  addi- 
tional information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this  in- 
quiry and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  remedial 
legislation. 

The  Chairman,  You  have  heard  the  sworn  statement  of  the  com- 
mittee's investigator.  You  now  have  an  opportunity  to  reply  to  any 
portion  of  that  statement,  to  affirm  or  challenge  the  accuracy  of  the 
information,  or  to  explain  any  part  of  tlie  statement. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2585 

In  addition,  yon  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  other  matters  the  com- 
mittee might  deem  relevant  to  tliis  inquiry. 

Do  you  care  to  avail  yourself  of  that  opportunity  ? 

Mr.  KiDD.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  on 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  In  that  case,  Mr.  Kidd,  I  must  inform  you  that, 
absent  your  rebuttal,  or  other  factors  that  may  come  to  the  attention  of 
the  committee,  we  will  continue  to  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  the 
investigation. 

Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Kidd,  were  you  formally  affiliated  in  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  with  Jack  Saucier,  the  witness  that 
preceded  you  ? 

Mr.  Kidd.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  on 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  Thomas  Frank  Reagan  ? 

Mr.  Kidd.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  he  is  the  great  titan  for  the  Northern  Province  of 
Louisiana,  United  Klans  of  America,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan, 

Mr.  Kidd.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  upon 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Kidd,  it  is  information  coming  to  myself  that 
you  and  Houston  Morris  have  gone  over  to  the  United  Klans  of 
America  under  the  leadership  of  Robert  Shelton.     Is  that  true? 

Mr.  Kidd.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  upon 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  I  have  confirmatoi-y  evidence  along  that 
line. 

Thank  you.    The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Jack  Helm. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  solemnly  swear,  sir,  the  testimony  you  are 
about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the 
truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Helm.  I  do,  sir. 

TESTIMONY  OF  JACK  M.  HELM,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 

LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  state  your  name  for  the  record,  Mr.  Helm? 
Mr.  Helm.  Jack  M'.  Helm. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  this  morning,  Mr.  Helm,  in  ac- 
cordance w^ith  a  subpena  served  upon  you  ? 
Mr.  Helm.  Yes,  I  am. 
Mr.  Appell.  On  October  26, 1965  ? 
Mr.  Helm.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  At  3141,  DeSaix  Street,  New  Orleans,  Louisiana? 
Mr.  Helm.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  are  represented  by  counsel  ? 
Mr.  Helm.  Yes,  I  am,  sir. 


2586  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  Koom 
501,  First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Helm,  under  the  conditions  of  the  subpena  and 
an  attachment  thereto  which  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena,  you 
were  commanded  to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce  before  the  com- 
mittee documents  called  for  in  paragraph  1  as  follows : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  corresiwndence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Em- 
pire, United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known 
as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  aflBliated 
organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  Louisiana  Rescue  Service 
in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to 
you  as  Grand  Klaliff,  State  of  Louisiana,  and/or  E.G.  New  Orleans  Unit  of  the 
Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc., 
also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents,  Mr.  Helm. 

Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  its  subpena  dated 
October  14, 1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do  so  might 
tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me 
by  amendments  5, 1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  the  committee  under  the  subpena  dated  October  14, 
1965,  for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject 
under  investigation;  that  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the 
consideration  of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry 
within  the  scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of 
the  rules  adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted 
January  4, 1965. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
deliver  the  documents  called  for  in  paragraph  1. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Chalmers,  I  assume  that  previous  stipulations 
which  we  previously  made  to  the  effect  that  you  acknowledge  that  the 
subpena  was  served  upon  him  in  the  capacity  stated  in  the  subpena 
and  that  he  is  being  asked  to  produce  the  documents  in  that  capacity; 
is  that  correct? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  In  that  case,  Mr.  Helm,  I  order  and  direct  you  to 
produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  ITeiju.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Helm,  pargraph  2  of  the  subpena  calls  upon  you  to 
produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you.  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  past  member  or  officer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc., 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Gon.stitution  and  Laws"  of  said  orga- 
nization authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of 
said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

I  ask  y-ou  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated,  sir. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2587 

The  Chair3ian.  Is  the  same  stipiihition  agreed  to,  Mr.  Chahners? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  It  is,  Mr.  Cliairinaii. 

The  Chairmax.  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr,  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  connnittee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon  the 
orounds  previously  stated,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Paragraph  3  of  the  subpena,  Mr.  Helm,  calls  upon 
you  to  produce : 

Copies  of  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service,  Form  1040, 
"U.S.  Individual  Income  Tax  Return,"  for  the  calendar  years  1958  through  1964, 
filed  by  you  as  an  individual  taxpayer  with  the  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  In- 
ternal Revenue  Service. 

Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Helm,  when  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Helm.  Houston,  Texas. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  date,  sir? 

Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me 
in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  the  amendments  5, 
1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view"  of  the  fact  that  the  witness 
has  stated  that  he  was  born  in  Houston,  Texas,  I  ask  that  he  be  directed 
to  give  to  the  committee  the  date  of  his  birth. 

The  Chairman.  Pardon  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  In  view  of  the  fact,  in  response  to  my  question  as  to 
Vv'hen  and  where  he  was  born,  he  responded  "Houston,  Texas,"  and 
then  invoked  constitutional  i^rivileges  with  respect  to  the  date  of  his 
birth,  I  ask  that  he  be  directed  to  give  to  the  record  the  date  of  his 
birth. 

The  Chairman.  Of  course,  I  could  do  that.  It  is  introductory  and 
preliminary,  and  I  can  visualize  absolutely  no  basis  for  the  invocation 
of  any  constitutional  privileges,  unless  he  wants  to  enumerate  the  rea- 
son.   I  will  order  and  direct  him  to  answ^er. 

Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me 
in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  w^itness'  claim  of  pri- 
vilege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions  or  to  produce 
documents  demanded  of  him,  I  present  to  the  committee  the  results 
of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr.  Helm. 

Mr.  Helm  was  born  February  7,  1910,  at  Houston,  Texas.  He  is 
the  operations  manager  for  the'L.  P.  Smith  Construction  Company, 
New  Orleans,  Louisiana.  He  is  a  member  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America,  Eealm  of  Louisiana,  which  is  known  by  the  cover  name  of 
Louisiana  Rescue  Service.  He  is  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  New 
Orleans,  Louisiana,  Unit  of  the  United  Klans  of  America. 

In  March  of  1965  he  attended  a  convention  of  the  Realm  of  Loui- 
siana, which  at  that  time  operated  under  the  cover  name  of  the  Ber- 
nice  Sportsman  Club.  At  this  meeting  lie  was  elected  Grand  Klaliff 
or  State  vice  president  of  the  Realm  of  Louisiana. 


2588  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

On  May  15  and  16,  1965,  Mr.  Helm,  along  with  Charles  T.  Miller 
of  New  Orleans,  and  Lloyd  Barnett,  who  gave  an  address  of  New 
Orleans,  D.  B.  Jackson  of  Baton  Rouge — correction — of  Bernice — 
and  Gill  Harris,  Jr.,  of  Bernice;  he  attended  a  meeting  of  Grand 
Dragons,  Imperial  officers,  and  other  UKA — United  Klans  of  Amer- 
ica— leaders  from  many  States  at  the  Eola  Hotel  in  Natchez,  Mis- 
sissippi. 

This  meeting  was  sponsored  by  the  Mississippi  Realm  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America  known  as  the  Mississippi  Rescue  Service. 

l^Tiile  a  Klan  official,  ISIr.  Helm,  who  speaks  at  numerous  Klan 
rallies,  is  always  introduced  as  a  leader  of  the  Citizens  Comicil  of 
Greater  New  Orleans.  With  such  an  introduction,  he  spoke  at  the 
following  rallies. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  mean  Klan  rallies  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir.  Rallies  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  in 
most  instances. 

May  22, 1965,  at  a  public  rally  near  Tioga,  Louisiana. 

July  17,  1965,  at  Crossroads  Community,  Poplarville,  Mississippi. 

On  October  24,  1965,  at  Philadelphia,  Mississippi,  where  he  shared 
the  platform  with  Sheriff  Lawrence  Rainey,  Deputy  Sheriff  Cecil 
Price,  and  Wayne  Alton  Roberts,  all  three  of  whom  were  arrested  for 
the  slaying  in  Philadelphia,  Mississippi,  of  the  three  civil  rights 
workers. 

At  that  rally  Helm  stated,  and  I  quote,  "No  congressional  inves- 
tigation will  ever  deteriorate  this  organization.  We'll  still  be  here 
when  they  are  dead  and  buried — and  I  hope  it  will  be  soon." 

On  October  27,  1965,  at  Bay  Saint  Louis,  Mississippi,  Mr.  Helm 
spoke,  where  he  stated  that  the  Federal  Government  was  corrupt  with 
homosexuals  and  that  many  Communists  had  high  jobs. 

On  October  30,  1965,  at  Natchez,  Mississippi,  where  he  warned  of  a 
Communist  takeover  in  the  L'nited  States  and  urged  his  listeners  to 
not  register  their  guns  because — and  I  quote— "You've  got  to  have 
something  in  your  house  to  keep  those  savages" — referring  to  Com- 
munists— "from  your  door." 

On  June  5,  1965,  Helm  attended  a  meeting  of  the  Americans  for 
the  Preservation  of  the  White  Race  at  Natchez,  Mississippi. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  Helm  pos- 
sesses information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this  in- 
quiry and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  remedial 
legislation. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Helm,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement  of 
the  committee's  investigator,  Mr.  Appell,  who  is  under  oath  just  like 
you  are. 

You  now  have  the  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that  state- 
ment, confirm  or  challenge  the  accuracy  of  the  information,  or  to  ex- 
plain any  part  of  it.  In  addition,  you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any 
other  matter  the  committee  may  deem  relevant  to  this  inquiry. 

Do  you  care  to  avail  yourself  of  this  opportunity  ? 

Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  upon 
the  grounds  previously  stated,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  I  must  inform  you  in  that  case  that,  absent  your 
rebuttal,  or  other  facts  that  may  come  to  the  attention  of  the  com- 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


2589 


mittee,  this  committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  its  investigation. 

Now,  bearing  that  in  mind,  have  you  anything  to  say? 

Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  upon 
the  grounds  previously  stated,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Helm,  you  do  quite  a  bit  of  traveling  for  the  L.  P. 
Smith  Construction  Company  and  represent  to  the  Government  sizable 
deductions  for  traveling  expenses  for  use  of  automobile  and  other 
items  necessary  to  travel.  Do  you  include  as  legitimate  business 
deductions  those  expenses  wdiich  you  incur  in  travel  as  an  official  of 
the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

]Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answ^er  that  question  based  upon 
the  grounds  previously  stated,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Helm,  we  spoke  of  the  meeting  at  Natchez,  Mis- 
sissippi.    I  hand  you  a  copy  of  the  registration  card  of  the  Eola  Hotel. 

I  ask  you  if  the  card,  which  is  one  of  the  cards  reproduced  on  this 
sheet  that  I  am  handing  you,  miderscored,  containing  the  name  "Jack 
M.  Helm,"  is  your  signature  there  ? 

]Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  upon 
the  grounds  previously  stated,  sir. 

(Document  marked  "Jack  Helm  Exhibit  No.  1"  follows:) 


Jack  Helm  Exhibit  No.  1 

EOLA  HOTEL  natcmkz.  Mississippi 

Registration  Cam» 


V*. 


ItoUat 


NAMUI 


^^^^JtOL.    ^t    HzJ' 


STftCKT 


CITY  AND  STAT 


RKPWCSENTING 


T77 


REMARK* 


Ao>erteMi  Hotel  ll.r»..t«  C«_  3M-23J  W,  O»*»rio  »l..  Chiogo  10  HL 


'^^ 


#» 


M«.   IN    ^AMTV 


/ 


ccnB 


2590  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  addition  to  the  persons  from  Louisiana  whom  I  set 
forth  in  my  statement  with  respect  to  you,  were  the  following  indi- 
viduals also  present  for  that  meeting : 

Kuby  Lee  Brown;  Nick  Caulda;  Robert  E.  Scoggin;  W.  S.  Cox  of 
Spartanburg,  South  Carolina;  and  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  H.  Bedford 
of  eJacksonviUe,  Florida;  Morris  P.  Perkins  and  Dajmy  Hawkins  of 
Jackson,  Mississippi;  Robert  M.  Creel  of  Bessemer,  Alabama — the 
Grand  Dragon  of  Alabama;  Don  Cothran,  the  Grand  Dragon  of 
Florida;  B.  W.  Waldrup  of  Jackson,  Mississippi;  Calvin  F.  Craig, 
the  Grand  Dragon  of  Atlanta,  Georgia ;  Raymond  R.  Anderson,  the 
Grand  Dragon  of  Tennessee ;  Robert  M.  Shelton,  the  Imperial  Wizard 
of  the  United  Klans  of  America;  Clint  Low  of  Jasper,  Georgia. 

Were  those  persons  whose  names  I  have  read  to  you  present  at  that 
meeting  ? 

Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  upon 
the  grounds  previously  stated,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  the  reproduction  of  an  article  which  ap- 
])eared  in  the  Alexandria,  Louisiana,  Toion  Talk  of  May  24,  19G5,  a 
story  relating  to  a  Klan  rally. 

It  contains  a  picture  of  two  men.  In  handing  you  this  document.  I 
ask  you  if  you  know  the  other  man  at  the  microphone  to  be  Dr.  J.  M. 
Edwards  of  Jonesboro,  Louisiana,  a  chiropractor  who  is  the  Grand 
Dragon  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  for  the  State  of  Ix)uisiana. 

Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  upon 
the  grounds  previously  stated,  sir. 

(Document  marked  "Jack  Helm  Exhibit  No.  2"  appears  on  p.  2591.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Helm,  in  March  of  1963  were  you  president  of  an 
organization  known  as  Parents  and  Friends  of  Catholic  Children, 
Inc.  ? 

Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  have  introduced  into  the 
record  of  Mr.  Helm's  testimony  the  registration  card  of  the  Eola 
Hotel,  the  newspaper  clipping  from  the  Alexandria,  Louisiana,  Town 
Talk^  and  an  article  which  appeared  in  the  Times-Picayune  of  March 
25, 1963,  relating  to  Mr.  Helm  and  the  Parents  and  Friends  of  Catholic 
Children,  Inc. 

The  Chairman.  Tliey  will  be  introduced  in  the  record  at  the  points 
indicated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Helm,  the  Times-Picayune  story  relating  to  the 
Parents  and  Friends  of  Catholic  Children,  Inc.,  states  that  Archbishop 
Cody,  dealing  with  the  organization  I  have  mentioned,  said  that  that 
organization  was  "not  a  recoiruized  Catholic  organization."  and  in 
response  to  an  inquiry  from  the  press  in  which  you  were  asked  about 
Arclibishop  Cody's  statement,  you  are  quoted  in  this  paper  as  saying, 
"  'Well,  we  have  news  for  him.  AVe  don't  recognize  Archbishop 
Cody.'  " 

Were  you  quoted  correctly  ? 

Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 


2591 


Jack  Helm  Exhibit  No.  2 
[Alexandria,  La.,  lowtt  Talk,  May  24.  1965) 


(Town  Talk  Staff  Photo) 

Dr.  J.  M.  Edwards  of  Jonesboro,  right,  grand  dragon  of 
Louisiana  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  Inc.,  introduces 
Jack  Helm  of  New  Orleans,  approaching  the  microphone, 
who   is   a    leader  of   the   Citizens   Council   of   Greater   New 

I     Orleans  and  was  the  principal  speaker  during  a  klan  rally 

I     near  Tioga  Saturday  night. 

I 'Invocation'  at  Klan  Rally  Is  Not 
According  to  Grand  Dragon's  Hoyle 

,     A  Klu  Klux  Klan  rally  went 
I  off  as  scheduled  Saturday  night 
'  near  Tioga  with  one  unexpected 
performance. 

Dr.  J.  M.  Edwards,  grand 
dragon  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America  Inc.,  realm  of  Louisi- 
ana, called  for  a  minister  from 
the  audience  to  open  the  rally. 

An  unidentified  man  ap- 
proached the  microphone  as  the 
members  of  the  crowd  began 
to  bow  their  heads. 

"I  don't  see  how  you  in  the 
name  of  Jesus  Christ  can  con- 
duct hatred  for  any  man"  he 
said  and  walked  from  the  plat- 
form. 

Dr.  Edwards,  a  Jonesboro  vet- 
erinarian, gave  the  invocation 
and  said  of  the  man  "we  pray 
our  richest  blessing  upon  him; 
may  the  hatred  in  him  be  re- 
moved." 

Jack  Helm,  leader  of  the  Cit- 
izens Council  of  Greater  New 


Orleans  and  principal  speaker, 
said  "I'm  excited  after  I  saw^ 
this  performance  here  tonight." 

Helm  spoke  for  an  hour  and 
covered  almost  every  subject 
from  the  United  Nations  to 
birth  control  to  Selma  and  Bog- , 
alusa. 

The  crowd  was  estimated  at 
some  600  people;  Helm  said 
5,000. 

He  promised  125,000  people  at 
a  Baton  Rouge  rally  June  4 
when  "Big  John,  that's  McKeith- 
en,  had  better  go  to  Europe."' 

After  the  Baton  Rouge  rally 
the  council  is  sponsoring  a  train 
trip  to  Washington  to  protest 
civil  rights  activities  by  the  gov- 
ernment. Helm  said  $60  would 
buy  a  round  trip  ticket. 

The  program  was  concluded 
with  Dr.  Edwards  explaining 
the  meaning  of  a  cross  lighting 
ceremony  held  with  15  robed 
klansmen  behind  the  platform. 

Dr.  Edwards,  the  grand  drag- 
on, is  not  the  Dr.  James  M.  Ed- 
wards of  Pineville. 


2592 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 


{Tirms-Pieayune  article  of  March  25,  1963,  marked  "Jack  Helm 
Exhibit  No.  3"  follows:) 

Jack  Helm  Exhibit  No.  3 
[New  Orleans,  La.,  Times-Picayune,  March  25,  1963] 


RMIAIffi 


sxvx 


PARBfTSGROUP 

Snyt  Catlkolic  Church  U 
Tlaying  Politior 


SUte  Itep^  John  F.  "Jack" 
]Uu  o(  J«aBT«m  PuMk  Sunday 
aceuaad  ttia  CathoUe  Church  ol 
"pUying  politics"  in  workiat 
lor  tntegratkn  o(  Nafroat  Into 
aU-«rhltc  schools  and  aU^whit* 
aalghhorhnods 

"The  Negro  bkic  vote  controls 
the  eiectlqn  of  the  PreiUent  o( 
tha  United  SUtaa,"  Rau  dt- 
elarad.  "The  Church,  by  co> 
oparatlnf.  can  play  politics  to 
g«t  todaral   aid-roayba."   ha 


)Uu    addrasaed    a 

by  tha  Parants 
ol  Catholie 
Bkm   In   ftud's   rkmar   Room. 
Vm  St   Oauda  av«.. 


•NOT  AITACXDf Q*  OnJBCH 

"It  hurts  evaryooa  o(  us  here 
to  dtsagre*  wlttt  our  Catholic 
clarty-"  f^*!  stated 


not  atUckin^  Holy,  Mother 
Church.  We  are  attorkin*  ttw 
hierarchy  of  the  Catholk  Church 
tn  tha  Archdkxaae  of  New  Or- 
leaiw,"  ha  said. 

He  said  An^^tishop  John  P 
Oody  was  "one  jnan  who  came 
down  here  and  did  nothinc  but 
talk  nnanr«s." 

Referring  to  the  archdioceset 
new  central  fund.  Helm  said  the 
archbishop  "has  tsken  the  tan 
out  ci  raising  money  by  church 
festivals.  Utile  penny  parties 
and  thlnes  Uke  that." 

ASKS  Accomwo 

Helm  sa  d  the  Catholic  Church 
h  Violet.  La..  haA^sed  some 
$30,000  through  these  means 
but  It  all  had  to  be  turned  over 
to  the  archdlocesan  fund.  "No* 
satisfied  with  that  $30,000,  the 
srchblshop  went  kito  the  Altar 
Society  and  took  the  few  hundred 
dollars   they   had." 

The  Parents  and  Friends  of 
Catholic  Children  Inc..  asked 
the  archbishop  to  account  foe 
the  dispotitlon  of  funds  turned 
over  to  him  by  the  churches  of 
the  srphrtiocMe.  According  to 
Helm  the  answer  was:  'C^iery 
is  rejected." 

••Cod>"8  letter  of  reply  said: 
This  Is  not  a  recognixed  Cath 


Jaelc  M.   Helm.   preskScnt  oflolic   organization.-"    Helm   de- 


Puanta  and  Frienda  cf  OathoHc 
Children  Inc..  stresaad  that  "Wa 
•ra  devout  and  practicing 
Roman   Catholics   and   we   are 


clared 

"Well,  we  have  news  for 
him."  Helm  added.  "We  dont 
recognize  Aichbishop  Oody 


Mr.  Appell.  Were  you  affiliated  with  any  Klau  organization  at  the 
time  you  made  that  statement? 

Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  upon 
(lie  grounds  previously  stated,  sir. 

Mr  ArPELL.  I  have  no  further  questions. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Helm,  did  you  become  iiii  officer  or  president 
of  that  Parents  and  Friends  of  Catholic  Children,  Inc.,  organization 
by  direction  of  anyone  liigher  than  you  in  the  Khui  hierarchy  . 

Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  biised  upon 
the  grounds  previously  stated,  sir. 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2593 

The  Chairman.  You  seem  to  have  smiled  when  I  asked  that  ques- 
tion. Is  there  any  reason  for  it  ?  Do  you  care  to  talk  about  it?  I  will 
be  fflad  to  hear  Avhatever  you  have  to  say. 

Mr.  Helm.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated,  sir. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Helm,  if  I  understand  your  program  cor- 
rectly, I  believe  Mr.  Appell  said  you  stated  in  a  rally  that  this  com- 
mittee was  iiot  going  to  be  able  to  destroy  your  organization,  that 
your  organization  would  continue  to  exist  when  we  were  dead  and 
buried  and  you  hoped  it  would  be  soon.  I  further  understand  you 
said  in  regard  to  the  archbisliop  that  you  intend  to  fire  the  arch- 
bishop and  bury  the  committee. 

I  don't  ask  for  an  answer  to  that,  but  I  will  say  this:  If  this  is  your 
attitude,  there  are  forces  in  this  counti-y  that  have  for  a  long  time 
tried  to  destroy  this  committee  and  the  vital  function  it  fulfills  for 
the  Congress  and  the  American  people,  and  I  would  predict  if  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  joins  hands  with  the  Communist  Party  to  destroy  this 
committee  that  you  will  be  unsuccessful  in  that  endeavor. 

I  note  from  what  I  am  hearing  and  reading  that  such  a  joining  of 
hands  in  the  vilification  and  attempted  destruction  of  the  functions  of 
this  committee  would  seem  to  be  the  purpose  of  statements  such  as  the 
one  quoted  from  this  rally.  I  just  want  you  to  know  that  I  suspect 
this  shall  be  unsuccessful. 

This  is  not  a  question  and  there  is  no  need  to  answer. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  call  Mr.  Lloyd  H.  Barnett. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  solemnly  swear,  sir,  tliat  the  testimony 
you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing 
but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Barnett.  I  do,  sir. 

TESTIMONY  OF  LLOYD  H.  BARNETT,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 

LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Barnett,  would  you  state  your  full  name  for  the 
record,  please? 

Mr.  Barnett.  Lloyd  H.  Barnett. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Barnett.  I  am,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  Room  501,  First  Federal 
Building,  Raleigh,  iSTorth  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Barnett,  you  are  appearing  here  in  connection 
with  the  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  26,  1965,  at  423  River 
Oaks  Drive,  New  Orleans,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Barnett.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Barnett,  under  the  conditions  of  the  subpena  and 
an  attachment  thereto,  which  is  made  a  part  of  the  subpena,  you  are 
called  upon  in  paragra))h  1  to  produce  the  following  documents : 

AU  books,  recorcl.s,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible 
Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also 
known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America.  Inc..  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan.  and 
affiliated  organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  Louisiana  Rescue 


2594  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Service  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available 
to  you  as  Grant  Titan  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents,  sir. 

Mr.  Barnett.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  the  subpena  dated 
October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do  so  mi<;ht 
tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me 
by  amendments  5, 1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  rec- 
ords as  requested  by  this  committee  under  the  subpena  dated  October 
14,  1965,  for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  in- 
vestigation and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  considera- 
tion of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within  the 
scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules 
adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  January 
1,  1965. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  for  a  direction,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Chairman.  Is  our  previous  stipulation  agreed  to  as  to  the  sig- 
nificance of  this  subpena  as  it  applies  to  this  witness? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  the  documents. 

Mr.  Barnett.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Barnett,  under  paragraph  2  you  are  ordered  to 
produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you.  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  past  Grand  Titan  and/or  member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said 
organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer 
of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  those  documents,  sir, 

Mr.  Barnett.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  commit- 
tee the  documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based 
upon  the  grounds  ])reviously  stated. 

Tlie  Cn.MR:\tAN.  On  the  basis  of  the  stipulation  previously  made,  I 
order  and  direct  you  to  produce  them. 

Mr.  Barnett.  Sir,  I  respectfullv  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon 
tlie  irrounds  previously  stated. 

]\f r.  Appell.  Mr.  Barnett,  paragraph  8  of  your  subpena  calls  for  you 
to  produce : 

Copies  of  TT.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service,  Form  1040, 
"U.S.  Individual  Income  Tax  Return."  for  the  calendar  years  lO.'S  through  1064, 
filed  by  you  as  an  individual  taxpayer  with  the  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Inter- 
nal Revenue  Service. 

I  ask  for  the  production  of  those  tax  returns. 

Mr.  B.vrnett.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  tlie  conunittee  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU   KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2595 

Mr.  ArpELL.  Mr.  Barnett,  I  hand  you  a  reproduction  of  an  applica- 
tion for  citizenship  in  the  Invisible  Empire,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan,  and  ask  you  if  you  have  executed  a  similar  application? 

]\Ir.  Barnett.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  vio- 
lation of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14 
of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

(Document  previouslv  marked  "Richard  Constantineau  Exhibit 
No.  3.'') 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Barnett,  I  hand  you  a  series  of  oaths  of  allegiance, 
obedience,  secrecy,  and  fidelity  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  and  ask  you  to 
review  them  and  state  whether  or  not  you  have  ever  subscribed  to  the 
oaths  set  forth  in  that  document? 

Mr.  Barxett.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Robert  Shelton  Exhibit  No.  4.") 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Barnett,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny,  that  as  a  titan  in  the  Realm  of  Louisiana  that  you  have 
jurisdiction  of  Klan  organizational  activities  in  Klaverns  within 
southern  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Barnett.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  advise  the  committee  of  the  number  of  Klav- 
erns organized  within  your  jurisdiction  ? 

Mr.  Barnett\  Sir,  1  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  advise  the  committee  of  the  membership 
of  the  Klaverns  within  your  jurisdiction  ? 

Mr.  Barnett.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  the  officer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  in  charge 
of  south  Louisiana,  do  you  know  Jim  Roundtree  ? 

Mr.  Barnett.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  Jimmy  Mumphrey  ? 

Mr.  Barnett.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  Ralph  Houston  ? 

Mr.  Barnett.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  Robert  Jose])h  Fuxan,  F-u-x-a-n  ? 

Mr.  Barnet7\  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  Jimmy  Simon  Mumphrey  ? 

Mr.  Barnett.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Barnett,  do  you  know  Saxon  Farmer  ? 

Mr.  Barnett.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Following  the  meeting  of  the  Klan  officials  at  the  Eola 
Hotel  in  Natchez,  Mississii)pi,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  played  a  role  in  a  rally  held  at  Cross- 


2596  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

roads  Community  in  Mississippi  across  the  line  from  Bogalusa,  Louisi- 
ana? 

Mr.  Barnett.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Barnett,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  deliberately,  with  knowledge,  lied  to 
the  press  when  you  advised  them  that  there  were  4,000  Klansmen  in 
the  Bogalusa  area  ? 

Mr.  Barneitt.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  isn't  it  the  practice  of  Klan 
organizations  in  certain  areas,  for  whatever  influence  they  conceive 
it  might  have,  to  balloon  or  exaggerate  the  number  of  their  members  ? 

Mr.  Barnett.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answ^er  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Barnett,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny,  that  you  do  not  have  4,000  Klansmen  in  the  entire  State 
of  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Barnett.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  gromids  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny, 
that  as  a  matter  of  organizational  procedure  you  balloon  your  strength 
in  order  to  intimidate  people  into  thinking  you  are  a  larger  and  more 
powerful  organization  than  you  are  in  fact? 

Mr.  Barnett.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  gi'ounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  no  further  questions  of  this 
witness. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  call  Marvin  Curtis  Brister. 

The  Chairman.  You  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  are  about 
to  give  wnll  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth, 
so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr,  Brister.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY    OF    MARVIN    CURTIS    BRISTER,    ACCOMPANIED    BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Brister,  will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the 
record  ? 

Mr.  Brister.  Marvin  Curtis  Brister. 

Mr,  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  today  in  accordance  with  a  sub- 
pena  served  upon  you  on  the  29th  day  of  October  1965  at  the  Tioga 
High  School  in  Tioga,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Brister.  Yes,  sir, 

Mr.  Appell,  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr,  Brister.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  "Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney.  Room  501,  First 
Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Brister,  under  the  conditions  of  a  subpena  served 
on  you,  you  were  ordered  by  an  attachment,  which  was  made  a  part 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2597 

of  the  subpena,  to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce  articles  called  for  in 
paragraph  1  as  follows : 

All  book,  records,  documents,  corresx>ondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  'and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klant,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klirx  Klan,  and  affiliated  or- 
ganizations, namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  Louisiana  Rescue  Service  in 
your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as 
Grand  Titan  of  Southern  Louisiana  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans, 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klax  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United  Klans 
of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

I  request  you  to  produce,  in  your  representative  capacity  stated 
therein,  the  documents  called  for  by  part  1  of  the  subpena. 

The  Chairman.  It  is  stipulated  that  the  significance  of  the  call  is 
for  the  witness  to  produce  the  documents  in  the  capacities  stated  in 
this  subpena? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  May  I  inquire  of  Mr.  Appell  what  was  the  date  of 
that  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  The  date  of  service  was  the  29th  of  October. 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  the  subpena  dated 
October  29,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do  so 
might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  guaranteed 
to  me  by  amendments  5, 1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  29,  1965, 
for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject  under 
investigation  and  that  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  con- 
sideration of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  with- 
in the  scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the 
miles  adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted 
January  4, 1965. 

The  Chairman.  Pursuant  to  the  stipulation  made,  I  order  and  di- 
rect  you  to  produce  those  documents  in  the  capacities  stated  in  the 
suljpena. 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Part  2  of  the  subpena  calls  for  you  to  produce: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  past  or  present  Grand  Titan  and/or  member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of 
said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other 
officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  con- 
trol. 

I  request  you  to  produce,  in  your  representative  capacity  stated 
therein,  the  documents  called  for  by  this  part  2  of  your  subpena. 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

The  CiLMRMAN.  And  pursuant  to  the  stipulation,  I  order  and  direct 
you  to  produce  the  documents  in  those  capacities. 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 


2598  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Part  3  of  your  subpena  calls  upon  you  to  produce : 

Copies  of  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service,  Form  1040, 
"U.S.  rndividual  Income  Tax  Return."  for  the  calendar  years  1958  through  1964, 
filed  by  you  as  an  individual  taxpayer  with  the  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  In- 
ternal Revenue  Service. 

I  request  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Brister,  would  you  state  for  the  record  your  edu- 
cational background? 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  miglit  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5, 1,  4,  and 
14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Brister,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny,  that  you  have  an  M.A.  degree  from  Colorado  State  Col- 
lege, Fort  Collins,  Colorado.    Will  you  confirm  or  deny  that  fact  ? 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Brister,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny,  that  you  hold  the  position  of  assistant  principal  of  the 
Tioga  High  School,  Tioga,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Brister,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny,  that  you  are  receiving  disability  compensation  from  the 
United  States  Government  occasioned  by  retirement  from  the  Army 
at  tlie  rank  of  major  because  you  suffered  from  diabetes  and  that  your 
compensation  is  $237.19  a  month  ?    I  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  that  fact. 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Brister,  I  hand  you  a  copy  of  an  application  for 
Class  B,  C,  or  D  license,  a  form  issued  by  the  Federal  Communications 
Commission,  dated  March  15, 1965,  for  a  Class  D  license  with  10  trans- 
mitters. I  would  like  to  read  in  the  record  before  handing  it  to  you 
and  then  would  like  you  to  verify  the  accuracy  of  what  I  am  quoting. 

The  Chairman.  ^^Hiat  are  you  reading  from? 

Mr.  Appell.  This  is  a  letter  which  is  a  part  of  the  application.  It  is 
signed  by  Marvin  C.  Brister.    It  reads : 

Dear  Sirs : 

I  was  certainly  unaware  that  there  was  to  be  a  detail  report  as  to  where  each 
of  the  transceivers  were  to  be  placed. 

I  expect  to  place  transceivers  in  the  following  places : 

1.  My  home — my  use,  my  wife  and  2  daughters. 

2.  My  i/o  ton  pick-up — 

3.  My  Family  Car— 

4.  2  cars  owned  by  me  but  driven  by  my  daughters. 

5.  My  sports  car — 

6.  My  boat,  run  about-outboard 

All  of  these  will  be  used  by  my  family  and  my  mother  or  father  or  some  of 
my  close  friends. 

The  above  is  in  the  near  future  or  when  I  receive  my  permits.  My  future 
plans  ia  for  a  small  house  boat,  trailer  that  is  use  [sic]  for  hunting  trips.  A 
portable  would  come  in  handed  [sic]  on  certain  types  of  outings. 

I  am  sorry  I  have  delayed  this,  by  not  giving  exact  placements. 

It  is  signed  "Marvin  C.  Brister." 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2599 

In  lianding  you  this  application  I  ask  you  if  this  is  the  application 
you  filed  and  if  the  letter  which  I  read  is  signed  by  you  and  whether 
or  not  any  of  these  citizens  band  transmitters  were  used  by  members  of 
the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Documents  marked  "Marvin  Brister  Exhibit  No.  1."  See  pp.  260Q- 
2603.) 

Mr.  iLppELL.  Mr.  Brister,  did  Mr.  Lloyd  Barnett  replace  you  as  the 
titan  in  charge  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  organization  in  Kla- 
vern  activities  in  southern  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  still  a  member  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America  ? 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Brister,  prior  to  joining  the  United  Klans  of  Amer- 
ica were  you  a  member  of  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan, 
which  was  known  by  the  cover  name  of  Christian  Constitutional 
Crusaders  ? 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answ^er  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny, 
that  you  wrote  checks  payable  to  the  Christian  Constitutional  Cru- 
saders and  were  a  member  of  that  organization  ? 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have  no  further  questions  of  this  witness,  Mr. 
Chairman. 

The  Chair:man.  Mr.  Brister,  it  appears  from  what  has  been  stated 
that  you  have  an  unusually  high  education.  I  ask  you  what  I  have 
asked  of  many  others,  if  you  would  care  to  state  in  your  own  way  and 
with  language  portraying  it  in  your  own  fashion,  the  objectives,  pur- 
poses, and  programs  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  that  impelled  you  to  join 
the  Klan  and  to  become  a  high  official  thereof  ? 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  It  has  been  proven  in  the  record  that  another 
teacher  in  a  high  school,  in  that  case  a  principal — and  I  see  you  are 
assistant  principal  in  a  high  school  in  Louisiana — that  in  the  other 
case  Klan  activities  and  meetings  were  held  in  that  school.  Were  any 
Klan  activities  and  meetings  held  in  your  school  ? 

Mr.  Brister.  I  res]>ectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Have  you  made  talks  at  Klan  rallies  or  before  Klan 
groups  ? 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  ansAver  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  in  any  way  try  to  indoctrinate  in  the  ways 
of  the  Klan  any  of  the  pupils  in  your  school  ? 

Mr.  Brister.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  tliat  question  based 
upon  the  gi'ounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

(Marvin  Brister  Exhibit  No.  1,  introduced  above  follows:) 

59-222  O— 67— pt.  3 18 


2600 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 


Marvin  Brister  Exhibit  No.  1 


rCC  FORM  SOS 
flCVSEO  KAT  MU 


UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA 

TEOERAL  COMMUNICATIONS  COMMISSION 

WASHiriGION.  D.C     lOU* 


_  FDSit  AFPPOVtD 
I    i   .BUO&CT  BURCAU  NO.  U-fiUXlO 


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DO  SOT   WRITE  IN  THIS  BUfCh' 


APPLICATION  FOR  CLASS  B.  C.  OR  O  STATION  LICENSE  IN  THE  \\??\ 

CITIZENS  RADIO   SERVICE  ..     ,. 

-  3.' Application  (or  Clua  A  sUtion  licensix  mutt  b«-(il«l  9n  FCC  X^RM  400. 

Compl<*te  on  typewriter  or  print  clyrly-l  -      „ 

Ure  application  ia  signed  *hd  dated.     Moit  application  to  Federal  Com- 
icationa  Commission.  Gettysburg.  Pa.,  17326. 


FEE:  $3.00 


Ap 


: "  440S30  nAiUB(=5 

, ,  ,i.\:iJt.v,u 


;  Ci  B., 


,   Enclase  appropriate  tee  with  application. 
Make  i  '      ' 


.if  required.     DO  NOT  SUBMIT 
.    CASH.      Make  chi'clt  or  monry  nrder   payable  to  Federal  Communirationa 
.,  .  .  ;Coinmosi<Ti>iO  <S4-e  Part  19,  Volume  VI  ol  FCC  rulea  to  determine  whether 
'•'J  .-'a'fi.'c  i^r^i^i^d  with  this  application  ) 


NAME  OF  APPLICANT 


BUSINESS  MAKE  tOR  UST  NAME.  IF  AN  INOIVtOuAL) 

BRISTER 


FIRST  NAME  (IF  AN  INCHVIOUAU 

MARVIN 


MIDDLE  INITIAL 

c 


IF  AN  INDIVIDUAL  OPERATING  UNDER  A  TRADE  NAME,  GIVE  INDIVIDUAL 
NAME.  OR  IF  PARTNERSHIP.  LIST  NAMES  OF  PARTNERS  {Do  not  t«p*at 
any  name  uaed  in  iUm  J ) 


LAST  NAMES 


FIRST  NAMES 


MAILING  ADDRESS 


NUMOCR  AND  STREET 


3002  Monroe   Hwy. 


Pineville 


*Ea. 


71360 


COUNTY  QREOUIVALEMT  SUBDIVISION 

Rap  teles 


CLASSIFICATION  OF  APPLICANT  (St*  iMlruclioni) 


[~|    INDIVIDUAL  rn    ASSOCIATION  F"!    ] 

[      I    PARTNERSHIP  V~\   CORPORATION  PH    OTHER  (Spcci/y): 


CLASS  OF  STATION  (Chuk  only  <nu) 


D' 


D" 


Q' 


IS  THIS  APPLICATION  TO  MODIFY  OR  RENEW  AN  EXISTING  STATION  LICENSE? 
(     I  Vt»  {Citt  eaU  ngn):  [^  NO 


D' 


fi' 


■  ■  K  REQUESTED  STATION 

10 


DOES  EACH  TRANSMITTER  TO  BE  OPERATED  APPEAR  ON  THE  COMMIS- 
SION S  -RADIO  EQUIPMENT  LIST,  PART  C  OR.  IF  FOR  CLASS  C  OR 
CLASS  0  STATIONS.  IS  IT  CRYSTAL-CONTROLLED?  (//  no,  aWuk 
detailed  deaetiplion:  ace  wubpart  C  a/  Part  19) 


A    WILL  APPLICANT  OWN  ALL  THE  BADIO  EQUIPMENT?     (1/ no.  OntwtT 
B  and  C  bttov) 


NAME  OF  OWNER 


IS  THE  APPLICANT  A  PARTY  TO  A  WRIITEN  LEASE  OR  OTHER  AGREEMENT  UNDER 
WHICH  THE  OWNERSHIP  OR  CONTROL  WILL  bE  EXERCISED  IN  THE  SAME  MAN- 
NER  AS  IF  THE  EQUIPMENT  WERE  OWNED  BY  THE  APPUCANTl 


HAS  APPLICANT  READ  AND  UNDERSTOOD  THE  PROVISIONS  OF  PART  T9 
SUBPART  D  DEALING  WITH  PERMISSIBLE  COMMUNICATIONS  FOR  WHICH 
THIS  CLASS  OF  STATK>N  MAY  BE  USED? 


WILL  THE  STATION  BE  OPERATED  BY  ANY  PERSON  OTHER  THAN  THE 
APPLICANT  MEMBERS  OF  HIS  IMMEDIATE  f  AMIL*  OR  HIS  EMPLOYEES' 
(//  J/C9.  (Ulaeh  a  tcparaU  iheet  tislmg  tht  namei  and  rtlaltantkip  ojall 
etuh  pertone  and  git  a  detailed  reaeon  for  t\eir  operation  of  your 
elaiton) 


IS  APPLICANT  THE  REPRESENTATIVE  OF  ANY  ALIEN  OR  ANY  FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENT?     (//  ye*,  explain  fuliy) 


WITHIN  10  YEARS  PREVIOUS  TO  THE  DATE  OF  THIS  APPLICATION  HAS 
THE  APPLICANT  OR  ANY  PARTY  TO  THIS  APPLICATION  BEEN  CONVICTED 
'N  A  FEDERAL,  STATE  OR  LOCAL  COURT  OF  ANY  CRIME  FOR  WHICH  THE 
PENALTY  IMPOSED  WAS  A  FINE  OF  JiOO  OR  MORE.  OR  AN  IMPRISONMENT 
OF  G  MONTHS  OR  MORE?  iStt  imlrvclion:  1/  yt*.  aUaeh  a  aeparaU 
sheet  giving  detaiU  of  tack  tuck  eonwielion) 


tF  APPLICANT  IS  AN  INDIVIDUAL  OR  A  PARTNERSHIP.  ARE  YOU  OR  ANY 
PARTNER  LESS  THAN  II  YEARS  OF  AGE  (LESS  THAN  1J  YEARS  OF  AGE  IF 
FOR  CLASS  C  STATION  LICENSE}? 


X 


IF  THE  PRINCIPAL  LOCATION  WHERE  THE  STATION  WILL  BE 
USED  IS  DIFFERENT  FROM  THE  MAILING  ADDRESS  (ITEM  3>, 
GIVE  THAT  LOCATION.  {DO  NOT  GIVE  FOST  OFFICE  BOX  OR 
RFD  NO.) 


NUMBER  AND  STREET 


Same 


DO  NOT 
SCREENING 


WUfTS  IN  ■ 

aV/   a  N 
a^     D  N 


SIGN  AND  DATE  THE  APPLICATION   ON  REVERSE  SIDE 


ON  I 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 


2601 


Marvin  Brister  Exhibit  No.  1 — Continued 


19    IF  APPLICANT  IS  A  NONGOVERNMENTAL 

CORPORATION.  ANSWER  THE  FOLLOWING   ITEMS 


m 


15  CORPORATION  ORGANIZED  UNOtR  LAWS  OF  ANY  FOREIGN 

GOVERNMENTt 


IS  ANY  OFFICER  OR  OIRtCTOR  OF  THE  CORPORATION  AN  ALIEN* 


IS  MORE  THAN  ONE-FIFTH  OF  THE  CAPITAL  STOCK  EITHER  OWNED  OF 
RECORD  OR  MAY  IT  BE  VOTED  BY  ALIENS  OR  THEIR  REPRESENTATIVES, 
OR  BY*  FOREIGN  GOVERNMENTOfl  REPRESENTATIVE  THEREOF  OR  BY 
ANY  CORPORATION  ORGANIZED  UNDER  THE  LAWS  OF  A  FOREIGN 
COUNTRYT 


IS  APPLICANT  DIRECTLY  OR  INDIRECTLY  CONTROLLED  BY  ANY  OTHER 
CORPORATION?     (//  yet,  answer  iUma  E  through  K  brlow) 


GIVE  NAME  AND  ADDRESS  OF  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION 


IS  MORE  THAN  ONE  FOURTH  OF  THE  CAPITAL  STOC  K  OF  CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION  EITHER  OWNED  OF  RECORD  OR  MAY  IT  BE  VOTED  BY 
ALIENS  OR  THEIR  REPRESENTATIVES,  OR  Sy  A  FOREIGN  GOVERNMENT 
OR  REfPESENTATUE  THEREOF,  OR  DY  ANY  CORPORATION  ORGANIIED 
UNDER  THE  LAWS  OF  A  FOREIGN  COUNTRY?     {]/  i/et.  gite  detatU) 


IS  ANY  OFFICER  OR  MORE  THAN  ONE-FOURTH  OF  THE  DIRECTORS  OF 
THE  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION  AN  ALIEN?  (7/  yet,  antwer  xlemt 
I  and  J  below) 


TOTAL  NUMBER  OF  DIRECTORS  IN  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION 


LIST  ALLOFFICERS  AND  DIRECTORS  WHO  ARE  ALIENS  IN  CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION  AND  GIVE  BRIEF  BIOGRAPHICAL  STATEMENT  FOR  EACH 
ALIEN 


-/- 


NATIONALITY 


"'n^T^-L'- 


OFFICE  HELD 


IS  THE  CONTROLLING  CORPORATION  IN  TuRN  CONTROLLED 
BY  OTHER  COMPiNiEST  [If  yrt,  atiaeh  irtformation  for  taeh 
of  Ihetr  controllino  eompaniea  eoMrinff  Iht  in/ormalion  re- 
qvdtUd  in  if^nu  B  through  J,  abote) 


a- 


30     IF  APPLICANT  IS  AN   UNINCORPORATED 

ASSOCIATION.   ANSWER   THE  FOLLOWING   ITEMS 


IS  ANY  OFFICER  OR  DIRECTOR  OF  THE  ASSOCIATION  AN  ALIEN? 


ARE  MORE  THAN  ONE  FIFTH  OF  THE  VOTING  MEMBERS  OF  THE  ASSOCIA- 
TION ALIENS  OR  REPRESENTATIVES  OF  ALIENS,  FOREIGN  GOVERNMENTS 
OR  REPRESENTATIVES  THEREOF,  OR  CORPORATIONS  ORGANIZED  UNDER 
THE  LAWS  OF  A  FOREIGN  COUNTRY' 


IS  THE  ASSOCIATION   DIRECTLY  OR   INDIRECTLY  CONTROLLED  BY   ANY 
OTHER  ORGANIZATION?     (If  yet.  g\9t  detailed  eiplanattoni 


(rw^ 


USE  THIS  SPACE  FOR  ANY  AOOITtONAL  INFORMATION  OR  REMARKS  .  . 


[CkUi^^^-s^ 


WILLFUL   FALSE   STATEMENTS   MADE  ON  THIS  FORM   ARE   PUN- 
ISHABLE   BY    FINE    AND    IMPRISONMENT.     U.S.  CODE,  TITLE   18. 
SECTION   1001. 


ALL  THE  STATEMENTS  MADE   IN  THE  APPLICATION  AND  ATTACHED  EXHIBITS  ARC  CONSIDCRED  MATERIAL  RCPRCSENTATIONS.  AND  ALL  THE  EXHIBITS  ARE 
A   MATERIAL  PART   HEREOF  AND   ARE    INCORPORATED   HEREIN  AS    IF   SET   OUT    IN    FULL   IN    THE   APPLICATION. 

I  CERTIFY  THAT: 

The  applicant  has  (or  has  ordered  from  the  Government  Printing  Office)  a  current  copy  of  Part  19  of  the  Commission's  rules  governing 
the  Citizens  Radio  Service, 

The  applicant  waives  any  claim  to  the  use  of  any  particular  frequency  or  of  the  ether  as  agamst  the  regulatory  powef  of  the  United 
States  because  of  the  previous  use  of  the  same,  whether  by  license  or  otherwise  ; 

The  applicant  accepts  full  responsibility  for  the  operation  of.  and  will  retain  control  of  any  citizens  radio  station  licensed  to  him  pursuant 
to  this  application  , 

The  station  will  be  operated  in  full  accordance  with  the  applicable  law  and  the  current  rules  of  the  Federal  CorTimunications  Commission  ; 

The  said  station  will  not  be  used  for  any  purpose  contrary  to  Federal.  State  or  local  law , 

The  applicant  wilt  have  unlimited  access  to  the  radio  equipment  and  effective  measures  will  be  taken  to  prevent  its  use  by  unauthorized 
persons ;  and 

The  statements  in  this  application  are  true,  complete,  and  correct  to  the  best  of  my 


DO 

NOT 

OPERATE 

UNTIL 

vou 

HAVE 

VOUH 

OWN 

LICENSE. 

use 

OF 

ANY 

CALL 

SIGN 

NOT 

VOUR 

OWN 

S   PROHIBITED. 

ue.  complete,  and  correct  to  the  best  of  my  kAojQfledgepfid  belief  and  are  made  m  good  faith. 

{Check  appropriate  box  bvlow):  \ 


E    INDIVIDUAL                     j 1    MEMBER   OF                     [ 1    OFFICER   Or   APPLICANT  | 1 

APPLICANT  APPLICANT  CORPORATION    OR 


PARTNERSHIP 


ASSOCIATION 


I    OFFICIAL   OF 
GOVERNMENTAL 
INTITV 


U.S.  GOVERNMENT  PRINTING  OFFICE    l9e)-O-«94-fl0l 
Repnnled   by    E.   F.  Johnson  Company 


2602  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    TJ.S. 


Marvin  Brister  Exhibit  No.  1 — Continued 


iHiiHii'i  ■■■  ; 


-,    •.  7.',:io 


Supplement  CO  Application  Return  Form 


?age  3-B 


In  addition  to  providing  the  information  requested 
on  the  attached  sheet,  please  answer  the  following  questions 
In  the  Remarks  space  on  Che  reverse  side  o£  the  application 
Form  505. 

1,   Will  station  be  operated  In  connection  with  bvalnass 
activities?      \-v€>  • 

If  "Yes",  state: 

Owner  of  business 

Nature  of  business  activity 

Where  do  you  propose  Co  Install  the  transmitters 
shown  in  Item  8,  and  for  what  purposes  and  by  whom 
will  they  be  used? 


2.   Will  station  be  operated  In  connection  with  personal 

activlces?     '^jJt^-t —  j 

If  "Yes",  state; 

Nature  ot  personal  activity  C^O^/^^-^'^-^V  '''^''^'^j.       V 

Where  do  you  propose  to  Install  tne  transAitters   /  ' 

shown  in  Itea  8 ,  and  for  what  purposes  and  by  whom 
will  they  be  used?  ^       ~- 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2603 


Marvin  Brister  Exhibit  No.  1  —Continued 

-flu!     Mh^'^-'^  ^     fp&  (U^  I 
X     Ml  Wi^  7^  (p^'/-^  " 


Jj  ^^^x.:j^   >i  f--f^  v^i  h^^^  pfcu^  -^  7^^ 


[^      ^-^     c^>c^^       .^^^^       f^^ 


2604  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

The  Chairman.  Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Tommy  Frank  Reagan. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  solemnly  STvear  the  testimony  you  are  about 
to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth, 
so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Reagan.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  TOMMY  FRANK  REAGAN,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Reagan.  Tommy  Frank  Reagan. 

Mr.  Appell.  R-e-a-g-a-n? 

Mr.  Reagan.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  are  appearing  before  the  committee  today  in  re- 
sponse to  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  26th  day  of  October  1965 
at  319  Hickory  Street,  West  Monroe,  Louisiana? 

Mr,  Reagan.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Reagan.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  comisel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law.  Room  501, 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Reagan,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  and  the  at- 
tachment thereto,  which  was  made  a  part  of  that  subpena,  called  upon 
you  to  produce  certain  documents  set  forth  in  paragraph  1  as  follows : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible 
Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also 
known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and 
affiliated  organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  Louisiana  Rescue 
Service  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  avail- 
able to  you  as  Great  Titan  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc..  also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

I  request  you  to  produce,  in  your  representative  capacity  stated 
therein,  the  documents  called  for  by  part  1  of  your  subpena. 

Mr.  Re^vgan.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
any  and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  a  subpena 
dated  October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do 
so  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed 
(o  me  by  amendments  5, 1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  this  committee  in  a  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965, 
for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject  under 
investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  consider- 
ation of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within  the 
scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules 
adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted 
January  4, 1965. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  for  a  direction  for  the  production 
of  the  documents  called  for  in  paragraph  1  of  the  subpena. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2605 

The  Chairman.  I  assume  our  previous  stipulation  stands  as  to  the 
significance  of  this  subpena  as  it  applies  to  this  witness? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes. 

The  Chah^man.  Pursuant  to  the  stipulation  made,  I  order  and  di- 
rect you  to  produce  those  documents  in  the  capacities  stated  in  the 
subpena. 

Mr.  Reagan.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Reagan,  paragraph  2  of  the  subpena  calls  for 
you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity  as 
present  or  past  member  or  Great  Titan  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc., 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  orga- 
nization authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of 
said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

Mr.  Reagan.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Reagan,  when  were  you  bom  ? 

Mr.  Reagan,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4,  and 
14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

The  Chairman.  According  to  the  memorandum  before  me,  it  ap- 
pears you  ran  for  the  highest  office  of  your  organization  in  the  State 
of  Louisiana  and  for  that  reason,  since  you  appear  to  be  quite  young, 
I  think  the  question  is  completely  pertinent  and  I  order  and  direct  you 
to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Raegan.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for 
the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me 
in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Reagan,  are  you  a  member  at  the  present  time  of 
any  Klan  organization  in  the  United  States  ? 

Mr.  Reagan.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  notice  in  your  lapel,  Mr.  Reagan,  you  have  the  Klan 
pm.  I  ask  you  if  that  is  worn  by  a  person  who  is  not  a  member  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan? 

Mr.  Reagan.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  are  proud  to  wear  it,  but  not  to  state  it. 

Mr.  Reagan.  Sir 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Wait  a  minute.    That  was  just  an  observation. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claimed  privilege 
and  his  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  present  to  the  committee  the  re- 
sults of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr.  Reagan. 

Mr.  Reagan  was  born  on  July  18,  1939,  at  West  Monroe,  T^uisiana. 
He  served  in  the  Air  Force  from  9-13-56  to  10-1-58,  and  in  the  Reserve 
to  12  September  1962.    His  militaiy  specialty  was  that  of  a  supply 


2606  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

helper,  and  he  was  honorably  discharged,  a  medical  discharge  because 
of  a  bad  back. 

Mr.  Reagan  has  a  high  school  education  and  is  currently  employed 
by  the  Horton  Sewing  Machine  Company  on  1200  Cypress  Street,  West 
Monroe. 

Mr.  Reagan  has  been  a  member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  and 
in  August  of  1964  he  was  great  titan  covering  the  jurisdiction  of  north- 
ern Louisiana.  In  September  1964,  he  was  a  delegate  to  the  Imperial 
Klonvokation  held  at  the  Dinkler-Tutwiler  Hotel  in  Birmingham, 
Alabama. 

On  November  7,  1964,  his  name  appears  on  the  signature  card  of  an 
account  opened  in  the  name  of  the  Committee  of  United  Clans  of 
America — and  this  is  spelled  with  a  "C"  and  not  a  "K" — at  the  Cen- 
tral Savings  Bank  &  Trust  Company  in  Monroe,  Louisiana,  and  the 
cosigner  of  the  account,  in  addition  to  Mr.  Reagan,  is  Leon  Smudrick, 
the  former  exalted  cyclops  of  a  Klavern  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America  known  as  the  Monroe  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club. 

(Document  marked  "Tommy  Reagan  Exhibit  No.  1"  follows:) 

Tommy  Reagan  Exhibit  No.  1 


RMJ 


AUTHORIZED   SIGNATURE  OF 

Lecii  Sitmdi-ick  AND   Tonmy  Reagan 


N) 


FOR   THE   TRANSACTION    OF    BUSINESS   WITH 

Central  Savings  bank  a  Trust  Co.   monroe,  Louisiana 

Ittm»  received  for  depom  or  collection  are  accepted  on  the  following  tcrmi  and  condnioni.  This  hank  acti  only 
•■  depositor'!  collecting  agent  and  aiaumei  no  responsibility  beyond  its  eierciae  of  due  care.  All  items  are  credited 
<uh)ect  to  final  payment  and  to  receipt  of  proceeds  of  final  payment  m  cash  or  solvent  credits  by  this  hank  at  its  own 
nffice.      This  bank    may  forward   items  to  correspondents  and  shall    not    be    liable    fptjJe'**1^^0rf^ig<nce    of    correspondent* 

Te    WWlTreTt    for    its    c 


•elected   with    due   care   nor   for   losses    m   transit,   and   each   cor  respondent  *yBt%ARic   Vjl^^rTi  ifii    for    its    own    negligence. 

Items  and  their  proceeds  may  he  handled  by  any  Federal  Reserve  bank  in  aclon 

by   this   bank   of   any   correspondent,    in   accordance    with   ■"y^o"ii'^Ql''^lt\t,,-— -,     wt—     —    ^  y  i 

Federal    Reserve    b:>nk    may    use    or    permit    another    bank    to   |jCX\ll  Bvtivlnv  vnNr    iTwTu]  jnVm   I'^'^P    bink    miv    charge 


eral  Reserve  bank  in  acloTvAnce  with  apQiicaUe  f^^fffjl^ 
with   *"ygfo'"ff'^fl|^»i|\*fW-S"'WSn(f    |bctW*'mVt 
rruerai    rvcicrve    D:>nK    may    use    or    permit    anoiner    bank    to   lj(X\ll  Bvt  vlh<|*  vnKr    IIwTuI   jIVm   /^'V<    \>^t\%    miv    criargc 
hack,    at    iny    time    prior    to    midnight    on    its    business   day    neit   lollowing  g|a||hAgif   ^n^RtvA^i/ern' dravin   on   tnii   hank 
which    \%    ascertiined   to   be    drawn    againat    Insufficient    fundi    or    other    wiM^nWgood  -m£    ^^J^^^  \^  jki^v^    received    after 
this  bank's   regular  afternoon   closing   hour  shall  be  deemed  rece*«gL8}i»%rfiv4>usincs«  .t 
Thia    bank    reserves   ihc    right   to    post    all   deposits,    InclufUul  .JC|Mrrta/jff  c%9k^x\^  "y 
midnight  of  Its  neit  businesa  day  after  tTicir  receipt  at  this  ^tfi«    durTf 

icntcJ    item    rcsulfi^yfl 


for    damages    fnr    nonpaymcrtt    nf    any^'fTrrtcntcJ    item    rcsubJ^PMlV^PVRrcise   nl    this    right 

sinMAT.i.,>.^_x^;.^^y  y^y^^^^.^-..^ Tonaiy  Reagan 

■)t  it  Ht  «  -K-  if  -.--  -ii-  -u-  ■);•  '>  r<-  ■«•  -;:■  ■>  -;t  ■«■»<:«■»  4t-  *■»■»*  ^^  •«■ 


^    SIGNATURE. 

< 
Z 
O 


p  n     Pr^v  0'^^     MnnT'fv-     Ta                 Co.oraittee  of  United  Clans  of 
ADHRFss  V*^'    "O^  ^P-l-j   monroe^   i.a.  business   irf-r^c-TK 

DATE       Noveaber  7«   1964 introduced  by    Leon  Smudrick 

£]  CHECKING  ACCOUNT  |      |  SAVINGS  ACCOUNT 

0  25  019  8 


Mr.  Appell.  I  might  point  out,  Mr.  Chairman,  in  that  connection, 
that  the  Monroe  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club  has  been  a  Klavern  of  the 
Original  Knights  under  Mr.  Young,  of  the  Original  Knights  under 
Mr.  Martin,  and  now  under  the  United  Klans  of  America. 

On  December  6,  1964,  following  a  public  rally  at  the  West  Monroe 
fairgrounds,  Mr.  Reagan,  in  response  to  an  inquiry  about  tlie  absence 
of  Imperial  Wizard  Robert  Shelton,  reported  that  Shelton  was  in 
Mississippi  contacting  United  Klans  of  America  Klaverns  about  rais- 
ing money  to  defend  the  individuals  arrested  by  the  FBI  in  the  murder 
of  the  civil  rights  workers. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2607 

In  Jaiuiaiy  of  1065,  Mr.  Eeagan  attended  meetings  of  imperial  and 
other  officers  of  the  United  Khms  of  America  at  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama. 

In  March  of  1965,  Mr.  Reagan  was  a  defeated  candidate 

The  Chairman.  '65  or  '64  ? 

]Mr.  Appell.  '65,  sir — for  the  office  of  Grand  Dragon  of  the  Realm 
of  Louisiana,  which  is  operated  under  the  cover  name  of  the  Louisiana 
Rescue  Service. 

In  March  and  April  1965,  Reagan  took  judo  lessons  with  other  Klans- 
men  in  the  We^t  Monroe,  Louisiana,  area. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  Reagan  posses- 
ses additional  information  \vhich  is  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this  in- 
quiry and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  remedial 
legislation. 

The  Chairman.  I  might  say  that  I  completely  agree.  If  he  cares 
to,  he  could  shed  a  lot  of  light,  provide  a  lot  of  additional  facts  within 
his  knowledge. 

In  any  case,  Mr.  Reagan,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement  of  the 
committee's  investigator,  Mr.  Appell,  who  is  under  oath  just  like  you 
are.  We  want  the  truth  and  nothing  but  the  truth.  I  now  give  you 
the  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portions  of  that  statement,  to  con- 
firm or  challenge  the  accuracy  of  the  information,  or  to  explain  any 
part  of  it.  In  addition,  you  may — and  I  urge  you  to — offer  any  other 
matter  which  the  committee  may  deem  relevant  to  this  inquiry.  Do 
you  care  to  avail  yourself  of  this  opportunity  ? 

Mr.  Reagan.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  In  that  case,  I  must  tell  you,  Mr.  Reagan,  absent 
your  rebuttal,  or  facts  that  may  come  to  the  attention  of  the  commit- 
tee, the  committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  the  investigation. 

Bearing  this  in  mind,  do  you  have  anything  to  say  ? 

Mr.  Reagan.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  CHAiR:MA]sr.  Having  attended  a  school  which  apparently 
teaches  everything  but  what  appears  in  the  literature  of  the  Klan  or- 
ganization, do  you  know  anything  about  the  actions  of  the  wrecking 
crews  which  are  part  of  the  activities  of  the  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Reagan.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  all. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Reagan,  prior,  to  the  holding  of  the  Imperial 
Klonvokation  at  the  Dinkler-Tutwiler  Hotel,  that  hotel  distributed 
to  the  United  Klans  of  America,  who  represented  itself  to  the  hotel 
as  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  a  printed  card  by  which  delegates  to 
the  convention,  klonvokation,  coulcl  request  reservations.  I  show  you 
a  reproduction  of  a  card  stating,  "I  will  be  attending  the  convention  of 
the  Alal)ama  Rescue  Service,''  when  the  party  will  arrive,  when  the 
party  plans  to  depart,  and  requesting  a  reservation  for  four  double 
bedrooms.  It  is  signed  "Tommy  F.  Reagan  &  Party,  600  No.  Tth  St., 
^V.  Monroe,  La."  I  ask  you  if  you  mailed  the  original  of  that  card 
to  the  hotel. 

( Document  handed  to  witness. ) 

Mr.  Reagan.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Tommy  Reagan  Exhibit  No.  2"  follows:) 


2608  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Tommy  Reagan  Exhibit  No.  2 


MAKE  YOUR  HOTEL  RESERVATIONS    NOW! 


I   will   be  attending  the  convention  of  the  .  .  . 
(name  of  group  or   association) 


I    will    arrive    (riny)  .    'i      t^'y.         [iAn\p\ ^j^/^^^   (h<-itir)-3   y^  m 

I  will  depart  (day)-^  v  ^ (date)  ^^y^'T'C  (hour)  "y^^.  m. 

Reserve   for   me  the  following   accommodotions   .   .    . 

V   Q^double   bedroorrvy 
n   suite    <^'^f  S^o 


(check  one)     □  single 

Q   twin   bedroom 


YOUR  MAMF     -^^^^y    y^.     /^e=>.  .^ /Tl  ^  »•    w-^^-^^Tv 

ADDRESS         t^  fi> T^a. ^  '^ -^  ?~- . 

CITY  6t^       y^gyyyP^fi^        ^    ^ 


Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  identify  to  the  committee  the  other  members 
of  your  party  ? 

Mr.  Reagan.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  as  a  delegate  to  that  convention  or  klonvokation  you 
participated  in  the  election  of  the  Imperial  Wizard,  Robert  Shelton ; 
the  Imperial  Klokard,  Robert  Collins;  the  Imperial  Kludd,  the 
Reverend  Dorsett;  the  Imperial  Kladd,  Robert  Hudgins;  the  Imperial 
Klarogo,  Walter  Brown;  and  the  Imperial  Klexter,  Robert  Konnaji. 

Mr.  Reagan.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  may  I  have  1  minute  ? 

The  Chairman.  The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  for  a  minute? 

(Brief  recess.) 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Reagan,  does  the  Monroe,  Louisiana,  area  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America  have  a  woman's  auxiliary  which  covers  its 
true  function  by  going  under  the  name  of  the  Green  Thumb  Club? 

Mr.  Reagan.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  no  further  question  to  ask  the 
witness. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excussed. 

The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  until  next  Tuesday  at  10  a.m. 

(AVliereupon,  at  12:30  p.m.,  Friday,  January  7,  196(5,  the  subcom- 
mittee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  10  a.m.,  Tuesday,  January  11,  1966.) 


ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLIX  KLAN  ORGANIZATIONS  IN 

THE  UNITED  STATES 

Part  3 


TUESDAY,  JANUARY  11,  1966 

UxiTED  States  House  of  Representatives, 

Subcommittee  of  the 
Committee  ox  Un-American  Activities, 

Washington.  D.C. 

PUBLIC    hearings 

The  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 
met,  pursuant  to  recess,  at  10:10  a.m.  in  the  Caucus  Room,  Cannon 
House  Office  Building,  Washington,  D.C,  Hon.  Edwin  E.  Willis 
(chairman)  presiding. 

(Subcommittee  members:  Representatives  Edwin  E.  Willis,  of 
Louisiana,  chairman;  Joe  R.  Pool,  of  Texas;  Charles  L.  Weltner,  of 
Georgia ;  John  M.  Ashbrook,  of  Ohio ;  and  John  H.  Buchanan,  Jr.,  of 
Alabama.) 

Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Willis,  Pool, 
Weltner,  and  Buchanan. 

Staff  members  present:  Francis  J.  AIcNamara,  director;  William 
Hitz,  general  comisel ;  and  Donald  T.  Appell,  chief  investigator. 

The  Chairman.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 

Mr.  Appell,  call  your  first  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  call  Mr.  John  H. 
(ripson. 

Mr.  Gipson,  would  you  come  up  here  and  take  the  stand,  please? 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  shall  give  in  this  session 
will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help 
you  God  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  I  do. 

The  Cil\irman.  Have  a  seat. 

TESTIMONY  OF  JOHN  HUGH  GIPSON 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gipson,  if  you  will  talk  into  the  microphone  I 
think  that  the  committee  will  be  able  to  hear  you.  The  acoustics 
here  are  rather  bad. 

Would  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Gipson.  John  Hugh  Gipson. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  that  is  spelled  G-i-p-s-o-n? 


Mr.  Gipson.  Right. 


2609 


2610  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  do  yon  presently  reside,  sir? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Slidell,  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  St.  Tammany  Parish. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  the  month  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  March  24, 1936. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gipson,  you  are  not  appearing  before  the  com- 
mittee this  morning  witli  counsel.     Do  you  desire  counsel  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  desire  an  attorney  to  accompany  you 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  desire  to  have  a  lawyer? 

Mr.  Appell.  — here  this  morning  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Sir? 

Mr.  Appell.  I  say,  you  do  not  have  an  attorney  with  you  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  want  an  attorney  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Gipson,  you  do  not  have  a  lawyer.  You  said 
you  don't  want  one. 

I  want  you  to  know  tliat,  if  you  want  to,  you  may  invoke  the  fifth 
amendment.  You  don't  have  to,  but  if  you  want  to  I  want  you  to 
know  that  we  respect  your  rights. 

Mr.  Gipson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr,  Appell.  Mr,  Gipson,  how  far  did  you  go  in  school  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  I  quit  school  in  the  seventh  grade. 

Mr.  Appell.  0^'er  the  recent  years  what  has  been  your  principal 
occupation  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Most  of  my  life  I  logged,  working  in  the  woods. 

The  Chairman.  Logging? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Logging, 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gipson,  have  you  ever  been  a  member  of  any 
Ku  Klux  Klan  organization  ? 

Mr,  Gipson,  Yes,  sir, 

Mr,  Appell.  Wlien  did  you  join  a  Ku  Klux  Klan  organization  ? 

Mr,  Gipson,  It  was  in  1963. 

Mr,  Appell,  And  was  this  the  Orig-inal  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan? 

Mr,  Gipson,  Yes,  sir. 

Mr,  Appell.  And  was  tliis  the  organization  that  was  headed  state- 
Mnde  by  J.  D,  Swenson  and  Royal  V.  Young? 

Mr,  Gipson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  you  acquainted  with  dissension  which  grew  up 
within  the  Original  Knights  over  finances  involving  Mr.  Swenson 
and/or  Mr.  Young? 

Mr.  Gipson.  I  know  they  had  some  kind  of  money  squabble,  but  I 
don't  know  too  much  about  it.  I  was  just  becoming  a  member  then 
and  I  did  know  they  had  some  squabble  over  the  money. 

Mr,  Appell.  And  you  do  know  that  after  this  money  squabble  Mr, 
Young  and  Mr,  Swenson  were  no  longer  the  leaders  of  the 
organization  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Right, 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2611 

Mr.  Appell.  In  1963  wlien  you  joined  the  Original  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Khix  Klan,  ^vho  recruited  you  into  the  organization? 

Mr.  Gipsox.  Herbert  (jornor. 

Mr.  Appell.  G-o-r-n-o-r? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  to  what  Klavern  of  the  Original  Knights  were 
you  assigned  after  you  became  a  member? 

Mr.  GiPSOx.  To  the  Pearl  River. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  this  Klavern  also  known  as  the  Pearl  River 
Hunting  and  Fishing  Club  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  It  was. 

Mr.  Appell..  The  first  meeting  that  you  attended  was  held  where? 

Mr.  GiPSOx.  By  Gary  Crawford's  house;  in  the  house,  in  fact. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  the  house  of  Cary  Crawford? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  he  was  a  member  of  the  Pearl  River  unit? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Why  did  you  join  the  Klan?  What  interested  you  in 
the  Klan's  program  wdiich  caused  you  to  join  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Well,  at  the  time  I  thought  it  was  a  pretty  good  thing 
the  way  they  explained  it  to  me.  It  did  sound  good,  but  the  longer  I 
stayed  in  and  the  further  I  went,  I  seen  that  they  didn't  live  up  to  the 
oath  that  they  took,  because  when  I  went  in  it  was  supposed  to  be  no 
violence.  Their  fighting  was  going  to  be  with  boycotts  and  ballots 
and  with  economic  pressure. 

Mr.  Appell.  At  the  time  you  joined,  what  was  the  klectokon,  or 
recruitment  fee,  which  you  had  to  pay  to  get  into  the  Klan  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Ten  dollars  initiation  fee;  ten  dollars  for  uniform. 

Mr.  Appell.  This  is  the  robe  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  what  were  the  dues  paid  by  the  members  within 
their  respective  Klaverns? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Four  and  a  half  a  quarter.     A  quarter  was  3  months, 

Mr.  Appell.  At  the  time  you  joined  the  unit,  who  was  the  exalted 
Cyclops,  or  the  leader  of  the  Klavern  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Mr.  Rowley. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  this  Mr.  Ewell  R-o-w-l-e-y  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Right. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  did  you  know  his  occupation  or  profession  to  be? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  He  w^as  principal  at  the  school. 

Mr.  Appell.  This  is  the  Sixth  Ward  Junior  High  School,  also 
known  as  the  Pearl  River  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  At  the  time  I  went  in.  he  was  principal  at  Pearl  River 
School,  but  then  he  got  a  transfer  to  Sixth  Ward  High  School. 

Mr.  Appell.  How-  long  did  Mr.  Rowley  continue  to  be  the  exalted 
Cyclops? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  As  well  as  I  remember  somewhere  around  7  to  8  months. 

Mr.  Appell.  Who  replaced  Mr.  Rowley  as  the  exalted  cyclops  of 
the  unit? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Beg  pardon  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Who  was  the  next  exalted  cyclops  after  Mr.  Rowley  ? 

Mr.  GrpsoN.  Nelson  Ainsworth. 


2612  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  business  is  Mr.  Ainsworth  in  in  the  Pearl  Kiver 
area? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  He  owns  the  dump  trucks,  hauling  sand  and  gravel. 

Mr.  Appell.  Who  was  the  secretary  of  the  Klavem,  the  man  to 
whom  dues  were  paid  and  the  man  who  kept  notes  and  records  of 
the  meeting? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Howard  Swenson. 

Mr,  Appell.  And  is  Howard  Swenson  employed  by  a  tobacco 
company  as  a  route  salesman  working  out  of  Bogalusa? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wlio  succeeded  Nelson  Ainsworth  as  the  exalted  Cy- 
clops of  your  unit  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  James  L.  Leslie. 

The  Chairman.  Will  you  spell  that  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  L-e-s-1-i-e. 

Is  he  known  in  the  community  by  the  nickname  of  Preacher  Leslie  ? 

Mr.  GrpsoN.  Yes,  sir,  he  is. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  he  currently  engaged  in  the  profession  of  a  min- 
ister, or  does  he  have  some  other  occupation  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  He  is  a  mechanic. 

Mr.  Appell.  He  is  a  mechanic  now  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  from  what  origin  he  gets  the  nickname 
of  Preacher? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  He  was  supposed  to  have  been  an  ordained  preacher 
at  one  time. 

Mr.  Appell.  Who  was  the  secretary  of  the  Klavern  under  James 
Leslie? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Clayton  Hickey, 

Mr.  Appell.  C-1-a-y-t-o-n  H-i-c-k-e-y? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Right. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  what  does  Mr,  Hickey  do? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  He  is  an  iron  worker. 

Mr.  Appell,  Is  he  presently  under  some  kind  of  suspension  from 
the  Times-Picayune^  where  he  had  been  employed  as  a  typesetter  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir,  he  is. 

Mr,  Appell,  Mr,  Gipson,  where  did  this  Klavern  at  the  time  Mr. 
Leslie  was  the  exalted  cyclops  hold  some  of  its  meetings? 

Mr,  GiPSON,  Al  Bardin's  Pine  View, 

Mr.  Appell.  And  he  owns  and  operates  Pine  View  Salvage  Com- 
pany? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Right. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gipson,  within  the  organizational  structure  of  the 
Original  Knights  there  is  provision  made  within  the  Klavern  and 
within  the  realm  level  of  a  body  of  men  known  as  the  wrecking  crew? 

Mr,  GiPSON,  Yes,  sir, 

Mr,  Appell.  Are  you  familiar  with  the  activities  of  the  wrecking 
crew? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  you  ever  a  member  of  a  wrecking  crew  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON,  Yes,  sir, 

Mr.  Appell.  Prior  to  becoming  a  meml^er  of  the  wrecking  crew 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2613 

did  you  ever,  in  consultation  with  other  Klansmen,  cany  out  an  act 
against  anyone? 

Mr.  Gipsox.  Yes,  sir;  one  time. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  tell  the  committee  in  your  own  words  w^hat 
this  act  was  and  what  led  up  to  it  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Well,  they  had  a  boy  in  our  community  and  he  was, 
according  to  Oscar  Anderson,  chief  KBI. 

Mr.  Appell.  Oscar  Anderson  was  the  chief  of  the  KBI? 

Mr.  Gipsox.  Yes,  sir.  He  said  the  boy  drinks  and  didn't  take  care 
of  his  family,  late  out  at  night,  and  he  needed  to  be  straightened  out 
with  a  belt. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  it  come  about  that  the  opinion  of  Mr.  Anderson, 
who  was  the  KBI — Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation — man,  and  a  group 
of  Klansmen  carried  out  Mr.  Anderson's  belief  that  this  man  should 
be  handled  and  taken  care  of  with  a  belt  ? 

Mr.  GiPSOx.  Yes,  sir,  they  did. 

Mr.  Appeli..  "\Y1io  was  this  man  that  was  going  to  be  whipped  with 
with  a  belt? 

Mr.  GiPSOx.  Clarence  O'Berry. 

Mr.  Appell.  O-'-B-e-r-r-y? 

Mr.  GiPSOx.  Right. 

The  Chairmax.  Is  that  a  wdiite  boy  or  a  Negro  boy  ? 

Mr.  GiPSOx.  He  was  a.  white  boy. 

Mr.  Appell.  With  respect  to  the  planning  and  the  participants  in- 
volved in  this  act,  would  you,  in  your  own  words,  tell  the  committee 
just  what  transpired?  I  first  would  like  to  ask  you  approximately 
when  this  planning  and  the  actual  beating  were  carried  out. 

Mr.  GiPSOX.  The  night  that  he  got  whipped  we  had  a  regular  Klan 
meeting.  Oscar  Anderson  told  us  that  after  the  meeting  he  wanted  to 
talk  to  us.  After  the  meeting  he  come  out,  and  everybody  there  were 
the  ones  who  went. 

The  Chairmax.  AVlio  were  they? 

Mr.  GiPSOx.  Myself,  John  Gipson,  L.  M.  Raynor,  Harold  Brake- 
field,  Herbert  Gomor. 

The  Chatrmax.  Could  you  remember  about  w^hen  that  was,  what 
month  and  what  year  approximately  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  that  approximately  July  of  1964? 

Mr.  GiPsox'.  It  is  in  July  sometime. 

TheCnAiRMAX.  1964? 

Mr.  Gipsox.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Continue. 

Mr.  GiPS0x\  He  said  he  thought  that  night  would  be  a  good  night 
to  get  him,  but  he  thought  he  was  laying  out  in  one  of  them  barrooms 
down  there  that  night.  He  told  us  to  follow  him  down  to  this  bar- 
room. We  went  down  and  we  parked  on  the  side  road.  He  made  a 
loop  in  front  of  the  barroom  and  said  he  seen  the  boy  sitting  at  the 
bar,  and  he  was  watching  the  boy.  In  some  kind  of  way  the  boy 
come  out  and  caught  a  ride. 

He  said  "He  must  be  on  his  way  home.*'     He  told  us  to  follow  him. 

We  went  up  Highway  11,  turned  off  11  up  41,  and  he  went  up  the 
road  and  passed  the  boy's  road  Avhich  goes  to  his  house  and  he  was 
going  to  watch  for  the  sheriff. 


2614  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

We  turned  arouiid  then,  and  he  come  back.  Sure  enough  the  boy 
was  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  his  house.  "We  caught  him,  drug 
him  off  in  the  woods,  Harold  Brakefield,  Gornor,  Oscar  Anderson,  and 
L.  M.  Raynor.  They  pulled  his  pants  down,  and  I  hit  him  two  or  three 
licks,  and  Eliot  Rand  took  the  belt  and  he  really  whipped  him.  He 
was  whipping  him  so  hard  I  reached  and  grabbed  his  wrist  one  time 
and  shoved  him  back. 

When  we  got  through  we  just  left  him  there. 

The  Chairman.  On  the  ground  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  On  the  ground. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  O'Berry  pretty  well  welted  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  he  was  in  a  pretty  bad  way. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  there  any  discussion  among  the  }>eople  of  getting 
him  medical  attention  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  No,  sir,  there  wasn't. 

Mr.  Appell.  He  was  left  there  without  anyone  caring  how  he  was 
going  to  get  home  or  whether  he  was  going  to  get  any  kind  of  medical 
attention  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  That's  right. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  he  told  by  the  Klansman  why  he  was  being 
whipped  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  I  understood  that  he  had  had  some  warning  before 
that,  but  I  didn't  know  nothing  about  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  But  on  the  night  that  lie  was  whipped  he  wasn't 
told  why  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  No,  sir ;  nobody  talked. 

Mr.  Appell.  Following  this  act  against  Clarence  O'Berry,  were  you 
formally  inducted  into  a  wrecking  crew  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  I  wasn't  at  the  time  O'Berry  got  whipped,  but  after 
that  they  got  them  a  wrecking  crew  up  and  I  was  sworn  in. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  describe  to  the  committee  the  procedures 
that  you  went  through  in  order  to  be  inducted  into  the  wrecking  crew  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  This  guy,  Oscar  Anderson,  told  me  to  come  down  by 
his  station.  He  was  running  a  station  at  that  time.  He  had  some 
men  he  wanted  me  to  talk  with.  Whenever  I  got  down  there  they 
had  two  fellows  that  I  didn't  know,  and  never  did  know.  They  were 
supposed  to  be  from  northeast  Louisiana.  They  told  that  tliere  had 
to  be  something  set  up  to  stop  all  tliese  smart  niggers  and  things,  and 
that  laws  was  made  for  something,  but  sometimes  they  had  tO'  be 
broken  and  there  had  to  be  some  good  men  to  do  it.  Then  they  swore 
in  a  few  of  us  that  night,  and  we  took  a  different  oath  than  they  have 
in  the  regular  Klavern. 

Mr.  Appell.  Let  me  interrupt  you  there.  In  the  discussion  of  tak- 
ing care  of  people,  people  that  you  describe,  to  what  extremes  was  this 
group  willing  to  go,  or  were  they  told  they  might  have  to  go,  in  order 
to  take  care  of  smart  Negroes  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  They  said  it  might  even  come  necessary  to  have  to 
murder  somebody. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  testified  that  you  took  an  oath  which  was  differ- 
ent from  the  oath  administered  in  a  Klavern.  Do  you  remember  the 
context  of  this  oath,  or  do  you  remember  any  part  of  it  wliich  made 
an  impression  upon  you  at  the  time  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2615 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir.  One  part  of  it  I  well  remember,  the  part 
wliere  "if  you  reveal  any  secrecy,  ever  talk,  that  yon  would  get  your 
head  blown  from  your  shoulders."     I  well  remember  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  Your  testimony  is  that,  as  part  of  this  oath,  it  was  set 
forth  that  a  violation  of  the  secrecy  of  the  wrecking  crew  would  result 
in  your  head  being-  blown  otf  from  your  shoulders? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Right. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  there  discussion 

The  Chairman.  May  I  first  ask  a  question  about  the  meeting? 
Were  any  of  you  in  robes  or  were  you  in  plain  clothes  when  you  admin- 
istered that  oath? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  We  had  plain  clothes,  but  we  had  black  masks. 

The  Chairman.  And  that  was  in  July  of  1964? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  All  right. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  was  going  to  ask  about  subsequent  events,  Mr.  Chair- 
man— but  this  black  mask  that  you  wore,  did  it  cover  your  head  so 
that  no  one  could  identify  you,  so  that  only  the  eye  slits  showed 
through  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  That's  right. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  there  any  discussion  after  the  oath  as  to  retalia- 
tion against  a  member  of  the  wrecking  crew  who  might  violate  any 
of  the  secrets  of  the  members  of  the  wrecking  crew? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir.  They  said  if  a  fellow  ever  talked  that  they 
would  get  him,  that  they  might  not  get  him  then,  it  mig'lit  be  5  or  10 
years  later,  but:  he  would  be  gotten. 

Mr.  Pool.  Wim  said  this? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  These  two  fellas  that  were  supposed  to  have  been  from 
northeast  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  don't  know  the  names  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  No,  sir.  I  never  did  find  their  names  out.  They  said 
that  tliey  could  get  men  from  somewliere  else  to  do  these  jobs, 

Mr.  Pool.  Where  did  they  tell  you  this? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  At  Al  Bardin's. 

Mr.  Pool.  Anybody  else  here  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  are  the  only  one  wlio  talked? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  I  misunderstood.  I  thought  you  asked  did  anybody 
else  here  hear  it.  I  heard  it,  Oscar  Anderson,  Harold  Brakefield,  L.  M. 
Ray  nor.  Nelson  Ainsworth. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  you  ever  ask  who  these  fellows  were  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  No,  sir;  I  never  did. 

Mr.  Weltner.  What  w^as  your  understanding  as  to  what  was  meant 
by  "they  will  get  you''  ? 

Mr.  GiPsON.  My  understanding  was  that  if  anybody  ever  revealed 
any  of  their  secrets  that  they  w^ould  kill  you. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Was  there  any  question  about  what  they  meant  by 
"get  you"  in  your  mind? 

Mr.  Gipsox.  Well,  I  knew  what  they  meant. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Thank  you,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  T  want  to  ask  you,  and  this  will  be  a  complete  answer. 


59-222  O — 67— pt.  3 19 


2616  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

I  think,  to  Mr.  Pool's  question- — in  addition  to  yourself  who  on  this 
night  took  the  wrecking  crew  oath? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Oscar  Anderson,  he  took  it  hisself ;  Harold  Rrakefield; 
L.  M.  Raynor :  Louis  Singletaiy. 

Mr.  Appell.  S-i-n-g-1-e-t-a-r-y? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Right;  Harold  Brakefield,  Heniy  Gaines 

The  Chairman.  Could  you  tell  us  about  the  ages  of  those  people? 
Were  they  about  your  age?  Were  some  older  or  some  younger  than 
you? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  There  was  two  boys — three  boys- — pretty  close  to  about 
my  age,  and  the  rest  of  them  was  older  than  me. 

The  Chairman.  How  old  would  you  say? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  I  am  29. 

The  Chairman.  You  were  then  27  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appei.l.  In  addition  to  those  that  you  have  already  named, 
L.  M.  Raynor,  Harold  Brakefield,  Nelson  xlinsworth,  and  Louis  Single- 
tary  and  Henry  Gaines,  was  a  man  by  the  name  of  Talley,  whose  first 
name  is  Vernon  Edgar  Talley,  another  who  took  the  wrecking  crew 
oath  at  that  time  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir,  he  was. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  Henry  Clayton  Hickey.  H-i-c-k-e-y  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Right ;  he  took  the  oath,  too. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  the  wrecking  crew  meet  and  discuss  its  business  as 
part  of  the  regular  Klaveni  meeting,  or  did  the  members  of  the 
wrecking  crew  hold  separate,  independent  meetings  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  They  held  separate  meetings. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  would  these  meetings  be  held — at  the  residence 
of  different  members  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir,  in  the  residences. 

Mr.  Appell.  At  whose  residences  did  some  of  the  meetings  of  this 
particular  group  take  place  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Most  of  the  time  at  Oscar  Anderson's  house. 

Mr.  Pool.  Was  Oscar  Anderson  the  leader  of  this  group  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  He  presided  at  the  meetings  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  He  gave  you  instructions  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  He  administered  the  oath?    Who  administered  the  oath? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Them  boys  that  come  down  from  northeast  I^uisiana, 
they  swore  him  in  as  the  leader  and  then  he  was  supposed  to  lead 
from  there  on. 

Mr.  Pool.  They  designated  him  as  the  leader  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  In  other  words,  they  was  just  starting  him  out,  just 
like  they  were  supposed  to  already  have  been. 

Mr.  Appell.  After  they  swore  in  Oscar  Anderson,  then  Oscar 
Anderson  in  turn  administered  the  oath  to  the  local  members  of  the 
wrecking  crew  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  often  did  this  wrecking  crew  normally  meet? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  They  met  about  once  a  week. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2617 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  or  other  members  of  the  wrecking  crew  ever 
travel  to  places  outside  of  the  Pearl  River  area  for  the  purpose  of  dis- 
cussing o^x^rations  and  projects  or  jobs  which  the  wrecking  crew  should 
involve  itself  in? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  I  never  did  get  out  of  the  area  of  Slidell  and  Pearl 
River. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  ever  attend  any  meetings  in  Covington  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir,  I  did  attend  a  meeting  out  there  but  it  was  a 
kind  of  a  State  meeting  like.  State  officers  mostly. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  not  restricted  to  wrecking  crew  pereonnel  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  No,  sir.  But  there  was  a  little  discussion  there  I  heard 
on  one  part  of  it. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  describe  this  meeting  for  us  and  tell  us 
where  it  was  held  and  approximately  when  it  was  held  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  One  Sunday  morning  Oscar  Anderson  come  by  my 
house  and  told  me  he  had  a  call  to  meet  with  some  fellows  in  Coving- 
ton.    He  didn't  know  who  or  what  was  going  on. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  interrupt  you  there,  Mr.  Gipson.  In  an  interview 
which  you  had  w^th  me  did  we  establish  that  the  approximate  date  of 
tliis  meeting  was  Sunday,  the  25th  of  July  1965  ? 

Mr,  Gipson.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  For  the  record,  about  how  far  is  Covington  from 
Slidell? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Must  be  around  about  25  miles. 

The  Chairman.  About  how  far  is  Slidell  from  Bogalusa,  approxi- 
mately ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  36  miles  roughly. 

The  Chairman.  And  how  far  is  Covington  from  Bogalusa,  approxi- 
mately ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  About  50  or  60  miles. 

The  Chairman.  All  right.     Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  had  told,  up  to  the  point  of  my  interruption,  that 
Oscar  Anderson  had  advised  you  that  he  had  to  go  to  Covington  to 
meet  with  some  fellows.  Did  you  accompany  Oscar  Anderson  to 
Covington  to  meet  with  these  fellows  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Yes,  sir.     On  the  way  he  picked  up  Al  Bardin. 

Mr.  Appell.  He  picked  up  Al  Bardin,  whom  we  discussed  previ- 
ously as  the  owner  of  the  Pine  View  Salvage  Company  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  the  three  of  you  then  traveled  to  Covington  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  have  a  meeting  in  Covington  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Yes,  sir.     It  was  a  little  meeting. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  was  this  meeting  held  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  At  Pete  Holden's  home. 

Mr.  Appell.  That  is  James  Holden,  Mr.  Chairman,  who  was  a 
witness  before  the  committee  last  week  and  refused  to  testify  and 
invoked  his  constitutional  privileges. 

Would  you  proceed  in  your  own  words  to  describe  who  was  there 
and  what  the  general  discussion  of  those  assembled  was  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  S.  J.  Parker  was  there ;  Saxon  Farmer. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  Mr.  Parker  from  Bush  ? 


2618  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir,  from  up  around  Bush. 

Mr.  Appell,  And  Saxon  Farmer  is  from  Bogalusa. 

Mr.  Chairman,  I  think  the  record  should  show  that  he  was  a  witness 
before  the  committee  last  week  and  refused  to  testifj'  on  constitutional 
privileges. 

You  have  mentioned  Parker  and  Farmer. 

Mr.  GiPSON.  And  Pete  Holden. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  whose  house  the  meeting  was  held  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes.  Oscar  Anderson,  Al  Bardin  and  myself,  Johnnie 
Gipson. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  Albert  M.  Bancks,  B-a-n-c-k-s,  also  there? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  That  is  right ;  he  was  there,  too. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  think  the  record  should  show  that  at 
the  time  of  that  meeting  Mr.  Albert  M.  Bancks  resided  at  Folsom, 
Louisiana,  but  is  currently  residing  at  Foxboro,  Mississippi. 

Will  you  proceed  with  the  discussions  that  might  have  taken  place 
at  this  meeting  that  you  can  recall  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  I  heard  Oscar  Anderson  ask  Saxon  Farmer  were  they 
still  going  through  with  the  plans  to  burn  the  churches,  and  Saxon 
Farmer  told  him  "yes,"  that  it  was  going  to  be  done  statewide,  that 
they  would  follow  the  plans  through. 

Mr.  Appell.  Following  that  meeting,  was  there  subsequently  a 
meeting  of  members  of  the  wrecking  crew  in  your  area? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Which  meeting  related  itself  to  the  actual  burning  of 
churches  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  think  in  the  interview  we  established  that  this  meet- 
ing was  held  on  July  31,  the  Saturday  following  the  meeting  at  Pete 
Holden 's  house,  that  it  was  held  at  the  house  of  Oscar  Anderson;  is 
that  true? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Right. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  tell  the  committee  the  discussion  that  went 
on  at  that  meeting  ? 

Mr.  Gipsox.  We  met  there,  and  they  decided  they  would  wet  the 
buildings  down  with  gas. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  buildings  are  Ave  talking  about  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  The  Hartsell  Methodist  Church,  I  believe. 

Mr.  Appell.  Methodist  Youth  Center,  I  believe  is  the  technical 
name. 

Mr.  Gipson.  Yes. 

Mr.  Pool.  What  town  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  In  Slidell. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  other  was  the  Providence  Baptist  Church? 

Mr.  Gipson.  On  Thompson  Road. 

The  Chairman.  Were  those  churches  with  white  congregations  or 
Negro  congregations?    Were  they  colored  or  white  churches? 

Mr.  Gipson.  They  were  colored  churches.  They  said  they  were 
using  them  for  civil  rights  meetings.  They  decided  they  would  wet 
them  down  with  gas,  take  four  matches,  two  on  each  side  of  a  cigarette 
and  wrap  a  rubber  band  around  them  to  ignite  the  gas.  That  was 
the  trigger. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2619 

Mr.  Appell.  During  the  iiiter\iew,  Mr.  Gipsoii,  under  your  guid- 
ance and  instruction,  did  we  sort  of  simulate  the  type  of  instrument 
that  was  used  to  ignite  the  gas  ?    I  show  this  to  you. 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Is  that  the  kind  of  torch  that  they  had  planned 
to  use  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Describe  that  torch. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  tlie  torch  that  we  manufactured  at  the 
guidance  of  Mr.  Gipson  is  an  ordinary  cigarette  which  has  four 
matches  attached  to  it.  These  are  wood  matches,  not  paper  matches. 
They  are  held  in  place  around  the  cigarette  with  a  rubber  band.  The 
cigarette  is  ignited  and  as  it  burns  down  it  then  ignites  the  matches. 
The  time  that  the  people  have  to  get  away  depends  upon  how  close 
or  far  removed  tliey  put  the  matches  to  the  ignited  end  of  the  cigarette. 

Mr.  Pool.  Is  that  description  the  way  it  was? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  a  time  set  at  which  the  burning  of  these  two 
churches  would  take  place? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Yes.     It  was  set  on  a  Monday  night. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  this  the  Monday  which  followed  the  meeting  at 
Oscar  Anderson's  house  on  Saturday  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  On  Saturday,  that  is  right. 

Mr.  Appell,  This  would  then  make  it  on  August  2  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Yes,  sir.  They  figured  the  best  time  would  be  in  the 
morning,  which  would  be  Tuesday  morning  at  about  1  o'clock. 

The  Chairman.  In  the  afternoon  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  A.M. 

The  Chairman.  In  other  words,  Tuesday  at  1  o'clock  a.m. 

Mr.  Gipson.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Just  past  Monday  midnight. 

Mr.  Gipson.  That  is  right.  They  said  there  wouldn't  be  too  many 
people  stirring  at  that  hour  of  the  night. 

Mr.  Appell.  On  the  following  Monday  night,  were  these  acts  car- 
ried out  ? 

Mr.  Gipson'.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  describe  in  your  own  words  how  the 
rendezvous  was  established  and  how  the  teams  were  set  up  to  carry 
out  the  actual  purpose  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  That  ISIonday  night  we  had  a  regular  Klan  meeting  at 
James  L.  Leslie's  house. 

Mr.  Appell.  He  was  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  unit  at  that  time  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Right. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  mentioned  tlie  meeting  Avas  held  on  a  Monday 
night.     Was  this  the  normal  night  for  a  meeting  of  the  Klavern? 

Mr.  Gipson.  No,  sir.  They  had  been  meeting  on  Friday  nights,  but 
they  decided  they  would  change  nights. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  order  to  keep  the  sheriff's  department  and  the  FBI 
from  observing  their  meetings,  they  then  switched  the  meeting  nights? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Right. 

Mr.  Appell.  Proceed  with  the  meeting  and  what  happened. 

Mr.  Gipson.  We  had  a  regular  meeting 


2620  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

The  Chairman.  By  "we,"  do  you  mean  the  wrecking  crew? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  By  the  regular  meetmg,  you  mean  of  the  Klavem 
membership  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  The  Klavern  meeting  and  the  wrecking  crew  men  were 
there,  too.  After  tlie  reguhir  meeting,  Oscar  Anderson  said  just  wait 
until  everybod}^  left,  and  when  everybody  left  he  come  around  and  he 
asked  if  everything  was  ready,  and  was  told  j^es.  He  said,  "Well,  I 
am  going  home  so  I  will  have  an  ironclad  alibi" 

Mr.  Appell.  Let  me  interrupt  you  there.  Oscar  Anderson  is  the 
KBIman? 

Mr.  GipsoN.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  He  is  the  man  who  planned  the  action  ? 

Mr.  Gipsoisr.  Right. 

Mr.  Appell.  But  instead  of  going  with  you  to  carry  out  these  acts, 
he  is  going  home  so  he  can  have  a  perfect  alibi  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  What  is  that  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  He  is  going  home  after  planning  it  and  getting  the 
people  to  do  it,  so  he  will  have  a  perfect  alibi. 

Mr.  GiPSON.  He  doesn't  worry  about  the  rest  of  the  guys.  So  we 
left  and  went  on  about  8  miles  and  we  stopped  again.  We  were  going 
to  split  up  there.     So  two  took  the  one  on  Thompson  Road. 

The  Chairman.  I  do  not  want  to  break  into  your  thoughts,  but 
when  you  say  "we,"  who  are  they  ?     You  and  who  else? 

Mr.  GiPsoN.  L.  M.  Raynor  and  Louis  Singletary  were  going  to  take 
the  one  on  Thompson  Road,  and  myself  and  Clayton  Hickey  and  Ed 
Talley  were  going  to  get  the  the  other  one  on  Shortcut  Highway. 

Mr.  Appell.  That  would  be  the  Hartsell  Methodist  Youth  Center  ( 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Continue. 

Mr.  GiPSON.  I  had  my  truck.  The  other  two  boys  had  a  car.  They 
were  going  to  let  me  take  my  truck  home,  and  I  was  going  to  leave  it. 
They  were  going  to  pick  me  up.  I  had  two  of  these  little  hand  walkie- 
talkie  radios  that  they  use  on  guard  duty  around  the  Klavern.  I  had 
me  a  little  story  made  up.  When  I  went  in  and  put  the  radios  up,  I 
come  back  out  and  told  them,  the  two  boys  I  was  with,  Hickey  and 
Talley,  that  my  wife  was  crying  and  begging  me  not  to  go,  which  was 
the  story  I  just  made  up,  and  that  I  couldn't  go.  They  said,  "We 
understand,  but  we  will  take  care  of  it." 

Mr.  Appell.  To  your  knowledge  and  to  the  public  knowledge  of 
people  in  the  community,  were  the  Providence  Ba[)tist  Church  and  the 
Hart-sell  Methodist  Youth  Cenler  set  fire  that  night? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir.  The  next  morning  I  went  to  work  and  I  heard 
it  on  the  radio  that  they  were  both  burned  down. 

Mr.  Appell.  After  this  burning,  did  you  continue  active  member- 
ship in  the  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Gipsox.  After  that  hai)pened,  I  knew  I  couldn't  go  on  with 
them  kind  of  things,  and  I  slacked  oti'.  I  got  on  the  side  with  the 
law  officials,  and  they  advised  and  asked  me  would  I  get  back  in  the 
groove  and  go  back  to  the  regular  meetings  so  I  could  help  stop  that 
kind  of  things,  and  I  did. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2621 

(At  this  point  Kepresentative  Seniier  entered  the  liearing  I'oom.) 

The  Chairman.  What  hiw  officials  ? 

Mr.  Gipsox.  Mr.  Broom. 

The  Chairman.  Wlio  is  he  i 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Slieriff  Broom  of  St.  Tammany  Parish. 

The  Chairman.  It  was  by  arrangement  of  your  sheriff  that  you 
appear  here  today  ?  Is  that  right,  as  far  as  you  know  ?  I  am  telling 
you  it  is. 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  You  said  you  were  engaged  in  logging  operations. 
I  think  even  yesterday  you  were  logging ;  were  you  not  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Through  your  sheriff'  you  asked  two  things  of  the 
committee.  One,  that  your  expenses  be  paid  and,  second,  that  you 
be  afforded  police  protection  while  you  were  in  Washington;  is  that 
correct  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  I  have  afforded  you  that,  and  I  direct  the  police  to 
continue  that  watch. 

By  the  way,  there  was  discussion  about  your  protection  when  you 
went  back  home.  The  sheriff  said  he  would  take  care  of  that.  I  con- 
gratulate him. 

Mr.  GiPSON.  He  is  a  fine  fellow. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gipson,  on  January  5,  1966,  did  you  then  leave 
the  Klan  and  become  a  witness  for  the  State  in  a  prosecution  of 
fellow  Klansmen  who  carried  out  the  whipping  of  Clarence  O'Berry  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir,  I  did. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  did  not  get  the  last  question,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  asked  whether  or  not  the  witness  on  January  5,  1966, 
became  a  witness  in  a  trial  growing  out  of  the  whipping  of  Clarence 
O'Berry. 

It  was  with  your  taking  the  witness  stand  in  that  case  that  you 
severed  your  Klan  connections,  which  immediately  prior  thereto  you 
were  carrying  out  at  the  request  of  Sheriff  Broom  of  St.  Tammany 
Parish  ? 

Mr.  GiPsoN.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  do  not  know  whether  you  possess  knowledge  but  I 
shall  ask:  In  October  1965  there  was  a  fire  in  the  Sixth  Ward  near 
Hickory  occasioned  by  threats  brought  against  the  builder  of  the 
property  because  he  was  using  Negro  help  in  finishing  cement  or  con- 
crete. The  first  threat  of  burning  of  the  lumber  that  Avas  being  used 
in  construction  was  the  hanging  of  a  doll  by  its  neck  to  simulate  .a 
hanging.     Do  you  possess  laiowledge  of  that? 

Mr.  GiPsoN.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  talked  about  w^alkie-talkies  that  you  had  taken 
from  the  Klavern  meeting  on  the  night  of  August  2  and  left  at  your 
home.     AYliat  use  does  the  Klan  make  of  walkie-talkie  radios? 

Mr,  GiPSON.  In  case  anybody  starts  in,  they  can  be  notified  inside 
to  disband  and  stop  their  business. 

Mr.  Appixl.  Therefore,  a  man  outside  has  a  walkie-talkie  and 
someone  inside 

Mr.  Gipson.  They  have  one  inside.  Sometimes  they  might  have 
two  or  three  more  outside.     Like  if  the  building  is  back  off  the  road, 


2622  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

there  will  be  one  away  out  by  the  road  and  maybe  one  about  the 
middle  ways,  and  then  one  pretty  close  by  the  house. 

Mr.  Appkll.  Is  it  your  knowledge  that  Avithin  the  operation  of  the 
Klan,  members  use  very  extensively  citizens  band  radios  in  their  auto- 
mobiles for  the  purpose  of  carrying  out  Klan  activities  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir,  they  do.  They  use  ever;yi:hing  they  can  .ar- 
range and  scrape  to  do  it.     They  get  every  chamiel  they  can. 

Mr.  Appell.  Even  though  their  authority  might  be  for  a  certain 
channel,  they  do  not  remain  within  the  regulations  of  the  Federal 
Communications  Commission  ? 

Mr.  Gipsox.  I  don't  think  they  do. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gipson,  were  you  defended  by  the  same  counsel 
that  defended  the  defendants  m  that  case  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  No,  sir.     I  had  my  own  separate  lawyer. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wliat  was  the  quotation  of  expense  to  the  Klan  for 
the  defense  of  the  Klan  defendants  in  that  trial  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  I  understood  the  amount  would  be  aromid  $9,000.  I 
got  to  figuring  I  might  be  getting  took  and  that  I  wasn't  going  to  take 
that  law^yer  because  it  is  kinda  hard  for  me,  raising  a  family  and  the 
kind  of  work  I  am  doing,  to  get  up  that  kind  of  money.  I  was  afraid 
I  might  wind  up  with  a  suit  for  that  $9,000.  I  decided  I  would  just 
have  me  another  lawyer. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  how  the  Klan  raised  the  necessary  legal 
fees  that  they  had  to  pay  to  defend  the  Klansmen  in  that  trial? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  They  raffled  off  a  bull  and  they  gave  turkey  shoots. 
Whenever  they  had  a  rally  they  would  take  up  a  collection.  Stuff 
like  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  Prior  to  going  to  trial,  was  there  discussion  among 
the  people  as  to  what  they  felt  their  chances  might  be  during  the  trial, 
whether  they  were  going  to  be  acquitted  or  whether  they  were  going 
to  be  found  guilty  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON".  They  said  unless  somebody  pimped,  there  wouldn't  be 
a  conviction. 

Mr.  Appell.  They  were  convicted,  were  they  not  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir,  they  were. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gipson,  I  have  one  more  question  to  ask  of  you. 
I  would  like  you  in  your  own  words  to  say  why  you  joined  the  Klan 
and  why  you  agreed  to  render  assistance  to  Sheriff  Broom  of  St. 
Tammany  Parish,  and  therefore  technically  leave  the  Klan. 

Mr.  GiPSON.  At  the  time  I  joined,  I  figured  it  was  a  pretty  good 
thing  tliat  they  had  going,  and  I  figured  sometliing  might  be  accom- 
plished by  it,  but  as  I  stayed  in  and  seen  these  things  happen  and  they 
kept  getting  worse  and  worse,  I  knew  it  could  not  go  on  for  me.  You 
can't  do  them  kind  of  things  and  get  by  the  hiw  like  that.  T  just  had 
to  go  the  right  way. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Gipson,  I  suppose  it  w\as  because  of  people  like 
Preacher  Leslie  and  High  School  Principal  Rowley — it  was  because 
of  people  of  that  prominence  in  the  community  who  talked  to  you, 
people  of  that  type  who  led  you  to  believe  this  was  a  good  organization. 

Mr.  Gipson.  Yes.  When  I  first  went  in,  there  was  a  lot  of  fellows 
in  it,  and  they  were  what  I  call  upstanding  men.  And  then  they 
started  dropping  out. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2623 

The  Chairman,  They  are  dropping  out  some  more  now  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  They  are  dropping  out.  It  is  boiling  down  to  just  a 
bunch  of 

The  Chairman.  Say  it. 

Mr,  GiPSON,  The  way  I  Avould  describe  it  would  be  renegades. 
Eight  now  I  feel  my  life  ain't  worth  two  cents  to  me.  I  figure  my 
family — they  might  even  go  through  them  to  get  me. 

The  Chairman.  Are  you  afraid?  You  are  doing  a  courageous 
thing. 

Mr.  GiPSON.  I  am  trying  to  right  a  wrong  and  help  the  cause  of  the 
country.  I  feel  I  am  supposed  to  do  it.  I  am  not  scared  of  them. 
I  am  scared  of  the  law.     I  am  not  scared  of  them. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  find  there  are  other  people  who  are  learning 
the  truth  and  that  they  do  not  have  that  fear  any  more  and  are 
willing  to  come  out  and  stand  up  for  law  and  order  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  what  is  going  on  in  your  area  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir,  that  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  I  hope  this  will  be  an  example  for  others  to  do 
what  you  are  doing  today.  I  hope  and  express  confidence  that  that 
will  come  about. 

Mr.  Appell.  With  respect  to  the  wrecking  crew,  are  you  acquainted 
with  the  constitution  which  provided  that  there  should  be  a  formal 
organization  within  the  Klan  known  as  the  wrecking  crew  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  wrecking  crew  of  which  you  were  a  member  was 
an  official  Klan  group ;  is  that  right  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  members  of  the  Klavern  all  knew  there  was  such  a 
thing  as  a  wrecking  crew  which  was  authorized  by  the  Klavern? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  They  pretty  well  knew  there  was  a  wrecking  crew,  but 
they  couldn't  pinpoint  them  out. 

Mr.  Pool.  They  knew  there  was  such  an  organization  within  the 
Klavern  itself  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  I  think  they  did. 

The  Chairman.  But  the  whole  idea  of  the  Klan  is  that  the  wreck- 
ing crew  itself  be  kept  secret  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Be  kept  secret,  right. 

The  Chairman.  One  more  thing  in  addition  to  my  reference  to 
possible  influence  on  you  of  Preacher  Leslie  and  the  high  school  prin- 
cipal. I  have  before  me  literature  on  this  general  subject,  literature 
of  the  Klan,  which  reads:  "To  be  read  and  reread  until  thoroughly 
understood  by  all  officers  and  members."  Also,  it  should  be  used  as 
background  material  for  discussions  and  lectures  at  local  and  unit 
meetings.  I  will  read  only  one  example :  "The  purpose  and  function 
of  this  organization  is  to  preserve  Christian  Civilization." 

That  is  the  kind  of  thing  they  preach — Christianity,  patriotism, 
love  of  country,  anticommunism,  and  all  the  rest,  in  addition,  of  coui^se, 
to  hatred  in  matters  involving  racial  relations.  That  is  the  kind  of 
stuff  they  preach. 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes,  sir,  that  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  Do  they  practice  what  they  preach  ? 


2624  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  GiPSON.  No,  sir,  they  don't. 

The  Chairman.  Of  course,  burning  churches  and  things  of  that 
nature  are,  to  say  the  least,  im-Cliristian ;  isn't  that  correct? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Right. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gipson,  returning  to  E^Ye^  Rowley,  the  high  school 
principal,  do  you  possess  knowledge  as  to  why  he  gave  up  the  position 
of  exalted  cy clops  and  what  rank  within  the  Klan  he  assumed? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  One  of  his  reasons  was  that  it  was  going  to  interfere 
with  his  job  being  principal  of  the  school,  and  then  the  next  reason 
was  when  this  O'Berry  boy  got  whipped,  I  don't  believe  it  was  brought 
before  him  and  cleared  before  him.  He  realized  he  couldn't  have  no 
control  over  the  men,  and  I  think  he  thought  it  was  best  for  him  to 
drop  out. 

Mr.  Appell.  Drop  the  position  of  exalted  cyclops  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Right. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  he  continue  a  membership  of  some  kind  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON,  Then  he  became  an  honorary  member.  Actually,  he 
is  not  attendmg  no  meetings. 

Mr.  Appell.  Some  constitutions  of  the  Klan,  if  not  your  Klan, 
provide  for  secret  members.     Would  you  put  him  in  this  category  ? 

Mr.  Gipson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  "When  you  said  difficulty  with  respect  to  his  position 
of  principal,  were  you  inferring  that  he  might  lose  his  position  ?  Is 
that  the  type  of  difficulty  you  referred  to  ? 

Mr.  GiPSON.  Yes.     He  felt  it  would  cause  him  to  lose  his  job. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chainnan,  the  staff  has  not  further  questions  of 
this  witness. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  just  want  to  complmient  the  witness  for  being  a  very 
brave  man  to  come  here  and  testify  in  view  of  the  fact  that  there 
is  a  chance  that  somebody  might  try  to  harm  you  or  your  family. 
I  want  to  point  out  to  you  that  this  committee  has  had  similar  things 
in  the  investigation  of  commimism.  We  have  had  witnesses  come 
and  point  out  people  who  are  Communists  and  trying  to  infiltrate 
industry  and  things  like  that.  You  have  the  same  thing  going  on  in 
other  areas,  where  you  have  extreme  groups  trying  to  preach  violence. 
I  assure  you,  after  these  people  have  been  named  here  this  morning,  I 
do  not  think  anyone  is  going  to  tiy  to  harm  you,  but  if  they  do,  this 
committee  should  be  notified,  the  chainnan  should  be  notified,  and  we 
will  take  action  immediately. 

The  Chairman.  There  is  a  very  severe  law  to  the  effect  if  anyone 
who  takes  the  stand  either  before  a  court  or  before  a  committee  is 
subjected  to  attempts  at  intimidation  or  recrimination  or  violence  or 
threats,  that  is  a  severe  thing  under  the  law,  and  the  law  is  there 
to  punish  those  people.  If  any  such  thing  happens,  let  me  know. 
I  will  bet  10  to  1  no  such  thing  is  going  to  happen.  This  threat 
and  this  preachment  that  a  wrecking  crew  member's  talking  would  re- 
sult in  his  neck  being  severed  from  his  body  and  that  members  of  his 
family  will  be  hurt — that  is  just  so  much  talk  to  intimidate  and  put 
the  members  themselves  in  fear.  The  more  like  you  who  are  brave 
like  you  and  talk,  the  less  and  less  such  a  thing  will  happen.  I  would 
bet  nothing  is  going  to  happen  to  you.  You  are  protected  here,  and 
I  am  sure  your  good  sheriff  will  protect  you  back  home. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  Federal  Government  itself  will  become  a  pretty  good 
wrecking  crew  if  those  people  do  try  anything  like  that. 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2625 

Mr.  GiPSON.  The  judge  I  think  understands  that,  too.  I  glory  in  his 
spunk.     He  flat  laid  the  cards  on  the  table. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chainnan,  I  should  like  to  join  in  the  state- 
ment of  the  Chair  and  of  the  members  of  the  committee  in  commend- 
ing this  witness  for  his  courage.  I  know  courage  in  New  York  City, 
Buffalo,  and  Atlanta  is  one  thing.  Courage  in  Slidell,  Louisiana,  is 
another  thing.  I  have  developed  an  intense  admiration  for  you  since 
you  have  been  here.  I  simply  want  to  add  this  one  point,  Mr. 
Gipson.  The  literature  which  we  have  in  the  record  of  these  hearings 
is  quite  clear  that  the  Klan  realizes  that  its  power  is  in  the  secrecy  of 
its  membership.  What  power  the  Klan  has,  I  think  it  is  becoming 
clear,  depends  upon  the  secrecy  of  that  membership.  Tn  recent  weeks, 
substantial  changes  have  come  about  in  the  maintenance  of  that  secrecy. 
The  action  of  the  Federal  court  which  resulted  in  the  submission  to 
that  court  of  the  membership  list  of  the  Klan  of  Bogalusa  and  of  the 
Anti-Communist  Christian  Association  is  one  thing.  The  very  fine 
investigation  conducted  by  the  staff  of  this  committee  is  another.  The 
fact  of  the  matter  is,  Mr.  Gipson,  there  is  no  secrecy  of  membership 
within  the  area  concerning  which  you  testified.  The  Federal  court 
knows  who  the  Klansmen  are ;  this  committee  knows  who  the  Klans- 
men  are ;  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  knows  who  the  Klans- 
men are.  So  far  as  your  concern  about  the  danger  Avhich  exists  by 
virtue  of  your  testimony  here  today  to  you  and  your  family,  take 
some  heart  in  the  fact  that  the  agencies  of  the  Government,  both  the 
legislative  branch  through  this  committee  and  the  executive  branch 
through  the  FBI  and  the  judicial  branch  through  the  court  in  New 
Orleans,  know  exactly  who  it  might  be  on  the  other  end  of  that  tele- 
phone when  you  receive  a  threatening  call.  They  know  exactly  what 
group  it  might  be  that  sets  out  some  kind  of  intimidation  or  harass- 
ment of  you  or  your  family.  We  know,  and  we  are  determined,  so  far 
as  it  is  within  our  power,  speaking  for  the  Federal  Government,  all 
branches,  to  protect  you  and  your  family. 

The  power  of  the  Klan  is  the  secrecy  of  its  membership  and  that 
power  has  been  vastly  diluted  and  abated  in  recent  weeks,  and  it  w^ill 
continue  to  dwindle  because  the  facts  are  coming  in  and  the  facts  will 
be  available  through  people  such  as  yourself. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  think  we  will  have  more  people  come  forth  with  state- 
ments like  Mr.  Gipson's  and  further  expose  the  Klan.  Don't  you 
agree  ? 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  am  certainly  hopeful  that  the  example  which  Mr. 
Gipson  has  set  here  will  stimulate  others  to  consider  what  is  their  duty 
as  Americans  as  well  as  their  duty  as  Christians. 

Mr.  Gipson.  I  hope  so  myself.  I  can  see  it  is  beginning  to  weaken 
now.     I  know  in  our  area  it  is  weakened  now. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Thank  you,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Gipson,  I  want  to  read  from  the  Federal  law 
I  just  mentioned  a  while  ago.  Among  other  acts  which  this  law  makes 
unlawful — it  states : 

Whoever  injures  any  party  or  witness  in  his  person  or  property  on  account 
of  his  attending  or  having  attendetl  such  proceeding,  inquiry,  or  investigation, 
or  on  account  of  his  testifying  or  having  testified  to  any  matter  pending  therein  ; 
or 


2626  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Shall  be  fined  not  more  than  $5,000  or  imprisoned  not  more  than  five  years, 
or  both. 

The  record  will  show  that  you  have  appeared,  have  been  sworn,  and 
have  testified,  and  you  have  the  protection  of  this  law. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Gipson,  I  cannot  tell  you  how  much  I  admire 
your  courage.  In  the  last  analysis,  a  nation  is  only  as  strong  as  the 
people  who  make  it  up,  and  I  think  you  are  demonstrating  yourself 
today  before  this  committee  to  be  a  part  of  the  hope  of  our  Republic, 
and  I  appreciate  it. 

One  of  the  ideas  which  was  perpetrated  by  the  Klan  organization 
was  that  they  are  fighters  against  communism.  May  I  say,  sir,  that 
people  like  you,  who  are  determined  to  uphold  the  law  and  attempt  to 
do  what  is  right,  are  this  Nation's  strength  in  the  struggle  against 
world  communism,  and  those  who  perpetrate  acts  of  violence  and  ter- 
rorism, who  take  the  law  into  their  own  hands,  serve  well  the  Commu- 
nist cause.  As  far  as  I  am  concerned,  you  here  today  are  taking  your 
stand  as  a  patriot  doing  what  is  right,  and  people  like  you  are  the 
people  wlio  are  really  going  to  win  the  battle  against  communism. 

I  want  to  thank  you  for  your  testimony. 

The  Chairman.  The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  until  2 :30  this 
afternoon. 

(Members  present  at  time  of  recess:  Representatives  Willis,  Pool, 
Weltner,  and  Buchanan,  of  the  subcommittee,  and  also  Representative 
Senner.) 

Cl^Hiereupon,  at  11:25  a.m.,  Tuesday,  January  11,  1966,  the  sub- 
committee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  2:30  p.m.  the  same  day.) 

AFTERNOON  SESSION— TUESDAY,  JANUARY  11,  1966 

(The  subcommittee  reconvened  at  2:30  p.m.,  Hon.  Edwin  E.  Willis, 
chairman,  presiding.) 

(Members  present:  Representatives  Willis,  Pool,  Weltner,  Ash- 
brook,  and  Buchanan,  of  the  subcommittee,  and  also  Representative 
Senner. ) 

The  Chairman.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 

Call  the  first  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  George  Gill  Harris,  Jr. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand.  Do  you  solemnly 
swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the 
Avhole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  do. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed. 

TESTIMONY  OF  GEORGE  GILL  HARRIS,  JR.,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Harris,  will  you  identify  yourself  for  the  record, 
please? 

Mr.  Harris.  George  Gill  Harris,  Jr. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Mr.  Chairman,  may  I  state  at  this  time  his  subpena 
only  reads  "George  Gil  Harris."  I  would  consent  to  any  amendment 
to  this  subpena  by  the  cliainnan  since  he  has  identified  himself  as 
George  Gill  Harris,  Jr.  He  informs  me  that  it  is  G-i-1-1,  rather  than 
one  "1." 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2627 

The  Chairman.  In  view  of  the  self-identification  by  the  witness  as 
the  person  served  and  the  statement  of  counsel,  the  subpena  will  be 
technically  corrected  to  conform  to  his  true  name. 

Mr.  ArrELL.  Mr.  Harris,  are  you  appearing  liere  in  accordance  with 
the  subpena,  which  has  now  been  technically  amended,  served  upon 
you  at  Fourth  Street,  Bernice,  Louisiana,  on  the  27th  day  of  October 
1965? 

Mr.  Harris.  Yes. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Speak  up  for  the  record. 

Mr.  Harris.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Harris.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law^,  Raleigh, 
North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Harris,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  contained 
in  the  attachment  thereto,  which  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena, 
under  the  conditions  of  the  subpena  you  were  called  upon  to  produce, 
to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce  documents  described  in  the  attach- 
ment, paragraph  1  of  which  reads  as  follows : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible 
Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc..  also 
known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan, 
and  affiliated  organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  Louisiana 
Rescue  Service,  Bernice  Sportsman  Club  in  your  possession,  custody  and  control, 
or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  Kligrapp  or  Secretary  of  the  Invis- 
ible Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc., 
also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

Mr.  Harris,  I  request  you  to  produce  in  your  representative  capacity 
stated  therein  the  documents  called  for  by  part  1  of  the  subpena. 

The  Chairman.  Is  it  stipulated  that  the  subpena  served  upon  him 
orders  him  to  produce  the  documents  therein  refen^ed  to  in  the  capacity 
stated  therein  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  As  stated  in  the  subpena ;  yes,  sir,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  subpena  dated  Octo- 
ber 14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  lionestly  feel  to  do  so  might  tend  to 
incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  guaranteed  to  me  by  amend- 
ments 5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  T"'^nited  States  of 
America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965, 
for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subcommittee's 
investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  consideration 
of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  any  such  inquiiy  within  the 
scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  ])y  the  rules  adopted  by 
the  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  January  4, 1965. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Harris,  before  asking  a  direction  of  the  Chair,  I 
Avould  like  to  ask  you,  have  you  been  apprised  of  the  statement  the 
chairman  issued  in  October  at  the  start  of  these  hearings  which  set 
forth  the  purpose  of  the  hearings  and  the  other  pertinent  facts  with 
respect  thereto? 


2628  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  I  will  stipulate  that  he  has,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  now  ask  tliat  the  witness  be  directed 
to  produce  those  documents  called  for  in  paragraph  1.  I  ask  for  di- 
rection of  paragraph  1. 

The  Chairman.  The  reasons  you  have  given  for  your  refusal  to 
produce  the  documents  called  for  by  this  part  of  the  subpena  do  not 
legally  justify  your  refusal.  Therefore,  those  reasons  are  rejected. 
Accordingly,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  the  documents  in  the 
representative  capacity  as  stated  by  Mr.  Appell  and  in  this  subpena. 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon  the 
records— grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Harris,  paragraph  2  of  the  attachment  to  the  sub- 
pena calls  for  you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  and  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  past  Kligrapp  and/or  member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said 
organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other 
officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

The  Chairman.  Is  the  same  stipulation  with  reference  to  his  rep- 
resentative capacity  entered  into  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  As  stated  in  the  subpena ;  yes,  sir,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Harris,  I  request  you  to  produce  in  your  represent- 
ative capacity  stated  therein  the  documents  called  for  in  paragaph  2 
of  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon  the 
groimds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  For  the  reasons  previously  indicated,  I  direct  you 
to  produce  the  documents  called  for  in  the  representative  capacity 
stated  in  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  connnittee,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Harris,  paragraph  3  calls  upon  you  to  produce: 

Copies  of  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service,  Form  1120, 
"U.S.  Corporation  Income  Tax  Return,"  for  the  fiscal  years  1961  through  June 
30,  1965,  filed  by  you  as  Kligrapp. 

I  request  you  to  produce  in  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in 
paragraph  3  the  documents  called  for. 

The  Chairman.  The  same  stipulation? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  tlie  committee  on  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Tlie  Chairman.  For  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  order  and 
direct  you  to  produce  those  documents  in  the  capacity  stated. 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Harris,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  as  secretary  of  the  Bemice  Sportsman 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2629 

Club,  Box  57,  Bernice,  Louisiana,  aaid  as  secretai-y  of  the  Louisiana 
Rescue  Service,  Box  57,  Beniice,  Louisiana,  you  filed  in  the  case  of 
Bernice  [Sportsman  Club]  on  August  17,  1965,  and  on  August  18  in 
the  case  of  the  Louisiana  Rescue  Service,  Forms  1120,  U.S.  corporate 
income  tax  return  for  the  two  organizations  that  I  have  mentioned  to 
you. 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  guaranteed  to  me  by  amenchiients  5,  1,  4,  and 
14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  support  of  the  tax  returns  which  you  filed,  do  you 
have  in  your  possession  financial  books  and  records  upon  which  these 
returns  were  based  ? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me 
in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  the  amendments  5, 
1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Have  any  records  upon  which  the  two  returns  were 
based  been  destroyed  since  the  filing  of  the  corporate  returns  men- 
tioned on  August  17  and  18, 1965  ? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  the  record  to  reflect  that 
the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Incor- 
porated, Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  adopted  in  Imperial  Klon- 
cilium  at  Birmingham,  Alabama,  in  September  1964,  set  forth  certain 
documents  to  be  received  by  the  grand  kligrapp  of  a  realm  and  pre- 
scribes the  kligrapp  of  the  realm  as  an  officer  of  the  organization. 

Mr.  Harris,  when  and  where  were  you  bom  ? 

Mr,  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Have  you  been  an  officer  of  the  Bernice  Sportsman 
Club  since  January  of  1964  ? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claimed  priv- 
ilege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  present  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  tliey  pertain  to  Mr. 
Harris. 

George  Gill,  spelled  with  two  "Ps,"  Harris,  Jr.,  was  born  Jan- 
uary 16,  1922,  at  Haynesville,  Louisiana.  He  resides  at  Bernice. 
Louisiana,  Avhere  he  operates  Harris'  5  and  10,  a  variety  store.  He 
served  in  the  Army  from  September  24,  1942,  to  April  24,  1946,  and 
in  the  Enlisted  Reserve  Corps  until  April  23,  1949.  His  military 
specialty  was  telephone  lineman,  repainnan,  and  repeatemian.  At 
the  time  of  entry  into  the  Army  he  claimed  1  year  of  college. 

Harris  has  been  a  member  of  the  Klan  since  at  least  January  1964. 
He  has  been  an  official  of  the  Klavern  Itnown  under  the  cover  name 
Bernice  Sportsman  Club  since  January  of  1964.  This  Klavern  was 
affiliated  with  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  under  J.  D. 
Swenson  and  Royal  V.  Young.  It  became  affiliated  with  the  United 
Klans  of  America  around  April  1964  and  became  part  of  Louisiana 


2630  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Kealm  of  that  organization,  which  uses  as  its  cover  name  the  Lou- 
isiana Rescue  Service. 

Harris  is  currently  reahn  kligrapp  or  secretary.  In  this  position 
he  receives  monthly  reports  from  each  Klavem  within  the  realm. 
He  receives  all  funds  due  to  the  realm  which  he  turns  over  to  the 
realm  treasurer.  As  secretary  he  possesses  the  identities  of  all  Kla- 
vern  kligrapps  or  secretaries  as  well  as  exalted  cyclops. 

On  May  15-16,  1965,  Harris  attended  a  meeting  of  imperial  officers 
and  other  Klan  officials  at  Natchez,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Harris,  the  records  of  the  Bank  of  Bemice,  Bemice,  Louisiana, 
covering  the  name  of  the  Bernice  Sportsman  Club,  handled  both  the 
fimds  of  the  realm  and  the  funds  of  the  Klavem.  I  put  it  to  you  as 
a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  prior  to  the 
committee's  inquiry  or  announcement  of  inquiry  into  the  Klan,  the 
Bemice  Sportsman  Club  paid  imperial  tax  on  97  membei-s  and  by 
July  of  1965  it  was  paying  imperial  tax  on  25  members. 

The  Chairman.  Before  answering  this  question,  Mr.  Harris,  I 
wish  to  say  this  to  you:  You  have  heard  the  sworn  statement  just 
made  by  the  comjnittee's  investigator,  Mr.  Don  Appell.  You  now 
have  the  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that  statement  out- 
lining your  activities,  to  confirm  or  challenge  the  accuracy  of  the 
information,  or  to  explain  any  part  of  that  statement. 

In  addition  you  have  the  right,  if  you  desire,  to  offer  any  other 
matters  that  the  committee  may  deem  relevant  to  this  inquiiy.  Do 
you  care  to  avail  yourself  of  that  opportmiity  ? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  In  that  case,  Mr.  Harris,  I  must  inform  you  that 
in  the  absence  of  your  rebuttal,  or  other  facts  that  may  come  to  the 
attention  of  the  committee,  this  committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy 
of  its  investigation.  With  that  in  mind,  do  you  have  anything  else 
to  say,  or  anything  to  say? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  think  for  the  record  there  is  still 
one  question  that  Mr.  Appell  asked  that  the  witness  has  not  replied 
to  yet.     If  we 

The  Chairman.  You  may  now  respond  to  the  pending  question. 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Harris,  as  the  grand  kligrapp  of  the  Realm  of 
Louisiana,  which  operates  a  little  differently  than  most  UKA  realms 
operate,  in  that  imperial  per  capita  tax,  until  some  new  Klaverns 
came  under  your  jurisdiction  recently,  you  collected  the  imperial  tax 
and  transmitted  it  on  to  the  imperial  office  in  Tuscaloosa.  Therefore, 
you  possess  knowledge  of  the  identity  of  ITKA  Klaverns  within  the 
State  of  Louisiana. 

An  examination  of  deposit  slips  reflects  that  prior  to  August  6, 
1965,  when  the  account  in  the  name  of  the  I^ernice  Sportsman  Club 
was  closed  out  and  a  new  account  was  opened  in  the  name  of  the 
Louisiana  Rescue  Sei*\'ice,  there  were  these  Klaverns  in  existence. 

After  I  read  you  the  names  of  the  Klaverns,  I  would  like  to  ask 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2631 

you  whether  or  not  ail  of  tlie  Klaverns  that  I  mentioned  to  you  are 
still  in  operation. 

The  Bernice  Sportsman  Club,  Calhoun  Businessmen's  Association, 
C.  B.  Riding  CIud,  Chatham  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club,  Dnbach,  as 
we  interpret  the  deposit  slip — Mr.  Chairman,  D-u-b-a-c-h — Hunting 
and  Fishing  Club,  the  Dugdemonice  Hunting  Club,  the  Farmville 
Hunting  and  Fishing  Club,  the  Jackson  Parish  Cun  and  Rod  Club, 
the  Marion  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club,  the  MOG— M-O-G,  I  don't 
know  whether  that  is  an  abbreviation — Junction  City  Sportsman  Club, 
the  Okeloosa  Hunting  Club,  the  Ouachita  Parish  Hunting  and  Fishing 
Club,  the  Sterlington  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club  #8,  the  Taylortown 
Hunting  Club,  Union  Hunting  and  Fishing  Club,  Ward  10  Hunting 
Club. 

Are  they  still  in  existence? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Documents  marked  "George  Harris  Exhibit  No.  1"  and  retained 
in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Harris,  does  the  Realm  of  Louisiana  have  a  Klav- 
ern  in  Kemier,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  HLvRRis.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Harris,  on  August  27,  1965,  Charles  L.  Miller  of 
2512  Airline  Highway  ^vrote  a  check  or  obtained  a  money  order  from 
the  Merchants  Trust  and  Savings  Bank  in  Kenner,  Louisiana,  payable 
to  the  United  Klans  of  America  in  the  amount  of  $30.  Purpose  for 
which  drawn,  copies  of  the  Klan  publication,  the  Fiery  Gross. 

This  is  according  to  deposits  made  to  the  accoimt  of  the  Alabama 
Rescue  Service  as  obtained  through  a  subpena  duces  tecum  from  The 
First  National  Bank  of  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama.  Do  you  know  Charles 
L.Miller? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  gromids  previously  stated. 

(Check  marked  "George  Harris  Exhibit  No.  2"  and  retained  in 
committee  files.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Harris,  you  can  help  the  committee  imderstand 
something  that  confuses  it.  There  is  maintained  in  Bogalusa,  Louisi- 
ana, an  account  in  the  name  of  the  LTnited  Conservatives  of  Mississippi, 
No.  1.  The  signature  to  this  account  is  B.  L.  Sellers.  Is  this  a  Klavern 
within  the  Realm  of  Louisiana,  or  the  Louisiana  Rescue  Service  or  a 
Klavern  in  Mississippi  affiliated  with  the  Realm  of  Mississippi  known 
as  the  Mississippi  Rescue  Service  ? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Documents  marked  "George  Harris  Exhibit  No.  3'"  appear  on  p. 
2632.) 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Appell,  let  me  talk  to  you  a  minute. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  think  the  record  should  reflect  that 
the  checks  drawn  against  the  account  of  the  United  Conservatives  of 
Mississippi,  No.  1,  are  deposited  to  the  official  account  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America,  which  is  maintained  under  the  name  of  the  Alabama 
Rescue  Service. 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Weltner  left  the  hearing  room.) 

59-222  O — 67 — pt.  3 20 


2632  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

George  Harris  Exhibit  No.  3 


NOV  19  1965 


'■■f  "[■• I 


rn'^ted  Conservatives  of  P6.93,  Inc»  #1 


IVASHINGTON  BANK  &  TRUST  COMPANY 

It  .s.  .■      •!:    lUK   'iitAN.^ACnijX      .K   milCK    1ISI.M-:>S    fi'lt    THIS    .\' 


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Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Harris,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  on  11-22-1965  you  were  the  cosigner  of 
a  check  drawn  against  the  Louisiana  Rescue  Service  in  the  amount  of 
$185  payable  to  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service  and  that  this  check  repre- 
sents the  imperial  tax  on  only  370  members,  which  is  the  bulk  of  your 
membership  in  the  State  of  Louisiana. 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Check  marked  "George  Harris  Exhibit  No.  4"  follows:) 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU   KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2633 

George  Harris  Exhibit  No.  4 


y/:^'y  Bernicei.La..- IL/jkH \^LA.     no.  ^^ 


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or  BE«MCE.  UNION   PARISH. LA. 


Pay  TO 

ORDER O 


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Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Harris,  do  you  have  a  women's  auxiliary  in  Mon- 
roe, Louisiana,  which  makes  payments  to  the  imperial  account  from 
an  account  known  as  the  Green  Thumb  Club  ? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Harris,  mucli  is  s;iid  by  Dr.  Edwards,  the  Grand 
Dragon  of  the  Realm  of  Louisiana,  about  the  United  Klans  of  America 
and  the  Louisiana  Realm  not  endorsing  violence.  On  September  4, 
1964,  a  check  was  written  to  Tom  Wliitehead,  an  exalted  cyclops  of  a 
Klavern  in  Georgia,  who  was  collecting  money  from  Klaverns 
throughout  the  United  States,  the  total  simi  of  which  was  to  go  for 
the  defense  of  the  United  Klansmen  arrested  in  the  murder  of  Lieu- 
tenant Colonel  Lemuel  Penn.  Can  you  explain  this  check  to  Tom 
AVliitehead  in  the  light  of  your  announced  nonviolent  position  ? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  resiDectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  gromids  previously  stated. 

(Check  marked  "George  Harris  Exhibit  No.  5,"    See  report,  p.  121.) 

Mr.  Appell.  On  March  20,  1965,  a  check  was  drawn  payable  to 
"E.  L.  McDaniels,"  the  Grand  Dragon  of  MivSsissippi,  in  the  amount 
of  $20  for  a  defense  fund.  Can  you  tell  the  committee  what  defense 
this  was  ? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Check  marked  "George  Harris  Exhibit  No.  6"  appears  on  p.  2634.) 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Buchanan  left  the  hearing  room  and  Mr.  Weltuer 
returned.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  whether  or  not  it  related  to  the  defense 
of  any  United  Klansman  involved  in  violence  ? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
on  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Coulcl  it  have  been  funds  collected  by  the  United  Klans 
of  America  to  help  defray  expenses  for  those  people  who  were  arrested 
following  the  murder  of  the  three  civil  rights  workers? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  on 
ihe  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to 
ask  of  Mr.  Harris. 


2634  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

George  Harris  Exhibit  No.  6 


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The  Chairman.  Questions? 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Harris,  were  you  in  the  audience  when  the  previous 
witness  testified,  Mr.  Gipson  ? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  on 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Gipson  came  before  this  committee  to  testify  very 
bravely.  One  of  the  things  he  said  was  that  he  wanted  to  right  the 
wrong  that  he  had  done. 

You  don't  care  to  absolve  your  conscience  in  any  way  before  this 
committee  ? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  on 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr,  Pool.  I  want  to  point  out  one  other  thing  in  the  testimony  which 
has  come  to  us  here  during  the  testimony.  The  word  "conservative"  is 
used  to  hide  the  front  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan.  It  is  a  fraud  and  a  dis- 
grace to  the  philosophy  for  which  the  word  "conservative"  stands. 
The  fact  that  the  Communists  have  come  before  this  committee  and 
used  the  name  of  labor  is  a  disgrace  and  a  fraud  on  respectful,  decent. 
God-fearing,  patriotic  Americans  who  belong  to  organized  labor. 

Let  him  answer  if  he  Avants  to,  with  your  advice. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  There  is  no  question. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  have  any  comments,  then  ? 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  on 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  way  this  thing  is  going,  maybe  within  6  months 
or  a  year,  you  may  wish  you  had  answered  differently.  You  may  wish 
that  you  had  been  brave  enough  to  come  before  this  committee  and 
absolve  your  conscience.  I  am  talking  about  back  home,  back  in 
Louisiana.  The  people  in  the  South  will  not  put  up  with  this  kind  of 
philosophy  of  hate  and  violence  and  the  things  that  are  coming  out 
now,  and  they  will  come  out  faster  as  this  thing  progresses. 

We  are  giving  you  a  chance  right  now  to  do  this. 

Mr.  Harris.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based  on 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2635 

Mr.  Pool.  That  is  all. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Bobby  Gene  Kelley. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give 
in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the 
truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Kelley.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  BOBBY  GENE  KELLEY,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 

LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Kelley,  state  your  full  name  for  the  record,  please. 

Mr.  Kelley.  Bobby  Gene  Kelley. 

Mr.  Appell.  B-o-b-b-y  G-e-n-e  K-e-1-l-e-y? 

Mr.  Kelley.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Kelley,  are  you  appearing  before  the  committee 
today  in  accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  27th  day 
of  October  1965  at  Route  1,  Box  227,  Bernice,  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Kelley.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Kelley.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  ^ 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  501  First  Federal  Build- 
ing, Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Kelley,  under  the  conditions  of  the  subpena  served 
upon  you,  and  attachment  which  was  made  part  of  that  subpena,  you 
were  commanded  to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce  documents  de- 
scribed in  four  parts  of  the  subpena. 

Part  1  reads : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correpsondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Em- 
pire, United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known 
as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  af- 
filiated organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  Louisiana  Rescue 
Service  and/or  Bernice  Sportsman  Club  in  your  ix)ssession,  custody  or  con- 
trol, or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  State  Treasurer  of  the  In- 
visible Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc., 
also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

I  request  you  to  produce  in  your  representative  capacity  stated  there- 
i  n  the  documents  called  for  in  part  1  of  your  subpena. 

Mr.  Kelley.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  the  subpena  dated 
October  14, 1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do  so  might 
tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me 
by  amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965, 
for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject  under 
investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  con- 
sideration of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within 


2636  ACTIVITIES   OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

the  scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules 
adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  Jan- 
uary 4,  1965. 

Mr.  Appbll.  Mr.  Chairman,  before  we  ask  for  the  stipulation,  and 
I  ask  for  an  order  of  direction,  I  desire  to  ask  the  witness  whether  or 
not  he  was  advised  of  the  opening  statement  of  the  Chair  made  in 
October  1965,  which  set  forth  the  purposes  for  which  these  series  of 
hearings  were  being  held. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  It  is  stipulated,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  he  has  been  so 
advised. 

The  Chairman.  Is  it  stipulated  that  the  subpena  directs  him  to 
produce  documents  in  the  capacities  recited  in  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Witness,  the  reasons  you  have  given  for  re- 
fusal to  produce  the  documents  called  for  by  this  part  of  the  subpena 
do  not  legally  justify  your  refusal  or  rejection.  I  therefore  order 
and  direct  you  to  produce  those  documents  in  the  representative 
capacity  stated. 

Mr.  Kelley.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell,  Mr.  Kelley,  part  2  of  the  subpena  calls  upon  you  to 
produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  past  State  Treasurer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knighta 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization 
authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  orga- 
nization, the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

I  request  you  to  produce  in  the  representative  capacity  stated  therein 
the  documents  called  for  in  part  2  of  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Kelley.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  the  witness  be  directed  to  produce 
those  documents. 

The  Chairman.  Because  of  the  reasons  stated  and  pursuant  to  the 
stipulation  made  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Kelley.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  demanded  and  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Kelley,  I  hand  you  a  copy,  a  reproduced  copy  of 
a  canceled  check  dated  September  27,  1965,  payable  to  G.  G.  Harris, 
Jr.,  in  the  sum  of  $25.  This  is  drawn  against  the  Bank  of  Bemice, 
Bernice,  Louisiana.  The  maker  of  the  check  is  the  Louisiana  Rescue 
Service,  and  the  cosigners  to  the  account  are  G.  G.  Harris,  Jr.,  secre- 
tary, and  Bobby  G.  Kelley,  treasurer. 

I  hand  you  this  and  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm 
or  deny  the  fact,  tliat  you  are  the  Bobby  G.  Kelley  shown  on  this 
canceled  check  as  treasurer  of  the  Louisiana  Rescue  Service. 

Mr.  Kelley.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2637 

reason  tliat  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me 
in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  ITnited  States  of  America. 
(Document  marked  "Bobby  Kelley  Exhibit  No.  1"  follows:) 

Bobby  Kelley  Exhibit  No.  1 


1                      BtPNict  La.        '/V                           19^^ 

1                           Hank    <»f  lli:iexi«  i: 

No       7  "-' 

■   J  \ 

004.(_A«S 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Kelley,  when  and  where  w-ere  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Kelley.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me 
in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of 
privilege  and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  present  to 
the  committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Kelley. 

Bobby  Gene  Kelley  was  born  on  October  3,  1932,  at  Bemice, 
Louisiana.  He  has  a  high  school  education.  He  served  in  the 
United  States  Navy  from  December  1951  to  December  1955  and 
received  an  honorable  discharge. 

He  resides  at  Route  2,  Bemice,  Louisiana,  and  is  employed  by  the 
Lion  Oil  Company,  El  Dorado,  Arkansas,  Avhere  he  is  a  foreman  in 
the  print  shop. 

Bobby  Gene  Kelley  became  a  Klan  official  in  1965  when  he  re- 
])laced  Mr.  Roberson  on  the  signature  card  in  the  account  of  the 
Klavem  maintained  at  the  Bank  of  Bernice.  This  Klavern  uses  the 
cover  name  of  the  Bernice  Sportsman  Club. 

At  the  time,  the  Bernice  Sportsman  Club  was  affiliated  with  the 
Realm  of  Louisiana  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  which 
realm  is  known  by  the  cover  name  of  the  Louisiana  Rescue  Service. 

In  March  1965  Kelley  was  elected  realm  klabee,  or  treasurer. 

As  klabee,  Kelley  is  responsible  for  payment  of  bills  and  other 
obligations.  Many  Klaverns  in  Louisiana  make  payments  to  the 
realm,  of  both  realm  and  imperial  per  capita  tax.  Thus  Kelley  paid 
the  United  Klans  of  America  through  its  cover  name,  the  Alabama 
Rescue  Service,  $185  in  November,  w^hich  under  present  requirements 


2638  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

of  50  cents  per  member  means  the  realm's  per  capita  tax  was  upon  370 
members. 

At  the  time  of  the  committee's  announcements  of  the  Klan  probe, 
the  Klan  was  paying  imperial  tax  on  872  members. 

In  addition  to  payments  of  its  officials,  the  klavem  or  realm,  both 
of  whom  process  their  funds  through  the  Bemice  Sportsman  Club, 
made  a  payment  on  September  4,  1964,  to  Tom  Whitehead,  a 
United  Klans  of  America  exalted  cyclops  in  Georgia.  At  the  time 
Tom  IVliitehead  was  handling  defense  funds  for  the  Klansmen  in- 
volved in  the  murder  of  Lieutenant  Colonel  Lemuel  Penn.  On  March 
20,  1965,  a  check  in  the  amount  of  $20  was  paid  to  the  Grand  Dragon 
for  Mississippi  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  E.  L.  McDaniel.  This 
check  drawn  against  the  Bernice  Sportsman  Club  shows  the  purpose 
for  which  drawn  as  "Defense  Fund."  (George  Harris  Exhibits  Nos. 
5  and  6.) 

On  June  12,  1965,  Kelley  was  one  of  the  participants  in  a  caravan 
of  the  United  Klans  of  America  through  the  streets  of  Natchez, 
Mississippi. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  Kelley  pos- 
sesses additional  information  wliich  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant 
to  this  inquiry,  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting 
remedial  legislation. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Kelley,  you  have  heard  the  statement  of  Mr. 
Appell,  our  chief  investigator,  who  is  under  oath  just  as  you  are. 

You  now  have  the  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that 
statement,  to  confirm  or  challenge  the  accuracy  of  any  information, 
or  to  explam  any  part  of  it. 

In  addition  you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  other  matter  the 
committee  may  deem  relevant  to  this  inquiry. 

Do  you  care  to  avail  yourself  of  this  opportunity? 

Mr.  Kelley.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  In  view  of  which,  Mr.  Kelley,  I  must  inform  you 
that  absent  your  rebuttal,  or  other  facts  that  may  come  to  the  attention 
of  the  committee,  this  committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  its 
investigation. 

In  light  of  that  do  you  have  anything  to  say  ? 

Mr.  Kelley.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  gi^ounds  preWously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Kelley,  are  you  willing  and  prepared  to  give  to 
the  committee  knowledge  which  you  possess  as  an  officer  and  the  grand 
klabee  of  the  Realm  of  Louisiana  as  it  relates  to  tlie  operations  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan,  United  Klans  of  America,  within  the  State  of 
Louisiana? 

Mr.  Kelley.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staif  has  no  further  questions  to 
ask  of  this  witness. 

The  Chairman.  Questions? 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  have  no  questions,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused.    Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  James  Malcolm  Edwards. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2639 

Do  you  solenmly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give 
in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but 
the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Edwards.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  JAMES  MALCOLM  EDWARDS,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

The  Chairman.  Sir,  I  represent  to  you  as  facts  the  following: 
During  the  Christmas  recess  you  phoned  me  at  my  home  in  St.  Mar- 
tinville,  Louisiana.  You  were  in  a  rather  belligerent  mood.  The  fol- 
lowing conversation  ensued: 

You  said:  "What  the  hell  is  your  stalf  doing  smnmoning  me  to  ap- 
})ear  on  a  certain  date  and  then  postponing  the  date  of  appearance?" 

I  said :  "Doctor,"  because  you  represented  yourself  as  a  doctor,  "I 
don't  attend  to  these  details,  but  I  think  you  will  find  out  that  the 
staff  knows  what  it  is  doing." 

"Furthermore,"  I  said,  "you  will  have  an  opportunity  to  say  all 
you  want  to  say  when  you  do  appear." 

Then  I  added  "By  the  way,  do  you  intend  to  testify  and  sjDeak  on 
the  witness  stand?" 

I  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  these  facts. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  May  I  approach  the  bench  ? 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Before  you  respond  to  my  question  as  to  whether  you  would  appear 
to  testify,  you  did  not  respond,  and  that  ended  the  conversation. 

Mr.  Edwards.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate 
me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5, 
1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

The  Chairman,  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Edwards,  we  called  you  to  the  stand  mider  your 
name.    Would  you  now  place  your  name  in  the  record,  please? 

Mr.  Edwards.  James  Malcolm  Edwards. 

Mr.  Appell.  M-a-1-c-o-I-m,  and  there  is  an  "s"  on  the  name 
E-d-w-a-r-d-s? 

Mr.  Edwards.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  popularly  known  as  doctor  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  It  is  stipulated  that  he  is  called  doctor. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  ask  him  his  name  and  date  of  birth? 

Mr.  Appell.  We  have  his  name  at  this  stage,  sir. 

Mr.  Edwards,  are  you  appearing  before  the  committee  today  in  ac- 
cordance with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  27th  day  of  October 
1965  at  426  Sixth  Street,  Jonesboro,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Edwards.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Edwards.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  comisel  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law.  Room  501, 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Edwards,  under  the  conditions  of  the  subpena  and 
attachment  thereto  which  is  made  part  of  the  subpena,  you  were  com- 


2640  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

manded  to  bring  with  you  and  produce  documents  outlined  in  para- 
graph 1  as  follows : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as 
the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan.  and  afiiliated 
organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  Louisiana  Rescue  Service 
or  any  other  Ku  Klux  organization  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or 
maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  Grand  Dragon  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Inc..  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

I  request  you  in  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  1 
to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  The  same  stipulation,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  we  have 
heretofore  entered  into  with  respect  to  other  witnesses — the  contents 
of  the  chairman's  opening  statement  have  been  made  available  to 
him. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to  answer  the  question, 
Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  He  has  not  responded. 

Mr.  Edwards.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  the  subpena  dated 
October  14, 1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do  so  might 
tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me 
by  amendments  5, 1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed 

Mr.  Chalmers.  There  is  one  other  one. 

Mr.  Edwards.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  records  as  requested  by  this  committee  in  the  subpena  dated 
October  14,  1965,  for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to 
the  subject  under  investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Con- 
gress in  its  consideration  of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such 
inquiry  within  the  scope  of  tliat  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule 
XI  of  the  rules  adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  House